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upon Pestalozzi's method, to nearly sixty clergymen and teachers, had upon many, who perhaps, then heard of Pestalozzi for the first time, an influence which did not remain fruitless. His efforts to improve the instruction in arithmetic, resulted in his publication of his “ Guide to Instruction in Arithmetic,” which is yet one of the best books of its class. Its fifth edition appeared in 1830. After Natorp's return to his native country in 1817, von Türk was appointed School Councilor in Potsdam, in which station he labored actively for sixteen years, but' resigned it in 1833 to devote his whole time and powers to the benevolent institutions which he had founded.

These are (not including the Swimming Institution at Potsdam and the Association for the improvement of silk-raising,) the following:

1. The Fund for School Teachers' Widows, a. at Sorau, b. for the district of Frankfort, to which he has devoted the profits of his work on Arithmetic; and c. for the district of Potsdam.

In the district of Frankfort it has since been found better to establish, instead of one widow's society for the whole government, to establish a fund in each synod; an arrangement which has in most cases been entirely successful. In the case of the fund for the district of Potsdam, the plainest conclusions of experience were unfortunately so much overlooked, that after a few years the allowances, which are raised only from taxation, were materially reduced; the consequence of which has lately been many complaints.

2. The Peace Society of Potsdam, founded at the Reformation Festival in 1818; a society for the support of talented but poor young men, who are devoted to the arts or sciences. More than a hundred such have been supported by the society. Further information about this society, and its statutes, may be found in Guts-Muth's “New Library of Pedagogy."

3. The Civil Orphan Housea twin child, as von Türk calls it, in which about thirty orphan boys are supported. The original fund of this institution was raised from the sale of a collection of paintings belonging to von Türk. It received an express royal sanction in a cabinet order dated 21st February, 1825. Up to 1841, thirty-six young men had received their education in this establishment.

4. The Fund for the Education and Support of Orphan Girls ; an institution which originated together with the Civil Orphan House, and which is managed in the same way. Up to 1841, twenty orphan girls had been supported by it.

5. The Orphan House at Klein-Glienicke near Potsdam, for the orphan children of artizans, elementary teachers and the lower grades of public officers.

It may not be uninteresting to describe the precise circumstances which led to the foundation of the Klein-Glienicke house. Von Türk heard that the Crown Prince was desirous of buying the hunting seat known as Klein-Glienicke, then occupied as a factory, in order to improve it into the counterpart of Prince Carl's adjacent beautiful estate in Glienicke. Von Türk accordingly quietly bought it, and offered it to the Crown Prince at the cost price, but received the answer that he would not be able to make use of the offer. Under these circumstances von Türk applied to his tried friend, Chief President von Bassewitz, and by his mediation gained permission to resign his hasty bargain at a small loss. He, however, made no use of the permission, but told his friend that he would retain the property, and found there another orphan house, to serve as a sort of supplement to the Civil Orphan House, which was intended for the sons of persons of rather higher rank. In fact he laid his plans before some of the higher authorities, but the means which he could show for the establishment of his intended institution were so small that permission was refused him. But promises of support gradually came in, and the heads of several departments, especially Postmaster-general von Nagler and the Ministers of Justice and of Finance declaring in its favor, on account of an arrangement to establish endowed places in it for orphans of their departments, the institution was finally set in operation. The plans for it were remodeled more than once, and more than one reckoning of the funds made; but at last, an association being formed which purchased the real estate from von Türk, and there were thus secured sufficient means to open the establishment for those at least for whom endowed places had been promised. Von Türk never lost his faith in ultimate success, though the funds still remained deficient. It happened that the disposition of some funds from a warindemnity, not accepted by those entitled to them, were intrusted to the disposal of his chief, von Bassewitz, who, with the consent of the families of these proprietors, appropriated three thousand thalers (about $2,250,) from this source to the new Orphan House. Thus all difficulties were obviated. The association met, completed the purchase of Klein-Glienicke, leased it to von Türk, who was now able to proceed with the completion of his institution; and had the pleasure of seeing it flourish under his eyes.

In a letter of the present year, (1846,) relating to Klein-Glienicke, von Türk writes, Here, the favorite idea of my teacher and master, Pestalozzi, is realized ; education, combined with agriculture and gardening. My scholars now number about thirty. I have about two hundred Magdeburg morgen, (the morgen is about five

thirteenths of an acre,) of tilled land, from sixteen to twenty morgen of garden and nurseries, twenty-four morgen of meadows, and a dairy which accommodates twenty cows and five horses, besides sufficient room for the silk-making, except that the latter is not comfortably accommodated in winter. I feel great interest in encouraging the establishment of similar institutions. What has been possible for me, without financial resources and in spite of the many prejudices with which I have had to contend, (for example, I have been a government official; and our burghers and laboring classes do not love the government officials ; and I have had the little prefix óvon' before my name,) must be possible elsewhere under more favorable circumstances.”

6. Soup Distribution Institution for the Old, Sick, Feeble, and Poor, and Lying-in-Women. By the day-book of the institution, 96.908 portions of soup were distributed in 1845. This was received by six hundred and fifty-one families, including four hundred and forty-one married persons, four hundred and thirty-eight widows and single persons, and thirteen hundred and forty children; in all two thousand two hundred and nineteen persons. The cost of one portion of soup was about 3} pfennig, (about three-fifths of a cent.)

For some years von Türk had been complaining of the decay of his bodily strength and of his memory, when, in 1845, while he was in Berlin, a dangerous sickness seized him, from which he has never entirely recovered. He died July 31, 1846. His wife, two children and adopted daughter were by his side, and his last hours were peaceful and without pain. Elis memory will long endure.

On the 25th of the April before his departure from the world in which he had labored so nobly and benevolently, a letter, not without interest in this connection, from which a portion follows. To the request that he would communicate an autobiography for Hergang's Encyclopædia, he replies that he is unable. “My autobiography," he says, “lies ready written in my desk, but I propose to publish it for the benefit of the Teachers' orphans. I have established here an orphan house, especially intended for the orphans of teachers; but their numbers and necessities in the province of Brandenburg, for which the institution is founded, are so great, that I am obliged to refuse many applications, and thus I am contriving the means for assisting a larger number.” “The motives which have impelled me to the establishment of the institutions which I have commenced, and the manner and means by which, without means of my own, and without the gift of eloquence, I have been able to accomplish these designs, will be related in my biography, that others, more richly endowed, may learn how to do the like." "I am in my seventy

third year, on the borders of the grave, in body much broken, but peaceful and happy in mind, and in all my efforts for the improvement and elevation of my fellow-citizens, having enjoyed a success far beyond my hopes.” “At Easter I dismissed from the Civil Orpban House, a pupil, son of a country clergyman, who is now studying theology in Berlin. Several of my scholars are already laboring as preachers, judges, physicians, public officials, carpenters, architects, teachers and officers.” How happy must we reckon thee, excellent man, who, while still living, hast experienced such intellectual and heartfelt pleasure! Thy works follow thee into eternity; their memory shall even give thee ever increasing pleasure, and many, happy through thy means, shall bring thee thanks.

Noble and venerable as von Türk was, he was yet attacked by the arrows of wicked calumny. On this point we shall only relate the following:

Bishop Eylert relates in his character of Frederic Williain III., (vol. 2,) that von Türk was suspected by that monarch of being an unprincipled demagogue. Von Türk was living amongst the common people, as his inborn and profound preference made it happiest for him to live, and laboring for their good by his writings and in his official station, according to his irresistible vocation; and some persons had concluded that to be doing this without apparent interested motives, and without remuneration for the necessary sacrifices of labor, means and time, was enough to stamp von Türk a dangerous demagogue. Bishop Eylert, who was a friend of von Türk, undertook to remove this impression from the king's mind. Having argued the case, the king said, “I am glad to have my former opinion corrected, and to be able to entertain a good opinion of one who has certainly been accused to me.” At the next festival of the order, von Türk received the red order of nobility; the king immediately interested himself in the Civil Orphan IIouse at Potsdam, and for the institution at Klein-Glienicke, where he endowed additional scholarships, made presents to the orphans, and continued to von Türk, at his resignation of his place as royal and school councilor, in order to devote himself wholly to his institutions, the whole amount of his salary as pension.


Hermann Krusi was born March 12th, 1775, at Gais, in the canton of Appenzell. Of his parents he writes in his “Recollections," “they are entitled to the praise of having passed through life in quiet goodness and fear of God, and were careful to give their children a good education." After the good old fashion, they often read in the family Bible, and entered in its blank leaves the birth of each of their children, together with some pious prayer or saying. They also amused themselves, especially on Sundays, by singing from the then popular “Bachofen.” Of learning they could of course give their poor children but very little, and what they afterward acquired in school was but little more. His earliest recollections was of a fire which laid the village of Gais in ashes; of which he thus speaks :

It is natural that the first recollections of the mind should be of uncommon and striking events, such as make a profound impression upon one's whole being, and leave an indelible mark upon the character. This was the case with myself.

On the 7th of September, 1780, a violent south wind blew; bad weather for the weavers, but good for drying turf.“I will go to the turf-ground and turn and dry the turt," said my father ; “there is nothing to do in the weaving-room." He took me with him that day for the first time to the turf-pits, which were a good four miles from the village. At half past eleven he heard the sound of a bell. " It can not be striking noon yet," he thought, looking at his work—“Ah God,” he cried, “it is the alarm bell;" and we heard the cry of fire! fire! from all sides.

With this fragment, unfortunately, ends the account. The fact of the fire is well known. Notwithstanding his youth, our subject remembered many occurrences of that occasion; especially the next Sunday's service under the open sky. There was very general emotion, which, at the rather remarkable choice of the hymn, "As by the streams of Babylon we sat,” &c., broke out into such loud lamentations that the singing could not proceed. These recollections may well have been terrible to the boy, although his father's house was spared by the flames. But a severer stroke came upon him, when his father, in the prime of his manhood, was suddenly snatched away by death from his numerous family. He had always supported his own household, and had taught them according to his ability; and it is difficult to tell what would have become of them, had not Krüsi, then in his fourteenth year, undertaken to perform his father's

No. 13.-[Vol. V., No.1.)-11

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