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lished his poem with too much precipi. wards the Scandinavian kingdoms ; the tatiou, some few faults and inequalities more especially as they were his birthmight certainly be objected to which place. The preface is dedicated to M. he might easily have avoided. It would de Wetterstedt, and is dated from Tap. be sufficient to name them, but our li- giers, Feb. 15, 1821. mits will not permit us to enter into M. Graberg wishes to prove that the details.

people of Scandinavia, whom we have

been so long accustomed to consider Relation des Evenemens, &c.—Nar as barbarians from the assertions of rative of Military and Political

historians, were really possessed of a Events that occurred at Naples in period of the fall of the Roman empire.

very high degree of civilization at the 1820 and 1821 ; addressed to His This civilization, as our author has it, Majesty the King of the two Sici- of the Greeks and Romans, was yet

though extremely different from that lies. By General William Pépé. equally apparent and infinitely more Paris, 1822.

calculated to polish the public man

ners, lo the second place, M. Graberg This narrative is written with infinite asserts, and we have no doubt proves moderation. It contains remarks and by historical testimony, and in fact by explanations of the conduct of the the nature of things, that it was not Neapolitans in general, and of the au from Scandinavia, but from Asia, that thor in particular, during that epoch. emanated that host of barbarians who A supplement is added, containing a deluged the civilized countries of Eunumber of official documents, the rope, and who, in the end, caused the greater part unpublished, which serve destruction of the Roman empire. It to verify the history of the times. The is impossible bere to give an analysis author is very patriotic and zealous in of the very learned researches of M. his endeavours to defend his fellow Graberg. It will be sufficient to say, countrymen from the reproaches be that he presents some of the most imstowed on them in consequence of the

portant facts of the middle ages in a late events.

new point of view, and that he eluci

dates the primitive history of all the La Scandinavie vengée, fc.-Scan- northern nations of Europe. The audinavia vindicated from the Charge works of erudition, indicate his autho

thor does not, as is usually the case in of having produced the Barbarians rities by notes placed at the bottom of who destroyed the Roman Empire. authors cited, and the simple inspec

the pages, but by giving a list of the By J. Graberg de Hemso. 8vo. pp. tion of this list is alone sufficient to 250. Stockholm, 1822.

prove his vast reading concerning the

antiquities of the north, which cannot bot The learned author of this work was be read with a feeling of deep interest. employed in a diplomatic situation for M. Graberg writes French with clearseveral years on the coast of Africa, ness and precision, though he occasionand it was during this voluntary and ally uses a mode of discussion that has patriotic exile that his thoughts and fallen into disuse with regard to scien. labours were incessantly directed to tific works.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE,

AMERICA,

inconvenience than an additional weight An able mechanic at New York, of five or six ounces. A soldier thus named Isaac Jennings, has invented a armed may make twelve or fitteen disnew fire-arm : it is a gun barrel, mount- charges on the enemy at the commenceed in the ordinary manner, capable of ment of an engagement, and his mus. containing twenty charges at one time. ket differs from those in common use Each discharge may be made at dis- only because it does not require primcretion, and if necessary they may ing. Cavalry, being provided with succeed each other every two seconds. pistols of this description, can make The necessary machinery may be ap head against the infantry much longer plied to guns in common use, and even than they bave been hitherto able to to pistols, which may be made to dis do. This fire-arm is not less useful charge twelve times without any other in ships, when boarded by an enemy;

ASIA.

and it has been examined by many Holstein will be executed according to military and naval characters, and ge the latest discoveries; and the King nerally approved : its use is acknow has provided for the expense of this ledged to be free from all danger. national enterprise. The Chevalier

Schumacher, to whom the execution of

these charts is confided, is at present On the 16th of Sept. 1921, a ship occupied in taking a mathematical surfrom the Sandwich Islands entered the vey of Holstein and Lauenburg. port of St. Peter and St. Paul. The captain, by an express order of his

SWEDEN. sovereign, entertained the governor The publications of Swedish Botany and his staff. Presents were exchang and Swedish Zoology, which were dised on both sides; two rein deer, male continued in the year 1816, are now to and female, and one young bear, were be resumed by the Academy of Scieusent as presents to the king of the ces, at Stockholm, at the expense of Sandwich Islands. The Captain re the Government. ceived one of the most beautiful cows

SPAIN. of this country for his own use. On A pamphlet on the private life of his departure, the 18th of December, Ferdinand VII. will shortly be publishthe vessel gave a salute by a discharge ed at Madrid. of all her artillery: she was well equip

EGYPT. ped, the crew were entirely composed A Tarkish and an Italian press are of natives of the Sandwich Islands, and being established at Alexandria, and were good humoured and great favour- also a Lyceum, under the superintendites with the Kamtchatkans. Their ence of Nureddin Effendi. clothing is not yet very uniform, one wears a sailor's jacket, another a frock

PRUSSIA. coat, and others a silk coat, bnt with. The lovers of antiquity have to deout any stockings; and few of them plore an irreparable loss, General had any shoes.

Menu, of Minutoli, had succeeded un

der the protection of Mehemed-ali-PaPERSIA.

cha, in collecting a great number of Mirza Djiaffar, a young Persian, Egyptian antiquities; he had them published at Tauris, last year, a hand earefully packed up in ninety-seven some edition of Gulistan de Sâady, the eases, and brought them as far as types, which are small and elegantly Trieste, where they were re-shipped formed, were cut by himself.

for Hamburgh, and ensured for the sum

of 27,000 maros, but the vessel sunk in ISLAND OF HAYTI.

a gale of wind, between Heligoland The Telegraph being the only jour- and Cuxhaven. Some of the cases, nal in this capital, some Haytians have however, were cast ashore on the Duthought that the actual state of the Re- chy of Bremen, which the peasants public required a more extended peri- opened. Their consternation when odical journal; and for this purpose they they discovered the mummies may be have united to conduct a new journal, easily imagined; they, however, venunder the title of Haytian Propagator. tured to give them a burial-place in The first number of which was to have the village church-yard, where they been published on the first of last June. remained until the Prussian authorities By the prospectus, which is composed had been informed of the circumstances with great ability in French, we find by those of the Duchy of Bremen. that the editors will insert articles on The King of Prussia has issued an politics, sciences, literature, and the ordonnance, dated the 12th of April useful arts.

last, containing the following regulaThis journal, which is to contain six tions :-that professors, whether civil teen or twenty octavo pages, will ap or ecclesiastic, who, yielding to the pear the first and fifteenth of every evil influence of the times, oppose, in month.

the minutest particular, the commands DENMARK.

of the King, or interfere with politics, The Royal Society of Seiences at Co will be instantly deprived of their penhagen have published a general functions, and banished. The partichart of North Jutland; they have not sans or propagators of democratic prinabated in their geographical researches, ciples are to receive no employment and as their advaucement in the scien- or relief throughout the Prussian dow ces has been very considerable since minions. Berore a professor can be they undertook the Atlas of Denmark, admitted to a situation, he must obtain the charts which are to be published of from the Minister of the interior an

RUSSIA.

approbation of his conduct for the last ble advantages from the productions of five years preceding !

the country. The Memoirs are to be published annually; and the Grand

Duke honours this useful institution The Bible Society of St. Petersburgh with his special protection. has caused to be printed and published, Dr. Dorrow, Aulic Counsellor, and a in the Mogul and Calmuc languages, learned Archeologist, director of the the Four Evangelists with the History administration for the preservation of of the Holy Apostles, which will be Roman and German Antiquities, in the followed by the whole of the New Tes departments of the Rhine, has trans tament. These Editions will be dis ported to Bonn a very curious Bassotinguished for the beauty of their type. Relievo, which was found in 1811, in

The Church of Isaac at St. Peters the small river, called the Inde, Dend, burgh, which has been raised at an or Ingue, near the village of Treinzenormous expence, and is nearly finish. Lamersdorff (in the ancient department ed, is to be polled down, because it does of the Roer.) This piece of sculpture not reach the idea which the Emperor is 4 feet 4 inches in length, 2 feet had formed of its grandeur and mag. 2 inches in height, and I foot 8 inches nificeuce. It is to be re-built, from thick. Whilst it stood for some time a model of the Cathedral of the Virgin in the square of that village, the figures Mary, at Cassan, with much greater were considerably mutilated, by the magnificence. To effect this, the plan mischievous wantonness of boys, and has been completely changed. The the affected delicacy of an old religinew structure will be commenced in ous prude, who actually employed a the ensuing Spring, provided a war stone-mason to mutilate certain parts with the Turks should not intervene. of the male figures. The rest were

suffered to escape their savage fury, GERMANY.

and are in good preservation. Between The Topography of Bohemia, by the columns a temple is seen, from Scheller, published about thirty years which a female is advancing at a quiet ago, will no longer satisfy the wishes pace, bearing a small image of Diana of the inquisitive reader, on account of in ber hand, and on each side are two the number of changes which have naked male figures. They are armed taken place in that kingdom. There with small swords, and one of them is fore, Mr. Edward Ponsikl has under- carrying two darts. Behind these taken a new work, under the title of figures a burning altar is seen, at the A Statistical Topography of the King- foot of which the Holocaust, or burnt dom of Bohemia. The first part will offering, is extended. The history of be occupied with general matter, and this subject is not doubtful; it is will contain researches on the name, Iphigenia of Tauris, accompanied by and the most apcient epochs in the Orestes and Pylades, carrying the image history of Bobemia, its boundaries, of her goddess. Although this piece soil, climate, and the state of the Arts. does not appear to be bighly finished, The author will also treat of the lan- yet enough remains to place the artist guage, religion, and manners of the bigh in the estimation of the condoisinhabitants; and include memoirs of seur. The style differs essentially from learned men and of artists, whose works all the other pieces of Roman sculpare known in Bohemia. In the second ture, which have been lately discovered part, a particular description will be in the department of the Rhine. The given of every city, village, or lord. proportions of the naked figures are ship, with their several dependencies perfect, the head of Iphigenia is fall enumerated and described. This work of expression, and the drapery light of Mr. Ponsikl is looked for with great and graceful. M. Dorrow has discoimpatience.

vered, in the same river, twelve other The History of the French, by pieces of sculpture, which he safely M. Simonde de Sismondi, bas been landed. On the bank of the same river, translated into German, by Mr. Stecon- he dug up the capital of a pillar, which Luden, Professor of History. The first bears the marks of great antiquityvolume has already appeared, with notes This stone does not differ in quality by the Translator.

from those found in the quarries near A Society of Natural History is Aix-la-Chapelle. No doubt remains, about to be formed at Friburgh ; the but that the Basso-Reliero, the Capital, members are to assemble every fifteen and the others yet remaining in the days, when lectures and memoirs will river, are only the fragments of an be delivered. This Society will par- ancient temple. But what temple this ticularly endeavour to derive all possi. was, or at what period it existed, re

mains a question, which the German

GREECE. antiquaries have yet to solve.

Janina, in Albania, that now per

forms so distinguished a part in the PORTUGAL.

nistory of Greece, and whose inhaThe State of Public Instruction is bitants, to the number of 40,000, are not so defective in this country as we eminent for their knowledge and inmight imagine, from the imperfect ac dustry, is, at this period, possessed of counts of travellers. Portugal con two Schools, where the Dead Lantains not less than 873 Elementary guages are taught.

The first was Schools; in 266 of which, Latin is founded 130 years ago, by Ghioni, taught, and in 21, Greek and Rhetoric; a rich merchant, who had placed a conin 27, Philosophy, Natural and Moral, siderable sum in the bank of Venice for

- At Coimbra, there is a University, its support, but of which the French directed by six of the Faculty, and a possessed themselves, during their ocpreparatory College for students. cupation of Venice. Since that period, The University and College together this establishment has been supported contain, annually, from 1280 to 1600 at the expense of a Greek family, named students. In 1819, all these establish- Zosima, and contains more than 300 ments were attended by 31,401 papils. pupils; the other, established within Besides these National Institutions, there 30 years, contains 100. These instituare several others, where youth are tions possess two libraries, and a cabi. educated for particular professions, net of natural history. Lately the such as the Marine and Commercial method of mutual instruction has been Academies at Porto, which contained adopted, and several pupils have al315

students, in 1820 ; and the Academy ready left these schools to finish their at Lisbon, in which there were 315 education at the German Universities. students, in 1921. The Commercial Academy at Lisbon is attended an

ITALY. nually by 150 pupils; and the Royal The clergy at Rome consist of nine. Military Academy for Artillery and teen cardinals, twenty-seven bishops, Fortification by $0 pupils. The Mia 1,450 priests, 1,532 monks, 1,464 nuns, litary College of Luz, near Lisbon, and 332 seminarists. The population has 200 students. The Royal Mili of Rome, with the exception of the tary Schools of St. Vincent de Foan, Jews, consisted, in 1821, of 146,000 at Lisbon, are attended annually souls. The births during that year upwards of 200 students. In the same were 4,756, the deaths 5,415, and the city there are, the Royal College of marriages 1,265. Nobles, the Royal Academy for the A circular, issued by the PiedmonArabian Language, the Royal School tese custom houses, has placed new for Civil Architecture and Drawing, restrictions with regard to the admisa Royal School for Sculpture, another sion of books into Piedmont; each list for Engraving, an Institution for Music, must be accompanied by a duplicate and several other public Institutions account, containing the name of the of less pote. Exclusive of the Profes author, the title of the work, date of sors' Chairs at Coimbra, Surgery is publication, number of the edition, the taught by the Royal School of Sur. number of volumes or sheets printed, gery, annexed to the Grand Hospital the separate price of each work, also of St. Joseph, at Lisbon, and by those the net weight of engravings and books, at Porto, Elvas, and Chaves. The Mi whether stitched or bound. litary School for Mutual Instruction, to which are admitted the children of

SWITZERLAND. citizens, had 2518 scholars in 1818, The censorship at Lausanne has or. and this number has much increased dered that the proprietors of reading since. The Royal Acadeiny of Sciences rooms in that city shall not lend out at Lisbon has published, annually, the works of Sir Walter Scott! since it was founded, memoirs tbat are not less learned than useful, on every

FRANCE. branch of human knowledge, which The equinoxial tides in the autumn are printed at their own Academic of 1820 discovered at the mouth of press. The Portuguese have formed the Saane, several coffins of gypsum, several literary Societies, among which containing human skeletons in good may be noticed, The Patriotic Literary preservation, with Roman tiles, fragSociety, and the Society of Encourage ments of eartben vessels, arms, and 'ment, at Lisbon. The annual average armour. M. Sollicoffre, inspector of of books printed in Portugal, since the customs at Dieppe, has placed these 1805 to 1819, inclusive, amount to 94. antique fragments beyond the reach of

the sea, and offered to the academy of is laid on a bed of Roman tiles, then a Rouen all the information respecting layer of marl or chalk, and this last them in his power. The account that layer on a bed of marine pebbles ce. he received from the country people in mented together. M. Sollicoffre wished the neighbourhood was, that they have to pursue his investigations furtber, but found in their fields medals and con the proprietor of the land prevented him. structed fragments, which warrant the About twenty yards from the place opinion that some city, which was vi where this Mosaic pavement was dis sited by the Romans, formerly existed interred, a coffin, formed of gypsum, on these grounds. A second discovery, was found, resepibling those discovermore recently made, for which we are ed in 1820 : this led M. Sollicoffre to indebted to M. Sollicoffre, leaves no believe that the Mosaic pavement be. doubt that the Romans sojourned on lopged to a temple, or some place of the coasts of Normandy. One of worship constructed by the primitive the inhabitants of Saint Margaret's, Christians in that country. ploughing a field on the ridge of a little eminence, not far from the

UNIVERSAL POPULATION. sea, and west of the village, encoun The total number of the inbabitants tered, very bear the surface, a perfect of the globe is estimated at 632 mil. piece of Mosaic pavement, which ar lions; 172 millions in Europe, 330 milrested the plough. M. Sollicoffre found lions in Asia, 70 millions in Africa, 40 that this piece of Mosaic pavement was millions in America, and 20 millions in enclosed by a square wall of two fa. the Southern regious. thoms. He drew a sketch of his dis The births in Europe are 6,371,370 covery, which, with a memorial, he a year ; 17,453 a day; 727 an hour; transmitted to the French Institute and 62 a minute, and I every moment. the Academy of Sciences at Rouen. It The deaths in Europe are 5,058,829 appears by this sketch, that this Mo a year; 13,860 a day; 577 an hour; saic pavement represents concentric 66 a minute, and I every moment.circles of different colours, of a rose Throughout the universe, the Births shape, of which the exterior circle is are rated at 23,407,407 a year, 64,130 six incbes, and the central circle two a day, 2,672 an hour, 148 a minute, inches in diameter. These roses are and 8 every moment. - The Deaths, placed beside each other in such a 18,588,236 a year, 50,927 a day, 2,122 mapper, that the intervals form a lo an hour, 136 a minute, and 7 every zenge of divers colours, the sides of moment. The number of persons wbo which are curved with points in contact had attained to the age of a hundred with the segment of the exterior circle and upwards, in the year 1800, accord. of each rose. Tbe material of this ing to Larrey, in Cairo, 35 individuals. Mosaic pavement is neither marble por - In Spain, during the last century, at granite, but a composition of argilla- St. Jobo-lo-Pays, 13 old men received ceous earths. The small pieces, when Communion, the youngest of whom joined together, form a cubic shape, was 110 years old, and the eldest 1:7; from an inch and a half to two-thirds their united ages amounted to 1,499,of au inch, the exterior forming a tra- In England, one man in 3,100 attains pezium; the various degrees of desic- the age of a hundred. At the comcation, which these earths appear to mencement of the present century, in have undergone in the progress of ma a part of Ireland, there were 41 iadj. nufacture, appear to account for their viduals from 95 to 104 years old, wbere durability or friability. Their colours the population only amounted to 47,000 are red, wbite, yellow, and blue, ap- souls.-lo Russia, among 891,652 deaths proaching to violet, but tarnished. The in the year 1914, there were 3,531 indicement, which unites the component viduals from the age of 100 to 132.parts, is composed of pulverised flint, In Hungary, the family of John Roria lime, and sapd. At some little distance has furnished the most astonishing infrom this spot the researches of M. Sol stances of longevity; the father lived licoffre led him to suppose the conti- 172 years; his wife 164 ; and they had nuation of this Mosaic pavement, and been married 142 years, and the youngtbat it formed the floor of some spaci est of their children was 115 years ous hall. The cement which holds it of age.

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