« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
Journeés Remarquables. - Re- May 3. Solemn 'entry of Louis markable days, viz.
XVIII. into Paris. 1789— July 14. First insurrec 1815--March 20. Flight of Louis tion of the people of Paris, capture and return of Napoleon. June . of the Bastile.- October 5 and 6. Solemn assembly in the Champ de The Parisians march to Versailles, Mai..-June 22. Second abdication attack and penetrate the king's pa- of Napoleon.--July 8. Second re lace.
turn of Louis XVIII. 1791-June 21. The king secret Liberaux ---Liberals. Persons suply leaves Paris.
porting rational liberty in opposition 1792-June 20. The populace to corrupt and arbitrary power. repair to the Thuilleries and oblige Liberticides.-Enemies of liberty. the king to put on the bonnet rouge, Manége.---It was in the Salle du or redcap of liberty:-August 10. Manege that were held the sessions Attack of the Thuilleries ; dethrone of the constituent, the legislative ment and arrest of the king.-Sept. and conventional assemblies, and in 2 and 3. Dreadful massacres in the which were assembled the jacobins prisons of Paris.
of 1799. 1793-Jan. 21. Execution of Marais --- Plaines ---Ventres. ---DeLouis XVI.—May 31. Triumph of signations or nick-names of the parRobespierre and the mountain party ties distinguished in the legislative over the Girondins and moderate assembly and national convention. party.-Oct. 16. Execution of the The Plaines or Ventres were those, queen Marie-Antoinette.
who wished to neutralize the vio1794–July 27, or 9 Thermidor, Jence of parties by keeping them year 2. Fall and death of Robes- nearly balanced; they opposed the pierre.
Mountain party before the events of 1795-April 1, or 12 Germinal, May 31, 1793, and were called the year 3. Attack of the populace of toads of the marsh, crapauds du Paris against the national conven marais. tion.--May 22-23.-1, 2, and 3 Pra Maratistes-Maratists. Partisans rial. Another attempt of the popu- of Marat. lace, who assassinate the deputy Fé Marsellais.—The regiment from rand.-Oct. 5, or 13 Vendiniarre, Marseilles, which was most violent year 4. Attack of the Convention in the attack of the Thuilleries on by the sections of Paris. The assail- Aug. 10, 1792. ants obliged to retire with loss. Ministeriels.---Ministerial members
1797—Sept. 4, or 18 Fructidor, of the Chamber of Deputies. year 5. Dissolution of the Corps Modérés. – Moderate persons.Legislatif, and triumph of the Di- Vide Federalists. rectory.
Monarchiens. — Monarchists. 1799.—June 18, or 30 Prarial, year Those who during the republican 7. The Council of Ancients and the government supported the cause of Council of 500 overthrow the power monarchy. of the directors, Merlin, la Reveil Montagne ou Crète.---The Mounliere-Lepaux and Rewbel.--Nov. 8, tain or Crest Party.—The most ex. 18 Brumaire, year 8. Revolution in travagant revolutionary party of the favour of Buonaparte.
Convention, taking its name from 1800---Dec. 24, 3 Nivose, year 9. their assuming the highest benches Attempt against the life of the first on the right of the hall. consul, Bnonaparte, by the explosion Muscodins.---A muscadin is a deliof the infernal machine.
cate sugar-plum, flavoured with 1802 --- August 2. Buonaparte musk, and the name was given to proclaimed first consul for life.
those young persons who displayed 1804---May 18. Elevation of Buo- superiority of dress to distinguish naparte to the throne.--.Dec. 2. Co them from the sans-culottes, or rag. ronation of Napoleon and Josephine. a-muffins.
1810---April 2. Marriage of Napo Obscurantins. - Obscurers, leon with Marie Louise, archduchess Those who were adverse to the disof Austria.
semination of knowledge and the 1814---April 4.--- Buonaparte signs improvements of the age. his abdication at Fontainbleau. Occulte.---The term of occult, or
hidden, is applied to the present go Théophilanthropes.-Theo-philanvernment from its refusing to define thropists.- Members of a Sect, proor declare its principles on the sub- fessing deism and the love of their ject of national rights.
fellow-creatures. It was established Oligarques. - Oligarchists.-A by Le Paux, Member of the Executerm applied to those who carried
All were eligible to aristocratical sentiments to the ex the priesthood. treme; the opposite of demagogue. Thermidoriens. Those who over
Orleanists. Partisans of the threw Robespierre on the 9th Therduke d'Orleans.
midor, year 2. Partisans de la liste civil.-Per Ultras.-A name assumed by those sons who are believed to have sold who carry the attachment to absolute themselves to the court.
monarchy to the utmost excess. Patriotes de 89.---Patriots of 1789. Vendéens.--Vendeans.The sim---Those who have supported the ple and bigoted peasantry of the cause of the revolution from its com- Department of La Vendée, who mencement in 1789.
rose en masse in 1793, 1794, and Philosopher. --- Philosophers used 1795, and fought against the Resynonymously with Liheraux.
publican troops with enthusiasm.Prêtres Assermentés. Sworn They avoided robbery, and all the Priests.---The clergy who swore fide criminal excesses of the Chouans. lity to the civil constitution of the Vendemiairistes.--Those of the church, enacted in 1791.
Sections of Paris, who attacked the Prêtres Insermentés on réfractaires. Convention on the 13th Vendemiaire, --- Non juring clergy.--. The opposite year 4. to the preceding.
Ventre.—Belly.The middle of Queue de Robespierre.---Remnants the Hall or Chamber of the Legislaof Robespierre.-Those of the Ro- ture. (Vide Centre.) bespierre party who survived the Verders--Verdet is a poisonous revolution of 9 Thermidor, year 2. drug, something similar to verdi
Réaction.---Triumph of any oppo grise.—The term of verdet is applied sition whatsoever.
to secret organisations, supposed to Revolutionaires. --- Revolutionists. exist in central provinces of France, --The most extravagant partisans of and ready to be brought into action the revolution.
against the government, if opportuSans-Culottes.---Breechless or rag
nity occurred. a-muffin.---A term of derision applied Volontaires Nationaux.-National to the revolutionists, but which they Volunteers. - Those who enrolled afterwards bore with exultation. themselves in favour of the Revolu
Septembriseurs..--Septemberists.--. tion, before the levée en masse, from The participators in those massacres the age of 18 to 25, proclaimed which took place in Paris on Sept. Aug. 3, 1793. 2 and 3, 1792.
Volontaires Royaux.-Royal VoSuspects.-Suspected persons.- lunteers.--Young men who volunThose whom the Republicans ima- teered to precede the King for his gined to be hostile to the principles protection. They were very few of the Revolution.
until after the second Restoration. Terreur de 1793.-Terror of 1793. Voltigeurs de Louis XIV.-A name -A Name applied to the ferocious given in reproach to the number who Government of Robespierre.
now exact rewards from the Court, Terreur de 1815 and 1816.-Terror for long and persevering loyalty, of 1815 and 1816.-Terms meant to but whose loyalty was never heard designate the injustice and oppres- of, until the Court had the ability sion practised against the Liberal to give. party in those years.
Votans.-Voters.--Members of the Terrorists. - Partisans of Robes National Convention, who voted for pierre, Marat, and the Mountain the death of Louis XVI. leaders.
THE VISION OF A PHILOSOPHER.
The lunatic, the lover, and the poet, are of imagination all compact.
Midsummer's Night's Dream. : (Continued from Vol. 81, page 52.) I awoke amidst a scene of nature of Philosophy. I met Berkeley and so fresh and beautiful-a scene so Hume walking arm in arm, and in luxuriant, so soft, so varied, and in conversation profound and earnest, places so sublime and magnificent, but remarkably placid and quiet. that man and all his turbulent pas. I observed, that they both realised sions were erased from my recollec- their theories by their practice, for tion, and I felt my heart glow with the surrounding objects being spievery soft and delightful emotion, ritual, they walked through trees, as I passed through this sequestered or rocks, or buildings, without hurt vale of ivnocence and peace. "But,” or inconvenience.--"But what," said said I to my guide, “ what numer I to my guide, “are those little curlous and fantastic beings are those, ing mists of impurity, which sully whom I behold through yonder vista the serenity of the air, and proceed to which we are approaching? Their from the mouths of those two beings, dress is of every possible hue and who are so petulantly following the fantasy. The beings themselves seem Prelate and his friend, without in the of a more aerial nature than the com- least disturbing them ?"_" Those,” mon herd of mankind.—Ohserve their replied my guide, “ are the shades strong and sudden transition; some, of pseudo-philosophers, or rather of at one moment, are ecstatically gam- bigoted or mercenary disputants, boling in mirth and joy, and, instantly who have wished to attach the charge after, sinking into the most profound of impiety and of moral delinquency melancholy. --Some are embracing to philosophical error-or, rather, to each other with affection, and pledg- a mere difference in philosophical ing the most exalted and persevering speculation.—Of those two shades friendship, and, instantly after, with who are following Berkeley and out any apparent cause, they are Hume, and looking, occasionally, stinging each other like wasps, or at the quiet spirits of Priestley, of scratching each other like cats. Hartley, and others, the first is the Some appear to have fancies and spirit of Beattie,-a vapid and shalconceits of the most ridiculous de- low professor, who vainly holds on scription, and suddenly start from high his Essay on Truth, but the them into ideas of the utmost sub- book is so enveloped in a mist of limity." “That small group, so trite, plagiarism, of vulgarity, and of folly 80 pretty, and trim in their appear- and malignity, that the sacred name ance, are the French poets; they are of Truth is defiled by his touch. indifferent to the Moderns, but pay He was offered a quiet retreat in the obsequious attention to the Ancients, vale of Tempe, where, among the who are just as indifferent to them. poets, he might have been modeThose poets who are seated in the rately respected; but, mistaking his gloomiest shades of Ossa and Pelion, forte, he rushed into the grove of singing extravagant songs of won- Philosophy, as if it were the arena der to audiences of children, old bel- of the gladiator.-His companion is dames, and robbers, are the poets of a spirit of deeper views and sounder Germany, whilst those charming but powers ; and, although less vulgar often outré figures, scattered through and vituperative, is equally illiberal every region of the valley, are the and prejudiced :-it is the shade of more southern neighbours of Italy.” Dr. Reid. On the left, is the spirit
I had passed through this lunar of Des Cartes, performing perouettes, Tempe into a region more stern, but and thus illustrating his theory of with an atmosphere most beautifully Vortices, and reversing his 'Cogito serene. I know it to be the region ergo sum."—Near him, was Father
Malebranche, writing an Essay upon of persecution and tyranny they perAbsurdities; and Montaigne was. formed on earth, are wafted to the laughing in his sleeve at his ingeni- fiery planet Mercury, where they ous, and at his mystic countryman. undergo the torments they inflicted --Ptolemy was profoundly searching
upon others. for his Primum Mobile, and his first But in the rear of these were pumand second Chrystalline Heavens,- bers of human beings, that excited whilst Tycho Brahe was roving in my attention. They often appeared search of his Firmament of the Fixed destitute of any superiority of intelStars.--Aristotle, Democritus, and lect, and still more often were they Epicurus, were engaged in their destitute of probity and feeling; but disputes with the schoolmen, their an assumption of superiority, joined successors, about substantial forms, to a courtly dignity of manners, and the theory of perception; and made them pass for the very first Boscovich, with his Germans, had an order of moral and intellectual beimmense lunar microscope, search ings. I observed, however, on a ing for the mathematical points, or more minute inspection, that their primary particles of matter.
Re manners, although highly polished, moved from these, were a countless were destitute of that simplicity and mass of squalid, sallow beings, poring ingenuous freedom, which evince over alembics, contriving chemical a good heart, and an openness of combinations to create the precious purpose—the only sources of really metals. These, I knew, to be the good breeding. These people were adepts; and, thought I to myself, all professing the most devoted affechappy had it been for many, had tion to each other, whilst, under contheir search after gold been as guilt cealment, they were either totally inless. This, I perceived, was the different, or even trying every means abode only of theorists, visionaries, to circumvent and effect each other's and idle speculators; the souls of ruin. One man, pre-eminent amongst Newton, of Locke, of Bacon, of them, had delighted two of his friends Socrates, and of Seneca, had been by his cordiality of manner, and by transported to a planet of a more his vehement assurances of regard; exalted description.
immediately they left him, they both Further on, I beheld the place of fell into an abyss, which he had just refuge of the mighty founders of previously opened for their destrucsects, and the establishers of creeds. tion. Smiles, vows, and caresses -Zoroaster, Mahomet, and others, were artfully mixed with slander, stood forth conspicuously amidst circumvention, and deadly hate, so popes, and priests of many persua that the place seemed a scene of apsions.—Here was transacted the work parent security and beauty, whilst of religious extermination, as well as danger and destruction were lurking of religious persecutions—the san. in every possible direction.—"This, guinary wars on the Unitarians--the said my guide, seeing my surprise massacre of St. Bartholomew's—the and indignation, “ is the region reburnings, and various executions of served for courtiers and statesmen. our Henries, and of Mary and Edward View,” said he, " those scaffolds of England, and of the innumerable streaming with blood, the victims of persecuting priests and princes of their machinations, or the sacrifices the Continent.--I beheld the interior made to court intrigue or party spirit; of inquisitions, with the instruments or view," said he, “the squalled of torture, and the suffering victims. manufacturer, the blighted peasant, This scene suddenly vanished, and and the wasted produce, the effect left nothing to my view but a barren of their tortuous systems of policyfield, deluged with human blood.- the mere offsprings of their vanity, “ What,” said I to my, guide, “is conceit or narrow calculations of the meaning of this sudden change self-interest. The philosopher is a of scene ?"" The actors of such noble being, and his systems comtragedies," replied the spirit, “have prise the good of all his species; the their plea of insanity and infatua- statesman is a petty creature, whose tion allowed to a very trifling extent. treaties and policy only aim at trickThey are permitted to appear in the ing other nations out of some immemoon only one day in the year, when diate or partial advantage. View," their souls, having acted the deeds said my guide, “ that robed minister
of justice, he is condemning to death turn to my native earth, I assisted two persons of noble mein; they are my Gallic companion to refit bis aeconvicted by a strained construction rial machine, and filling our balloon of an old law; they are guiltless of with the purest of the Lunar atmoscrime; but they are obnoxious to the phere, taken from the regions of Court, and the judge's ambition is a poetry and philosophy, we entered peerage. See that trembling wretch the car; and rapidly ascended to an waiting humbly in the great man's immeasurable height, when getting anti-chamber for what is his due- within the influence of the earth's he loses his suit whilst that gay and attraction, we were drawn towards prosperous villain, who passes by him our planet with prodigious velocity, with contempt, has just obtained and at length descended upon the from the minister a princely gift in surface of the sea. We were in imrequital of his subserviency. From minent danger, until we were picked this region of statesmen proceed all up by an English fisherman, who, causes of commands, that produce the informing us that we were in the carnage and battles which you be- English channel, landed me on the held on your arrival in this planet.” coast of Kent, and then steered over “Stop," cried I, “ for heaven's sake to France with my Gallic companion. let me see no more-hide the mirror I immediately set off to my native of human life from my aching eyes, Wales, resolved to shun the checklest sympathy and feeling for my ered maze of life, and to spend my fellow creatures cease within me. days in diffusing knowledge and beWhen," cried I, “ will man reject nevolence through my native valley. prejudice, and, moderating passions I related my voyage and advenby philosphy and reason, live in love tures to my worthy mother, who, and kindness with those around him? after her surprise and terror at my When will man be independent in expedition had subsided, calmly obspirit ? When will be be merciful served, “ how very stupid it was of and just?"
us not to see that the dream clearly Full of thought at the scenes I foretold your going up to the skies had beheld, 1 wandered from my in a balloon, spiritual guide ; and, anxious to re
D. E. W.
Why thus neglect thy usual tasks ?"