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stove, or hot-water apparatus, d, d, d, gives heat there, particularly to the large central apartments indicated by the flues on the left proceeding to them.
Some of the apartments on the right, not admitting the introduction of specific flues, are provided with internal windows that enable each room to be supplied from the staircase, and also to discharge vitiated air into it. Two rooms above them receive air by the door, and discharge vitiated air directly by the ceiling.
In the large central apartments that are approached by corridors looking into the interior of an open quadrangle, great diffusion is given to the entering air, as they are often very crowded, and it is therefore necessary that the influx of the air, though well warmed, should be mild and gentle. The rest of the building is ventilated by a shaft similar to that shown by Fig. 10, constructed principally to control the atmosphere of the basement, the kitchen, closets, and a few apartments in the vicinity.
The bedrooms generally have not received any special ventilation. All are provided with fire-places.
In building a new hotel, every apartment whatsoever can easily have some ventilation introduced, when the whole arrangements are placed on a uniform system. In existing hotels where the ventilation is defective, the great object is, in general, to supply the passages with a proper atmosphere, and remove the vitiated air and emanations from gas-lights in these passages and in individual rooms.
In hotels the introduction of machinery for the movement of air is not necessary, though there are many cases where an engine is maintained in action, for pumping water and other purposes, where it could often be used advantageously. In such instances, the fanner is usually made to force fresh air into a larger channel, as indicated on the right in Fig. 79—branches from this source being distributed to passages and individual apartments, as illustrated in Fig. 80.
In using a fanner, the diffusion given in crowded apartments should be still more carefully carried out than where a ventilating shaft is used, though desirable in all cases in proportion to the numbers likely to crowd upon a given area. In Fig. 79, in the central portion, and on the left, various modes of giving diffusion are shown : according to these, the air enters principally at the side, or at the ceiling, so as not to encroach at all, or only as slightly as possible, on the floor.
Fanners may be used in the same manner as shafts for the removal of vitiated air, instead of effecting this object by the propulsion of fresh air," &c., &c.
III. WILLIAM CHANNING WOODBRIDGE
BY W. A. ALCOTT, M, D.
William CHANNING WOODBRIDGE was born in Medford, Mass., December 18th, 1794. His father was Rev. William Woodbridge, whose name is identified with the early history of female education in Connecticut. His mother, Ann Channing, was a sister of the father of the late Rev. Dr. W. E. Channing of Boston. She died when her son was about fourteen ; but his father lived to an advanced age.
The family removed from Medford to Middletown, Connecticut, in 1798, where the father took an active interest in the improvement of common schools, and organized the first Association of Teachers in this country. Here in 1799, the son learned his alphabet: and immediately commenced the study of Latin, read Accidence and Corderius. In 1801, the family having removed to Norwich, he studied Latin there with W. McGee. His father subsequently removed to Newark, New Jersey, to take charge of a female seminary; where, in 1804, we find the son studying the Greek Testament. In 1806 he studied mathematics and chemistry; and Homer in 1807. He entered freshman at Yale Collge, June, 1808, at the age of thirteen years and six months. I am careful to give particulars, to show their connection with that feeble constitution which caused him so much suffering in after life. From the fact of this premature development and exercise of his mind, and from his own statements and my personal knowledge, I have no doubt of the existence, at this period, of what medical men call “latent scrofula ;" nor that the tendency was greatly aggravated by his premature studies. For though his parents were wise enough to defer his “ alphabet” to his fifth year, yet such was his aptitude for study, and such bis advantages, under his father's home teaching, and in the sick chamber of his mother, as well as with other excellent teachers, that we see him entering college at an immature age, and with a delicacy of constitution which, while it promised him college honors, did not augur well for his general health. Perhaps the worst feature of this hot-house education, was, after all, his being so much in his mother's sick room. Such confinement may, indeed, have had a good moral influence on him, but must have con
tributed not a little to his after physical sufferings, as well as detracted from his general usefulness.
Of Mr. Woodbridge's college life not much is known. His account of himself during that dangerous period is in some few particulars different from what might have been expected by those who know the manner of his early training and his general inoffensiveness. Yet, although those of his peculiar defective physical organization are, in some respects, unusually exposed to the besetments of vice, still their moral principles and powers are often proportionately forward. Thus it was with Mr. Woodbridge. He passed the fiery ordeal wholly unscathed.
Although it does not clearly appear that at this early stage of his educational life, he regarded every thing in the shape of amusement, whether public or private, as absolutely and unqualifiedly sinful; yet he certainly had less of sympathy with those of his years, than with the middle-aged and the old. The sick room education, to which he had been so much subjected, may have imparted a premature solidity to his habits of mind, if not a sluggish cast to those of his body.
Mr. Woodbridge graduated at New Haven, September, 1811, when he was less than seventeen years old. The subsequent winter was spent in Philadelphia, pursuing his studies; but of their particular character, at this time, nothing remains except the following extract from his private journal. “The study of the Bible in the original language, enters into my plan of study. My own inclination is to pursue a course of Biblical criticism, Ecclesiastical History, and Doctrinal Theology, as my great object; but to connect it with a revival of my collegiate studies, particularly the Mathematics and Philosophy."
He took the charge of Burlington Academy, in New Jersey, in July, 1812 ; where he remained until November, 1814. Of his success in teaching we know nothing; but the bare fact that he commenced at the immature age of seventeen and a half, and continued here almost two years and a half, together with his well-known subsequent success in Hartford and elsewhere, is the best evidence we can desire in his favor.
During the winter of 1814-15, we find him again at New Haven, attending lectures on Anatomy, Chemistry, Philosophy, &c. His great desire to perfect his knowledge of these and his other college studies had probably led to this change, and induced him to defer teaching at least as a profession, for a few years longer, or, more probably forever.
Mention is made, in his private journal, of a very interesting revival of religion, during this season, in Yale College ; and we are led to
infer that he was himself one of its subjects, as were also many others whose names have since been well and favorably known to the Christ. ian public; not a few of whom have gone to their final award. Such, at least, were Codman, Cornelius, and Nettleton. Mr. Woodbridge made a public profession of religion by uniting with the college church, April 2d, 1815. He was now in his twenty-first year.
In September of the same year, he commenced a course of theological study with Dr. Dwight, then President of Yale College; where he remained till the death of his teacher, which happened January 11th, 1817. In July of this year, he entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey. At this time, and probably from the beginning his studies with Dr. Dwight, (if not indeed from a somewhat earlier period,) he had cherished the hope of being a foreign missionary. But he had not been long at Princeton before a new field was opened to him. There was a call on him to join Messrs. Gallaudet and Le Clerc of Hartford, in conducting the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb,—then in its incipient stage of existence. Under date of August 30th, 1817, he thus says of himself:
During the week, my attention has been almost constantly occupied with the subject of the asylum. At times my heart as been affected and enlarged. I felt at one time particularly, as if I could rely on the promise : “Acknowledge Him in all thy ways, and He shall direct thy paths.” I felt as if I could put myself in the hands of God; yet I must expect his guidance in the use of means.”
Having occasion to spend a night about this time, in a family where there was a deaf and dumb girl, the conversation readily turned on the susceptibility of deaf mutes for receiving instruction. To gratify the anxious parents, as well as to make an important experiment, he undertook to explain to her the word think, as being equivalent to seeing absent objects. She seemed much interested, and appeared to partially understand him.
The question, both with himself and his friends, was now, it would seem, that of the comparative importance of this work of teaching, and that of foreign missions. His views and final decision may be gathered from the following record in his journal, and deserves our particular attention.
“ This is missionary ground. It is carrying the gospel to those who can not otherwise obtain it; yet compared with the opening among the heathen, the asylum offers a very limited field. This is an immediate, certain field of usefulness. A mission is distant and uncertain."
In short, he concluded to join the asylum, and went to Hartford for that purpose, December 4th, 1817. The pupils welcomed him