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of his experiment, but tried many of them with a view to throw them aside again, as soon as they should have answered their temporary purpose. With many of them he had no other object than to increase the internal power of the children, and to obtain for himself further information concerning the fundamental principles on which all his proceedings rested. I resolved, therefore, not to mind the apparent inadequacy of some of his means, so much the more as I had come to the conviction, that the further pursuit of the experiment necessarily involved the improvement of the details of the method. This was perfectly evident already in arithmetic, in drawing, and in the rudiments of language.
I perceived, likewise, that by the connection which his different means of instruction had with each other, every one of them, individually, was instrumental in promoting the success of all the others, and, especially, in developing and strengthening the faculties generally. Long before he began to lay down his principles in stated terms, I saw, in the daily observation of their practical effect, the approaching maturity of the whole undertaking, and, as an infallible consequence of it, the gradual attainment of the object he had in view. In trying the details of his method, he never leaves any single exercise until he has so far investigated and simplified it, that it seems physically impossible to advance any further. Seeing the indefatigable zeal with which he did this, I was more and more confirmed in a sentiment, of which I bad before had some indistinct notion, that all the attempts at fostering the development of human nature, by means of a complicated and artificial language, must necessarily end in a failure; but that, on the contrary, a method intended to assist nature in the course of human development, must be characterised by the utmost simplicity in all the means of instruction, and more especially in language, which should be a faithful expression of the simplicity of both the child's own mind, and the objects and ideas which are employed for its cultivation. I now began to understand, by degrees, what he meant by introducing a variety of distinctions in the instruction of language; by aiming, in bis arithmetical instruction, at nothing else but producing in the child's mind a clear and indelible conviction that all arithmetic was nothing else but an abridgment of the simple process of enumeration, and the numbers themselves nothing but an abridgment of the wearisome repetition, one, and one, and one, and one; and, lastly, by declaring an early development of the faculty of drawing lines, angles, curves, and figures, to be the groundwork of art, and even of the capacity, which 80 few men possess, of taking a distinct view of visible objects.
I could not but feel every day more confirmed in the notions which I had formed of the manifold advantages of his method, by being a constant witness of the effects produced by general development of the mental faculties in the arts of measuring, calculating, writing, and drawing. I grew more and more convinced that it was possible to accomplish what I have before stated to have been the leading object of my own pursuits at a previous period, viz., to re-educate mothers for the fulfillment of that sacred task assigned to them by nature, the result of which would be, that even the first instruction imparted in schools, would have previous maternal tuition for a foundation to rest on. I saw a practical method discovered, which, admitting of universal application, would enable parents, who have the welfare of their offspring at heart, to become themselves the teachers of their little ones. From that moment, popular improvement ceased to be dependent on the circuitous plan of training teachers in expensive seminaries, and with the aid of extensive libraries.
In short, the result of the first impression produced upon my mind by the whole of Pestalozzi's experiment, and of the observations I have since been able to make on the details of his method, has been, to re-establish in my heart that faith which I held so dear at the onset of my career, but which I had almost lost under the pressure of systems sanctioned by the fashion of the day, faith in the practicability of popular improvement."
In the progress of his narrative he declares himself, that it was one of the characteristic fea. tures of his method of teaching language, that he reduced it to the utmost simplicity," hy excluding from it every combination of words which presupposes a knowledge of language.' He was not, however, at all times, equally clear ond bis point, although it lies at the very foundation of all his improvements in elementary instruetion,
XIV. THE JESUITS AND THEIR SCHOOLS.*
[Translated for the American Journal of Education, from the German of Karl von Raumer.)
In 1491, eight years after Luther, and six before Melancthon, Ignatius Loyola was born, the founder of that Order whose chief aim was to bring to nought the Reformation, and to reinstate the Popes in their former absolute power. The Jesuits sought, by means of preaching, the confessional, and the education of youth, to gain power and influence. And how great the influence, how complete the power which they thus obtained !
This aim and method of the Order is universally acknowledged: we find it asserted equally by the Protestant Ranke, in his work, “ The Popes of Rome," and by the Popes themselves, as well as by the most distinguished Catholic friends of the Jesuits. In Pope Ganganelli's Bull, by which the Order was suppressed, it is described as having been founded for the “conversion of heretics ;" in the Bull of Pius the Seventh, which restored the Order, it is said, that the Jesuits might, “after their former method, instruct youth in the first principles of the faith, and form them to good manners, might sustain the duties of the preacher's office, and be diligent in hearing confession;" and it is especially enjoined upon them, “to devote themselves, (as formerly,) to the education of Catholic youth, as well as to undertake the control of seminaries and colleges.”
A Catholic writer of the present day speaks of the calling of the Jesuits in the following extremely candid manner : “ that it is to contend with heretics, chiefly with the weapons of education and knowledge." "The hateful task of checking heresy by means of fire and sword, this the Order leaves to its antagonists, the Dominicans." This same Catholic author thus writes in the year 1833 : “We know both when and how the Order of the Jesuits originated; we know the genesis of the Society of Jesus. At the commencement of the * Sources.-1. Ranke's Popes of Rome.
2. Spittler on the History and Constitution of the Order of the Jesuits.
6. Lang's History of the Jesuits in Bavaria; Nuremberg, 1819. The above are some of the principal sources from which Von Raumer drew his views of the Jesuits.
sixteenth century a storm had gathered against the church of Jesus Christ. A new doctrine was proclaimed, another faith preached; a deadly heresy had exalted itself. The world was drifting toward the quicksands. And as every heresy contains some element of truth, sufficient to give it a specious appearance, and to insure its reception among men, so in this case we find such an element in the estimation it placed upon the study of the Seriptures, in the absolute homage and unqualified respect that it paid to the pure, unaltered word of God, as recorded in Holy Writ,-in its faith in the written word alone, which it claimed was given to every man to examine for himself; and this homage and respect culminated in the complete deification of the letter. But in whatever spot the earth yields a poison, there an antidote is sure to spring up by its side. So too, if at any time storins overspread the sky, God, in his providence, soon puts an end to their fury.
foe to the Bride of Christ, the church of God, declare war against her, then, even in the very fiercest of the onset, when her defeat seems inevitable, God raises up a hero, who goes forth in the name of the Lord, single handed and alone, and, like a second David, overcomes the champion of error.
Such a hero was Ignatius Loyola, who, in the year of grace, 1521, most fortunately for the world, lay wounded in the fortress of Pampeluna. The wounds which he had received in his body healed in a miraculous manner the hurt of his soul, and thereby healed the spiritual diseases of the greater portion of mankind. God created this man to be the founder of an Order, which was destined to become a strong wall of defense for his holy church against the new heresy. Examination of the letter of the word, as we said above,-investigation, consequently knowledge, characterized this false doctrine. Hence the Order which was to defend men from its allurements and to confirm them in the old faith, found itself compelled to put on the same armor of knowledge, that it might win the victory. If, with other Orders, contemplation and mortification of the flesh stood foremost in importance, while study was a minor concern, with the Jesuits, on the other hand, study and the pursuit of knowledge constituted the chief aim, though prayer, meditation and devotional exercises were not omitted. For they felt that erudition and knowledge must be united with piety. And they turned their attention to those youth, who were eager to run in the ways of knowledge; to studious youth, to protect them from the pestilent breath of false doctrine, presenting itself in the guise of science. Accordingly schools and the education of the young were their chief care and the main object of their efforts. And God blessed the Society, so that, in a very short time, it extend
ed its operations into all parts of the globe. And it was not long before the fathers of the Society of Jesus took possession of nearly every nation on the earth, as the apostles had done before them; and wherever they established themselves, they undertook the management of schools, and the direction of such as thirsted for knowledge, and their efforts were prospered and blessed. God grant that we may soon see such an Order arising in our midst, for we too live in an age full of all manner of heresies !"
[We omit in this place, as well as toward the close of the article, several pages of Raumer's chapter on the Jesuits, in which he discusses, from the extreme Protestant stand-point, the influence of the confessional, and the principles of what he calls “Jesuitical morality.” These topics, and especially, when handled in a partisan spirit, are more appropriate to a theological and controversial, than to an educational journal. The past, as well as the present organization of the schools of the Jesuits,—the course of instruction, methods of teaching, and discipline, are worthy of profound study by teachers and educators who would profit by the experience of wise and learned men. Says Bacon ; "As it regards teaching, this is the sum of all direction ; take example by the schools of the Jesuits, for better do not exist."" Ed. Am. Jour. OF Ed.]
The editor of the “System of Education" has adopted the above words of Bacon for his motto, and has cited, in addition, the following testimony from that philosopher. “When I look at the diligence and the activity of the Jesuits, both in imparting knowledge and in moulding the heart, I bethink me of the exclamation of Agesilaus concerning Pharnabazus ; “since thou art so noble, I would thou wert on our side.'” The editor of the “System” boasts of this passage as a “splendid tribute extorted from an anti-Catholic and a heretic.”
I will now subjoin a second tribute, likewise from a “heretic,” viz., John Sturm. “ The name, Jesuits," says he, “is new, and of recent origin. They merit higher praise than do any other of the monks, if indeed we may praise monkery at all. For what neither the good and devout Reuchlin, nor the learned and eloquent Erasmus, nor, prior to these, Alexander Hegius and Rudolf Agricola could persuade the schoolmen and the monks to do, namely, that they should, if not disposed themselves to cultivate learning, at least train up others to do it; this the Jesuits have, without prompting, everywhere undertaken.
They give instruction in the languages and in logic, and so far as they can, they impart to their scholars a knowledge of rhetoric. I rejoice at their appearance for two reasons. And first, because they promote our cause, by cultivating the sciences. For I have observed
what authors they explain and what method they adopt; it is a method so nearly like ours, that it appears as if they had copied from
And secondly, they incite us to a greater watchfulness and zeal, lest they show themselves more diligent than we, and lest their scholars become more learned and accomplished than ours.”
If now we compare Sturm's mode of teaching with that of the Jesuits, we shall find, at the first glance, scarce any difference between them. The internal structure of their iustitutions, their text-books, general curriculum, and ideal of culture, all are nearly identical, and yet a Jesuit college in respect to its inmost design and aim differed as widely from Sturm's college or his gymnasium, as a Jesuit from a Protestant.
The “ Ratio et institutio, (theory and method,) studiorum societatis Jesu," is the oldest treatise on teaching that the Jesuits possess. It was originally projected in 1588 by six of the fathers, and after undergoing a thorough revision, it was finally published in the year 1599. It appeared under the sanction of the renowned Claudius de Aquaviva, who was general of the Order at that period. This treatise has maintained, even to the present day, its original authority, and all subsequent writers have built upon its foundation; we bave an evidence of this fact in a later treatise, written in 1730, which, in its turn, has been, in the main, incorporated into the “ Educational System” of the year 1833. So too, the Jesuit General Roothaan, in the preface to the most recent official “ Course of Instruction," published in 1832, remarks ; " we present herein nothing new, but the old original system, only modified to suit the times." For “ this old system has been approved by the fortunate experience of almost two centuries, and it should not be altered, except for weighty reasons.” Some alterations were made, as we see, in obedience to the demands of the age ; a nice adaptation of fixed principles to the variations of circumstance being characteristic of the Order.
We turn now to consider the internal structure of a fully organized Jesuitic college. Such an institution embraced two distinct courses of study, each complete in itself. These were known as the higher and the preparatory branches, “studia superiora” and “stụdia inferiora." Each division of the college was under its separate praefect, but both praefects were alike subject to the rector, who had the general control of the whole establishment.
PREPARATORY OR Lower STUDIES. The lower division, corresponding to the gymnasium, comprised the following five classes, each baving its particular name:
1. The lower class in grammar; or the rudiments.