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The clear sea-green tint of the waters that in eternal agitation chafe the shore on which we stand-the thick inist that, ascending from the basin below, forms au ample field for those reflections and refractions of light which produce rain-bows of beautifully vivid colours—the deep sullen roar that accompanies the fall-the castle of Lauffen crowning the wooded summit of the eastern beights—the gloomy group of buildings composing the village of Neuhausen on the opposite bank—the wild romantic aspect of the iminediately surrounding objects, contrasted with the agreeably rural appearance of the more distant landscape—the fantastic shape of foliaged rocks rising from the bed of the river and on the edges of the ridge whence its waves are burled—those waves commencing their descent of an inclined plane studded with buge fraginents of stone, and, as soon as they reach the above-mentioned rocks, throwing themselves in four momentarily divided but quickly reuniting and intermingling massesthe violent collision and enormous pressure of the falling waters, which break and attenuate thein to such a degree, that becoming more light and sublimated than atinospheric air, they mount up in cloudy forins of inexhaustible variety-all this, and infinitely more than is thus attempted to be glanced at in the vague and feeble pencilling of a verbal sketch, not only render the scene a most magnificent one, but also impart to it an interest, which, with any one who possesses a mind attuned to Nature's awful barmonies, suffers little or no abatement from the most intense or prolonged contemplation.*
very superior judgment and experience, I venture to express my opinion that the road in question, which we travelled, leads to a favourable and interesting point for a general view; although from the scaffolding called the Fischetz, erected within its very spray, the cataract is unquestionably to be seen in its sublimest aspect.
On quitting our station in front of the cataract, we proceeded along the right bank of the river, and passing through some iron-works, climbed up to a mill, the windows of wbich command a still nearer view of this great river's tide rashing down the precipice in a torrent of foam. The sound of unnumbered surges, lasling the rocks and plunging into the gulf, was there so overpowering that we could scarcely hear ourselves speak. Thongh the building is of stone, and erected on the solid rock, it experiences a perpetual trenibling from the concussion of so prodigious a weight of waters, whose furious action increases in the ratio of the accelerated velocity with which they fall.-In the train of ideas which this truly superb and fascinating sight suggests, none perhaps are more absorbing than those that arise, as one regards the three enormous pieces of rock, at the top of the cataract, which, narrowed at their bases, make a singular display of small trees and shrubs on their more widely spreading tops. When one witnesses the impetuous force, and recollects the constant friction of the current, it is impossible to avoid being affected by a strong feeling of astonisbment, that these insulated pillars should so long have withstood the rage of such terrible assaults, and at the same time being impressed with the belief that they will in time be undermined and overthrown.
• It is at the foot of this Fall that the goods and merchandise are reloaded which are obliged to be landed at Schaffhausen, as well on account of the cataract, as of the difficulty and even the impossibility of navigation between that town and Lauffen, whence the cargoes of vessels are conveyed by land carriage.-Robert.
August 16th.- Placed on the northern bank of the Rbine, Schaffhausen serves (but without any other garrison than its own citizens) as a bulwark to Switzerland on the side of Germany.* And had it been the first, instead of the last capital town of the Helvetic Confederation, which came within our notice, we should in all probability have been more struck than we were with it as a well-built and cleanly one, which it really is. The streets have a certain degree of old fashioned consequence about them; and there is no want of commercial bustle and of concomitant opulence in the place. The houses, large and lofty, bear every where the inarks of antiquity: the irregularity of their construction and the peculiar nature of their decorations are well calculated to engage a stranger's notice. Every secular edifice, domestic as well as public, bas its inscriptive, and in numerous instances its pictorial, distinction. Over the door of one house you may see the words Zum Ritter (The Knight's); over that of another, Zur Hoffnung (The Hope); of a third, Zur Geduld (The Patience); of a fourth, Zum Kercker. This last-mentioned term Kercker, or Bow-window, refers to the most conspicuous external feature of their architecture. All the larger buildings, with very few exceptions, have one or more of these peculiar projections either by way of flanking turrets to their castellated fronts, or as vedettes, which, jutting out from the first and sometimes from the second story in octagonal shape, rest upon a cul-de-lampe, and form boudoirs,
• The canton which bears its name is in fact beyond the natural boundary of Switzerland, being on the opposite side of the Rhine and inclosed within the limits of Suabia. It is only seven leagues in extent from north to south and about four leagues from east to west.
full of glass windows. Many of these appendages are sculptured and carved with great elaborateness of ornament. The custom of covering the stuccoed façades of their houses with paintings and reliefs, of various designs and colours, is another characteristic of the Schaffbusians. That which is called “the Knights” is perhaps the best, as it is certainly the most Aorid specimen of these frescoes. The subjects of the work are a mixture of the historical and emblematical. You have Marcus Curtius on horseback Jeaping into the gulph of the Roman forum-a bead of Cicero with a Latin, and another of Demosthenes with a Greek, inscription. One tier is filled with an equestrian procession of ancient warriors: in another the symbolic personification of the Virtues and the Vices fill different compartments, accompanied with appropriate groups of figures.-The edifice in question has the date of 1597, upon one of the beams; but the paintings, it is evident from the vivid hue of their colours, must have been restored long since that time. Other houses are decorated in a similar manner with incidents from Swiss history; and the fountains, which here as in the principal towns of all the other cantons numerously adorn the streets and open places, are according to custom surmounted with the figures of Tell and the other favourite heroes of Helvetia.
The Hotel-de-Ville, a ponderous structure of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, is to be distinguished chiefly by the effigies of the three brave and generous mountaineers of Schwitz, Uri, and Underwald, who laid the foundation of their country's liberty.
The Public Library is but a small collection, chiefly consisting of theological works. In the principal room
are portraits of the Burgo-masters of the canton. Under one picture is inscribed_“Job. Jacobus Ruegerus, Ecclesiasticus et Historicus Schafhusianus." Under another are the words “Martinus Pyer, Aetatis suæ L. Anno Domini, molxv:” a very good portrait, much in Holbein's manner. Here they preserve the model of Grubenmann's* celebrated bridge over the Rhine at this place, begun in 1753, finished in 1757, and destroyed by the French in 1799. The structure was of wood, a single arch, covered in at the top and sides like that at Eglisau, and the carriage-way through, instead of resting on the arch, was let into the middle of it, and there hung. The strength of this extraordinary piece of inechanism seems to have been chiefly owing to the dovetailed manner in which the timbers were laid one into the other. The centre formed a very obtuse angle, the inside of which was opposed to the current.
The present bridge is not of so complicated a piece of carpentry as Grubenmann's : its well constructed platform of timber rests apon eight supports of the same
• Grubenmann was a native of the canton of Appenzell. The bridge which constitutes the sole medium of communication between Schaffhausen and the rest of Switzerland having several times been carried away by the floods of the Rhine, this man, a simple carpenter, withont theory, without mathematical study, undertook to unite the two banks of the river, three hundred and forty-two feet apart, by a bridge of so bold a construc. tion that it should embrace the whole width of it with a single arch. By an effort of genius which well deserved to pass for one of the wonders of the age, Grubenmann accomplished this magnificent enterprise ; for it appears that, although by direction of the Magistrales, advantage was taken of a pile of the ancient bridge, situated in the middle of the river, to give some additional support to the carpenter's bridge, yet its preservation by no means depended upon that circumstance. The construction cost 200,000 French livres; it used to tremble under the lightest burthens, and yet sustained uninjured the weight of the most heavily loaded vehicles.