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belong, and also the earth which contains them and all exterior nature ; and of an interior world, intellectual and moral, which, proceeding from the faculties and the powers on our nature, contains all the whole sphere of the connections of man, and of his duties toward himself, toward his fellow creatures, and toward God. The child should be as familiar with this interior world as with the exterior and physical world.
Intellectual cultivation should be accompanied by cultivation of the heart. The physical powers should also be developed, in order that the body may be able to per. form what the mind has conceived and the will has resolved. Bodily exercise in this respect possesses an essential and incontestible value. The mind and the heart stand in need of the body in all the actions of life. The operations of the soul are hamp. ered in proportion as the body is neglected, or unequal to execute its orders.
In regard to the admission and residence of pupils in my school, I desire 'parents who propose to intrust their children to my care, to fully weigh the following considerations.
The two most decisive epochs in education are that of early infancy under the mother's care, and that where the youth enters into manhood. If these two periods are successfully passed, it may be considered that the education has succeeded. If either has been neglected or ill-directed, the man feels it during his whole life. The age of boyhood being the intermediate period between early infancy and youth, is of unmis. takable importance, as the development of the first period, and the germ of the third ; but in no case does this age influence either decisively, by repairing previous defects or neg. lects, or by insuring what shall follow. In the first age the child belongs by preference to its mother, to be taken care of by her; in the second age it belongs by preference to its father, to be directed by him. As a young man, a new existence opens to him, he ceases to be the child of his parents; and becoines their friend. The son, at maturity, becomes the tender, intimate and faithful friend of his parents, as he was, in his mi. nority, their amiable, docile, and faithful child.
With regard to exterior life, the child must sooner or later become an orphan, and when this misfortune befalls him in his minority, society provides that a guardian shall supply the place of parents until he comes of age. For the interior life, no one can supply this place for him. Nothing but intellectual and moral strength in the child himself, and strengthened by that wisdom and that love which proceed from God, can bring us near to HIM and supply the place of the wisdom and the love of our father and mother. When the young man has attained this point, it is only as a friend that he remains the child of his parents. If he is not brought up in these noble dispositions, an unhappy consequence follows; the honds of nature are broken on his coming of age, because these bonds were only of force with respect to physical lise; and the child, who, in this first friendship-in this friendship whose objects are nearest lo him—has not supported the trial of fidelity, will never bear the test for any being upon earth.
Therefore it is that this period in education is so important, so decisive, and so exacting more than any other. On the one hand it requires the purity and tender affec. tion of domestic life, and on the other side, solid and wholesome food for the mind.
In this exigency a means presents itself which ought to be the keystone in the edu. cation of the child, the resting place for the passage from minority to majority, the foundation of a new life; a means raised above every other, namely, Religion-the revelation of all that is divine in man manisested by Jesus Christ. The young man, who in body, as a mortal, ceases to be a child, should become a new child in soul, and as an immortal being. After entering this new state, he ought in general to cease to be the pupil of men, to raise himself above their direction, and to become the pupil of himsell, that is to say, of that wisdom and that love which comes to us from God and raises 18 to him.
So long as a man has not attained this point, his education is incomplete. The aim of education is to enable him to reach it.
To strive incessantly loward this object, is the task of the institution here announced. YVERDUN, Pestalozzi's birthday, 1818.
XII. SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE.
PLANS AND DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN FEMALE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL BUILD
ING, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. Tuis building is located on Fayette street, about thirty feet west of Paca street. It stands on one of the highest eminences in the city of Baltimore, and has a front of seventy-seven feet, including two towers twenty-two feet square, which project four feet, each side of the main building, and a depth of one hundred and thirty-four feet. In the rear the building is eighty-eight feet, including the towers. It is capable of accommodating five to six hundred girls. The style of Architecture is Italian. There is a tower in each corner for stairways. Besides the stairways the towers will contain several rooms. They project fifteen feet from the facade of the main building, and form a Galilee or enclosed porch in front. The doors and windows are round top. Those of the towers are unequal triplets. Those of the flank are formed into couplets. The lower floor is divided into nine recitation rooms, including the chemical hall, which is twenty-four by eighty feet. The other recitation rooms are twenty-two by twenty-eight feet. The study room, which is in the second story, is one hundred and sixteen feet ten inches in length and sixty-five feet wide in the clear. Its altitude is twenty feet. There are two Female High Schools in Baltimore, the Eastern and the Western. They were organised in 1844. They have been found eminently useful in affording to young ladies the opportunity of receiving instruction in the higher branches of education. Cost of lot, $20,000 ; of building and furniture, $30,000.
ventilation. Each ventilating flue is eight inches in
DESCRIPTION AND PLANS OF FLOATING PUBLIC SCHOOL IN BALTIMORE. THE FLOATING PUBLIC SCHOOL OF BALTIMORE, is conducted in a house erected on shipboard, and anchored in the harbor. The design originated with the Board of Trade. Its Committee on Commerce, in the year 1855, in one of its reports, first presented the subject for the consideration of the Board, in view of the then recent shipwrecks and loss of life and property which had shocked the communities of the country, and suggested many ideas of amelioration and reform. The low condition of the sailor, in part disclosed by these events, and the scarcity of good seamen in all our ports, exhibited most clearly the necessity of training up men for that important and responsible calling. A proposition was started that the Board of Trade should unite with the Board of Public Education in the establishment of a school for the regular and thorough training of boys for the sailor's avocation. The plan presented was that of superadding to the ordinary studies of the public schools a certain degree of nautical instruction. This plan was the suggestion of Robert Leslie, Esq., the chairman of the Committee on Commerce of the Board of Trade, a gentleman of enlarged experience in nautical affairs, and who by his devotion to this enterprise, from first to last, is entitled to all the honors of its paternity.
The proposition thus made was received with great favor by the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools, and by their recommendation the plan was matured by a joint committee of both Boards, to include primary, grammar, and even high school studies, as pupils might be prepared to pursue them. These studies, with the necessary teachers, were to be supplied by the Commissioners of Public Schools, while the Board of Trade was to provide the nautical instructor, and the necessary apparatus for that department.
In pursuance of this arrangement, the Board of Trade invoked the aid of merchants and other citizens in the way of subscriptions, taking the lead itself by contributing one thousand dollars, which was followed by all the leading houses engaged in shipping, subscribing two hundred dollars each. To these were added other subscriptions of smaller sums, nearly every one applied to manifesting an approval of, and a readiness to support the measure. Thus about eight thousand dollars was secured, with which the United States sloop of war “Ontario," was purchased and repaired, and fitted up with new masts, spars, sails, and rigging adapted to the uses of the school. This vessel was built in Baltimore, and having been long in the government service, its history and patriotic associations had become a subject of interest to its citizens. This adaptation of the vessel was performed by the Board of Trade, and upon the deck a spacious school house was erected by the School Commissioners, which was replete with all the conveniences of one on shore.
The school was opened on the 14th of September, 1857, with eight pupils. The number has been steadily increasing until the present time, when there are nearly ninety on the roll. Thus far the enterprise has proved eminently successful. A number of boys have already exhibited indubitable evidence of the advantages that have been afforded them, and of the manner in which they have availed themselves of them. Their improvement shows that they have derived great benefit from the instruction, and they give promise of becoming intelligent and useful members of the profession they have chosen. Indeed all who have witnessed the workings of the school, feel assured that it will produce all the results that were anticipated in its establishment; and that it will ultimately elevate