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The faculty of receiving and preserving every effort of the understanding : (memory.)
The faculty of discovering beauty : (taste.)
The study of the intellectual faculties leads to the study of intellectual productions.
a. For satisfying intellectual wants, that is to say, the essential means for the expansion of the mind : (Language, number, form.) These three productions of the human mind have been already represented as essential means for intellectual cultivation.
b. For satisfying corporal wants or to aid the bodily organs to serve the mind. General knowledge of arts and trades, of the materials they employ, of their mode of action : (technology.)
C. Moral man.
The germ of morality is in the sentiments of love, confidence, gratitude. Fruit of these sentiments: (obedience.)
Faculties whose action springs from intelligence and sentiment : will, liberty. The governing and representative faculty of the will, is with the child the will of his parents ; among men grown, the will of God: (conscience.)
Man as a moral, intellectual and physical being is in attinity with his superiors, his egnals, and his inferiors. Our relation with superior beings commences at our birth : those then above us are our father and mother. Those with whom we begin to be in connection when we enter into civil society are persons in authority. The highest points to which we can ascend in our relation to beings above us is as children of God. The fundamental relation of all those with beings on a level with us, is that of brothers and sisters in the interior of our family. These relations exist in full extent, and perfection, when we regard all mankind as brethren, and as forming with us a single family. The fundamental relations of all those with b;ings beneath us are those of a father and mother toward their children. These relations exist in all their perfection and true dignity when we are the representatives of the Deity, with those committed to our care. The knowledge of the relationships of which we have just spoken, existing in domestic life, in civil society, and in religion, the same conducts to that of our rights and duties as men, as citizens and as Christians.
By exercising a child in the study of himself and of the men around him, his faculties, the productions of his intellectual activity, the principles and the consequences of his dictions, his relative situation to all beyond himself, the rights and duties resulting from this situation, he is prepared to study the same objects in a wider sphere, namely, in the human race, where appears in full, all that the individual offers in miniature; and this study is the main object of history. The study of history includes three successive degrees.
Ist DEGREE. From the time a child begins to study human nature and as a confirmation of the truths this study will discover to him, he will be shown particular and well chosen facts, taken from the history of individuals or nations, facts, the circumstances of which compose a whole, and form in his imagination, as it were, a picture after nature. When the child shall have arrived at a certain degree of development, he will be made to bring home all these isolated events to the men, or to the people, as well as to the time and place, to which they belong. In this degree the study of history serves principally to feed the imagination, and the memory.
20 Degree. When the young man shall be more advanced in the knowledge of human nature, he may ascend to the origin of the actual state of the nations that surround him, beginning with the people of his own country. We may conduct him to the epoch which has been the germ of this actual state, and seek with him the successive degrees by which the nation has progressed, as well as the principles and consequences of each particular event. Ile will thus learn to know the current order of history, of the principal nations in existence. He will then pass on to the history of those now no more. In this degree, the study of history serves principally as food to the judgment, inasmuch as it connects actions, causes, and their consequences.
30 Degree. Only when the young man shall have become more matured, acquired a deep knowledge of human nature, and the consequences of the development of the individual, is it, that he can with advantage collect the particular
facts, and the series of events which he has learned to know, in order to form one entire whole, and to study in mass, the consequences of the development of the human species and of each historical personage, which is the essential end of history, and the highest point to which it can lead. In this degree the study of history serves as food to the mind in its most noble state of action.
Auxiliary means for the development of the faculties and the acquisition of knowledge. The study of what men have produced, as true, beautiful and good.
1st. Progressive lessons according to the degree of development the child has attained and the branches of study to which he applies.
20. Exercises for the memory. To learn by heart beautiful pieces of poetry, eloquence or music.
3d. Exercise of judgment and of taste : an examination of the productions of art, to trace therein the principles of truth and beauty.
4th. Imitation and reproduction : declamation of pieces of eloquence, or of poetry ; execution of musical composition; copying drawings and paintings.
General means for rendering the body of man able to serve his soul and to execute its conceptions. (Gymnastics.)
In domestic life the child's body is the object of most tender care. As the child expands, he constantly exercises the organs of his senses and of all his members. Care on the part of the parents and exercises on that of the child are the double means of his preservation and his first development. Bodily exercise for a child comes in the form of plays destined to amuse and divert him. At first they vary at alınost every instant. Gradually they become more steady, and more serious.
The art of education extends and perfects what life itself begins and prepares. Thus what in its birth was but play and amusement becomes the object of a complete development, of which the very organization of our body points out the aim. and the laws.
Gymnastics present three different degrees.
a. Children's plays; free exercises produced by unconscious strength and activity, and determined by the impulse of the mind and the accidental circumstances of life.
6. Progressive and regulated exercises of the limbs. Gymnastics properly so called.
c. Exercises preparatory to occupations in active life, and to the employment the pupil is to embrace : Gymnastics of Industry.
By the gymnastio exercises, directed toward the essential object of developing the physical faculties in harmony with the intellectual and moral, and by care to preserve the strength and purity of the organs, the body may attain its true destination, namely to serve the mind by executing its conceptions.
Different ages of pupils. These ages are fixed from a general view of children. In different individuals nature accelerates or retards the progress of development, so that some enter earlier, some later into each period. There are also individuals who develop more rapidly in some directions than in others. We must therefore take care that the backward faculties are not neglected, which would destroy in the individual, the harmony of human nature.
A. First age; until five years old.
During this first age, the child is exclusively the object of maternal and paternal care. He only receives instruction occasionally ; each moment, each circumstance may furnish a means to fix his attention upon the objects which surround him, and to teach him to observe them,
to express his observations and to act upon them as far as his age will allow. The development which the child may acquire in this first period is of the greatest future importance. Every teacher will find a wide difference between the child whose parents have trained him with tenderness and judgment and him who has been in the first stage abandoned to himself, or what is worse, ill-directed or ill-associated.
B. Second age; from five to ten years.
It is at this period only that a regular course of instruction should begin. At first this should be but a recapitulation of all the child has learned by the habits of life, with the simple difference that the objects of the exercises should no longer be determined by accident, but fixed in one plan, adapted to the intellectual wants
No. 13.—[Vol. V., No. 1.]—13.
of the child. Domestic life thus furnishes, during the first period, the germs which a course of instruction ought to develop, and in a great measure decides its
The following exercises properly belong to this age. 1. Maternal and domestic language. 2. Exterior of language: composition of words, reading, writing, spelling.
We must always take care that the knowledge of the interior of language keeps a little before the exterior.
3. Elementary exercises in singing. 4. Mental arithmetic with units. 5. Construction of figures according to given conditions, and linear drawing.
6. Application of language and the acquisition of knowledge; knowledge of the human body.
There are other exercises which may be begun at this period, but which do not properly belong to it; for which reason we put off the mention of them to the following period.
C. Third age; from ten to fifteen.
2. Exterior of language : composition of phrases and of periods, orthography, punctuation.
3. Continuation of singing exercises.
5. Geometry properly so called : relation of forms, as far as, and including stereometry.
Drawing : perspective, shades, drawing from nature.
a. Continuation of the study of the physical man : senses, sensations, inclinations, passions.
b. Intellectual man. c. Moral man.
d. Knowledge of such natural objects in the three kingdoms as by a complete system of positive features, may serve as a representative of a series of other objects of like character.
e. Knowledge of the elements as far as it can be acquired by observation, without the aid of physical and chemical apparatus.
7. Application of arithmetic to bulk : to duration, to weight, and to the conventional value of objects.
D. Fourth age; from fifteen to eighteen or twenty.
Language. Continuation of language. Rules for the construction of language. Logic.
Compositions on given subjects. Rhetoric. Continuation of singing exercises. Arithmetic, mental and written ; evolution of powers; extraction of roots. Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and conic sections.
Drawing. Continuation of perspective, shades, and drawing from nature.
Observations on the study of foreign languages. In each stage of development it is important that the mother tongue should always keep a little before all foreign languages, that the child should learn nothing in these he does not already know in that, so as to leave no deficiency in the mother tongue. If any study were pursued by the child in a foreign language only, such language would in this departnıent take the lead; the child woull find
it difficult to express himself in his own tongue on subjects learned by means of a strange one. On the contrary, the study all foreign languages should suite to make the mother tongue better known.
In a seminary where different pupils speak different languages, these must go hand in hand, and every branch of instruction must be cultivated in them both.
Hence results this advantage, that the pupil learns by intuition the meaning of the words of the language which is foreign to him, that is to say he every instant sees this meaning, and does not learn it solely from translation and memory. This mode of employing two languages singularly facilitates the communication of ideas in them both. It also gives the advantage of comparing them, and thereby teaches their actual relations and difference both as to ground and form. A knowledge of the genius, the peculiarities and the shades of meaning of each are the fruits of this comparison.
Dead languages are more foreign to the mind of a child, and more difficult for him. The study of them should be based upon a sufficient development of the living languages, and above all of the native language; without which they remain dead in the mind, without real fruit. This study should not therefore begin before the third period; and should not occupy all the pupils, but only those destined to walk in the paths of science. Those otherwise to be disposed of, may employ their time and their endeavors to much greater advantage. III, RELIGION. THE SOUL AND THE FINAL END OF ALL EDUCATION.
Third means for the cultivation of man. As the body is vivified by the soul, so domestic, social and intellectual life are animated and ennobled by religion. Without it the activity of man in each of these three spheres, has only a terrestrial object and falls short of its true dignity and destiny.
Thus the relations of father and mother are ennobled and sanctified when the father and the mother consider themselves, in respect to their children, as the representatives of God, the common father of all.
The state of the child is ennobled and sanctified, when we not only feel ourselves children of mortal parents, but at the same time children of God, destined to rise to perfection even as our heavenly father is perfect.
The state of brothers and sisters is also en pobled and sanctified when we recognise all mankind as brothers and sisters and members of one same family.
The endeavors we make to develop our intellectual faculties and to gain a knowledge of truth, are sanctified when we acknowledge God as the fountain of all wisdom and the eternal source of all virtue and goodness. All earthly life is sanctified when made a preparation for one heavenly and immortal.
The specific means which education may adopt to promote in the child a religious life are:
1. Pious exercises, the principal of which is prayer.
2. Religious conversations, in which we take advantage of the circumstances and events of life to raise the soul of the child from what is earthly and fugitive, to what is heavenly and everlasting.
3. The study of sacred history and important passages of Holy Writ, chosen with care, according to the degree of development the child may have attained, and which, committed to memory, are germs which religious instruction and the events of life will hereafter develop.
4. Religious instruction properly so called; or the regular explanation of the doctrine of our Saviour. This instruction should only take place in the 4th period of development; and the chief aim of every preceding period should be to prepare for it. It should close the child's career and become his support in the hour of trial, his guide to direct his steps to the highest point of perfection of which his nature is susceptible.
All education should proceed from man and lead to God. Man should endeavor to live in God and for God, and to devote to HIM all his terrestrial and intellectual existence. To this, domestic and social life, exterior nature, and :) the circumstances through which he passes here below, should conduct him. But it is only through the influence of God, that all these can produce this effect; the sublime truths of the gospel can alone lead us into that way which leads 10 that heavenly life which is our true destination.
PROSPECTUS OF AN ESTABLISHMENT FOR THE EDUCATION OF BOYS. From the earliest age at which they can receive regular instruction, to that in which they should enter into a scientific pursuit, a profession, or business.
This establishment was commenced three years ago. While I was yet with Mr. Pestalozzi, working with him in his undertaking and teaching in his institution, two pupils were unexpectedly committed to my particular care and direction. These were shortly followed by a third, their relation. From that time a combination of circumstances independent of my will induced me to leave the institution I had assisted to form and direct during sixteen years. I should above all things have preferred, after this separation, to have labored to form teachers for the people, taking poor children equal to the office. Seeing the accomplishment of this desire beyond my reach, I applied myself to measures more within my ability, and such as appeared appointed by Providence. I extended my sphere of activity, receiving such new pupils as were intrusted to my care unsought by me.
This train of circumstances on the one hand, and on the other my desire to remain attached to Messrs. Niederer and Naef, (during many years my friends and companions in labor,) and with them to devote my life to education, induced me again to choose Yverdun for the place of my intended labor, and for the gradual growth of my rising institution.
Our union enables us to find means and men competent in every respect to insure the prosperity of our three institutions, (that of Mr. Naef for the deaf and dumb, that of Mr. Niederer for youth of either sex, and mine.) Mr. Nabholz, whose sentiments and purposes resemble our own, will enter my institution as assistant. Mr. Steiner, a pupil of Pestalozzi, will teach mathematics, in which his talents and success afford the brightest hopes. Keeping up friendly intercourse with Mr. Brousson, principal of the College of Yverdun and with other respectable men, I receive from them, in the different branches of instruction, assistance of importance to me, and on the continu. ance of which I can depend. In my former situation the frequent changes which occurred among my companions in labor often pained ine on account of its influence on the success of that undertaking to which I devoted my life.
To avoid a like inconvenience, which must inevitably produce every kind of discord, ånd expose an institution subject to it, to great dangers, we shall choose our assistants and fellow-laborers with the greatest circumspection.
The views which serve as the foundation of my enterprise are the same with those I have helped to develop under the paternal direction of Pestalozzi. All that I have found in many years' observation, both by my own experience and that with my pupils, to be true and conducive to the entire culture of man, I shall strive by unremitting efforts to develop more and more in myself and to apply in a natural manner for the advantage of my pupils.*
My first object is, to establish in my institution a true domestic life; that all the pupils may be considered as members of one family, and that thus all those sentiments and all those virtues which are necessary to a happy existence, and which render the connections of life pure and sweet, may be developed.
Without this foundation, I believe that the blessing of God is wanting on every means of education whatever.
The extent of knowledge and executive ability which the pupils will acquire is in part the same for all, and in part influenced by individual dispositions and destinations. It is the same for all inasmuch as it embraces the development of the faculties and powers most essential to human nature. Thus far, the method has acquired an invariable basis, inasmuch as it has established language, number and form, as productions of the human mind and as the universal means by which the mind should be developed.
The acquisition of knowledge and executive skill as a result of this development are secured either by means of exercises in language, number and form, or connect themselves with these in a very simple manner. Thus, with the study of numbers is connected mercantile and scientific calculation. The study of form and size leads to the art of drawing and writing. The exercises in the mother tongue as a means of developing the mind of the child, conduct to the study of foreign languages and to the knowledge of objects, which ihe tongue serves to seize and to define Music as a coinbined production of two elements is allied to language by tone, and to number by measure.
In the circle of human knowledge, man as a compound being is the center of a double world : of an exterior and physical world to which the three kingdoms of nature
* I have endeavored in the Coup d'ail which precedes this announcement, to state the means of education such as I conceive them to be. This exposition will be the model and the basis of my work. It is evident that these views and these means can not all be developed by a single man or a single institution. It is a task in which all the friends of education must coöperate.