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required by the spirit and design of our establishment,--which is, to promote the greater glory of God." Accordingly natural philosophy, mathematics, and German are now taught by the Jesuits.
THE IIIGHER BRANCHES. Pupils usually spent one year in each of the four lower classes of the gymnasium, and two years in rhetoric. They then passed to the higher branches, and first of all, to a two or three years' course in philosophy.
The professor of philosophy adhered, in the main, to Aristotle, so far as he did not clash with the doctrines of the church, “ though Averroes, when he came upon any thing good in him, did not praise him for it, but sought to prove that he borrowed it.”
On the contrary, “ the professor should make honorable mention of our holy Thomas (Aquinas,) should delight to agree with him, and dissent, where necessary, with great reluctance." The first year Aristotle's logic was taught; the second, his books “de coelo,' the “ de generatione," and the " Meteorologica ;” the third year, the second book of “ de generatione,” the books “ de anima,” and the metaphysics. A critical exegesis of the original text was recommended, as well as systematic disputations on particular topics in hand.
A special professor of morals lectured upon the “ ethics ” of Aristotle.
A professor of mathematics explained the elements of Euclid to the class in “physics;" he touched likewise upon geography, or upon the “sphere," and kindred topics, “ which subjects pupils always take hold of with eagerness.”
At the close of the philosophical course, those whose qualifications were suitable, entered upon the study of theology; this extended over a period of four years, under the direction of professors of sacred literature, of Hebrew, of scholastic or doctrinal theology, and of casuistry.
The professor of sacred literature was expected to make use of the Vulgate version, only referring in brief, and where indispensable, to the Greek and IIebrew originals; to cite the Chaldee and other versions, the Septuagint especially, where these establish the Vulgate and the teachings of the church. Ile was not to give much attention to the interpretations of the Rabbins, nor to devote much time to chronology, the geography of Palestine, and similar inquiries of minor importance; unless a passage absolutely demanded an allusion to them.
The professor of Hebrew was likewise to hold by the Vulgate; in teaching, he should begin with the elements, then explain one of the simpler books of the Old Testament; and he should teach in such a manner, that, by his assiduity and care, the strange and uncouth vis
age, which the Hebrew presents to some minds, should grow mild and attractive.
The professor of scholastic theology based his teachings upon the system of Aquinas, (whom the Jesuits regarded as peculiarly their own teacher,) and he was expected not merely to explain and to commend the doctrines and opinions of Aquinas to his class, but likewise warmly to defend them. In no point was the professor to deviate from the system of doctrine prescribed by the church.
It was the duty of the professor of casuistry, fitly to mould the young theologian to the office of pastor and priest. He expounded the nature of the sacraments, and descanted upon the various positions and duties of men. With theology proper, he had little to do. He gave decisions of doubtful questions, resting his decisions upon authorities, though not multiplying these unnecessarily. "But, while thus fortifying his own position, he should not neglect to cite those authorities, if any there are, of equal weight, which appear to warrant an opposite conclusion." Disputations likewise, on cases of conscience were recommended.
These theological classes formed the source from whence the Order drew a supply of teachers for the gymnasia.
The Society received at the hands of Pope Julius III. the conferring both Bachelor's and Doctor's degrees upon such as did not take a University course.
Having now given an outline view of the entire educational course of the Jesuits, I come to the moral and religious character of their system, to its discipline. “Religion,” says
says the composer of the “Educational System," " is the base and the summit of schools and of all education, their foundation and their capstone, their central principle and their soul; therefore the religious should be chosen for teachers, and with peculiar propriety too, from that Order, which has always stood foremost in the great work of instructing the young, viz., the Society of Jesus.” With this Order “the religious principle was not a mere name assumed for ulterior ends, it was not a false banner hoisted for the purpose of deception.” It “protected youth from vice, and with a peculiar care strengthened them against every spiritual ailment.” “ The religious alone can save the schools from perdition; a religious fraternity alone, an Order, which has received the sanction and consecrating influence of the church of Christ, this alone can avert the overwhelming destruction that is now settling down upon education and upon schools, sinking them deeper every day, and preparing them ultimately to become instrumental in subverting both thrones and governments.”
The method of heretics in education is represented as directly the reverse of that of the Jesuits, viz., as superficial, utterly godless, subversive of morality and the fruitful parent of revolutions.
But the moral and religious character of a Jesuitical institution needs a closer examination at our hands. It is repeatedly urged in the “Jesuit System of Education" as a first principle, to instil into the minds of youth a knowledge of the Creator and the Redeemer; so that at the same time with earthly knowledge, they may acquire habits and sentiments worthy of Christians. “ The
young are formed to obedience, to love of God and to virtue.” “ The teacher must set them an example of a religious life, must do nothing whereby the pupils will offend, must pray for them.” He must“ with great faith and confidence commend them to the most Blessed Virgin and to the Saints of God, chiefly to such as have ever been held as the special and peculiar patrons of studious youth, as St. Joseph, St. Catharine, St. Cassian, St. Nicholas, our holy Father Ignatius, St. Lewis, St. Stanislaus,” etc.
Great stress is laid upon that humility, “ that seeks not the perishable honors of this world, but the enduring honor which comes from God." “Every thing bordering on vice or in any manner inconsistent with the precepts of Christian morality should be stigmatized as disreputable and mean. Pride, boasting,” etc. Obedience was not only drilled into the scholars, but it was required of the teachers too. "Every will," remarks the editor of the Educational System," "is merged in the will of one superior; and bis will is to be honored and obeyed as the will of Jesus Christ.”
What kind of obedience was demanded, we saw above in the cursory remark, that an un-Ciceronian style was to be shunned as a violation of the grand law of obedience. In short, all were made to feel that a blind and slavish obedience was universally demanded, and that all, teachers as well as scholars, were, so to speak, wheels of one vast machine, whose main spring was the general at Rome.
The nature of the prayers enjoined upon the pupils may be inferred from what we have already advanced, but to put it beyond all doubt, we will appeal to the record. It is prescribed to the teachers, "to be faithful to the scholars, and to habituate them to the use of certain set forms of prayer to God and to the saints. These they may repeat, now from a book and now from memory, lest by monotony they grow irksome; or at times they may go through with them in silence and mentally. They should chiefly make use of the Rosary, Office, and Litany of the Blessed Virgin.”
“He who has omitted his devotions, must, for a punishment, spend
some time in prayer, in the oratory, or if it is a feast day, must at. tend a second mass, or he must go to the first mass or one of the first at early dawn, in the church.” If these punishments appeared hard, so the reward, on the other hand, was great, viz., “those who distinguish themselves by superior devotion, shall be publicly rewarded and honored.” Truly, with such motives, both of punishment and reward, piety could not well remain stationary !
And if devotion was thus crowned with bonors, with public honors, much more so was diligence and other subordinate virtues.
“He who possesses the faculty of inspiring a spirit of emulation, finds the duties of his office wonderfully lightened thereby; in fact an active emulation is almost of itself sufficient to direct the
in the right path. The teacher should, therefore, put a high estimate upon this instrumentality, diligently examining the modes in which it may best be secured and applied." "Regular contests for the superiority are of great use in calling out this emulation.”
The “System,” makes frequent mention of such contests, and communicates a method by which they are rendered more advantageous, viz., by assigning to every scholar his special rival, thus dividing the whole school into pairs. The mutual relation of two such rivals is often adverted to and commended for the reason that it gives to each continual opportunities for informing of and triumphing over the other. For example, “ those who fill the position of rivals should note any breach of good behavior in each other, and report it for reprimand," etc.
Pupils were not expected to confine their attention to their rivals, but to inform of any other of their fellows whenever their own interests should require. An instance in point has been given already; viz., “where one who had spoken in German instead of Latin, had been sentenced to disgrace and punishment, he was permitted to go free by transferring the penalty to some fellow pupil, whom he had heard likewise speaking in the vernacular, either in school or in the street, or whom he at least could convict of so doing, out of the mouth of one credible witness.” The natural effect of such an unholy emulation was to destroy utterly all mutual confidence and love among scholars. They could not love each other, for their entire feeling was that of slavish subordination, and they regarded their fellows who were in the same position with themselves, as natural enemies to be put down in every possible way. In every way,—I repeat it,--even by a petty species of tale bearing that was revolting to every noble instinct of manliness ; though it was admirably designed to prepare the pupil for the perfected system of delations to which the Order
No. 13.--IVOL. V., No. 1.)–15.
was chiefly indebted for its power. Even the Jesuit Mariana has testified against this system : he says, “ the whole framework of the Society rests upon its delations, which spread, like a poison, through every portion, so that all confidence between the brethren comes to an end. Our general, out of his unbounded desire for absolute dominion, receives these delations into his archives, admits their truth as a matter of course, and acts upon them without giving the accused parties the least opportunity to be heard in their own defense." And yet, notwithstanding the existence of this emulation which does not scorn the basest measures, if they only lead to the grand aim, the elevation of the pupil above his fellows, notwithstanding such a systematic cultivation of pride,-with which, remember, a slavish subjection to the superior goes hand in hand,—the "System” is perpetually boasting of the importance to be attached to humility. Humility indeed! It would do better to call it the extorted obedience of a slave.
We find other methods laid down in the “System,” which the teacher “may adopt to quicken a spirit of emulation." Take the following, for instance: “the election of magistrates, praetors, censors, and decurions in the school, will prove a powerful auxiliary in accomplishing this object, (viz., arousing competition.") Such officers were likewise created by Trotzendorf and Sturm, as we have had occasion to observe. Said Trotzendorf, “ I do it, in order that my scholars may be early trained to the usages of a well ordered civil government.” And Sturm's decurions were, like Lancaster's monitors, the same as assistant teachers. But the magistracies of the schools of the Jesuits appear, on the contrary, to have been created solely to engender ambition; the decurions may perhaps have corresponded in a measure to those of Sturni's school, but the censors were formally installed to be spies upon their fellow pupils.
And again ; "to provoke emulation the teacher should inculcate upon the scholars the sentiment, that it is the height of honor to outstrip one's equals; and, on the other hand, that nothing is more degrading and contemptible than to be outstript by them.” The distribution of prizes too, was especially relied on to stimulate competition. "The public distribution of prizes must be ushered in by all manner of imposing ceremonies, and attended by a thronged audience. Let a comedy be acted before the distribution; then let the names of the successful candidates be publicly proclaimed, after which, the prizes may be formally presented, and a short and appropriate poem, which has previously been submitted to the praefect and approved by him, may be pronounced. After the victors have thus been proclaimed by