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ARTICLES OF A TREATY
Made at Detroit, this seventeenth day of November, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seven, by William Hull, governor of the territory of Michigan, and superintendant of Indian affairs, and sole commissioner of the United States, to conclude and sign a treaty or treaties, with the several nations of Indians, north west of the river Ohio, on the one part, and the sachems, chiefs, and warriors of the Ottoway, Chippeway, Wyandotte, and Pottawatamie nations of Indians, on the other part. To confirm and perpetuate the friendship, which happily subsists between the United States and the nations aforesaid, to manifest the sincerity of that friendship, and to settle arrangements mutually beneficial to the parties; after a full explanation and perfect understanding, the following articles are agreed to, which, when ratified by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on them, and the respective nations of Indians.
Nov. 17, 1807.
Jan. 27, 1808.
ARTICLE I. The sachems, chiefs, and warriors of the nations aforesaid, in consideration of money and goods, to be paid to the said nations, by the government of the United States as hereafter stipulated; do hereby agree to cede, and forever quit claim, and do in behalf of their nations hereby cede, relinquish, and forever quit claim, unto the said United States, all right, title, and interest, which the said nations now have, or claim, or ever had, or claimed, in, or unto, the lands comprehended within the following described lines and boundaries: Begin- Boundaries. ning at the mouth of the Miami river of the lakes, and running thence up the middle thereof, to the mouth of the great Au Glaize river, thence running due north, until it intersects a paralell of latitude, to be drawn from the outlet of lake Huron, which forms the river Sinclair; thence running north east the course, that may be found, will lead in a direct line, to White Rock, in lake Huron, thence due east, until it intersects the boundary line between the United States and Upper Canada, in said lake, thence southwardly, following the said boundary line, down said lake, through river Sinclair, lake St. Clair, and the river Detroit, into lake Erie, to a point due east of the aforesaid Miami river, thence west to the place of beginning
ART. II. It is hereby stipulated and agreed on the part of the United States, as a consideration for the lands, ceded by the nations aforesaid, in the preceding article, that there shall be paid to the said nations, at Detroit, ten thousand dollars, in money, goods, implements of husbandry, or domestic animals, (at the option of the said nations, seasonably signified, through the superintendant of Indian affairs, residing with the said nations, to the department of war,) as soon as practicable, after the ratification of the treaty, by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States; of this sum, three thousand three hundred and thirty three dollars thirty three cents and four mills, shall be paid to the Ottaway nation, three thousand three hundred and thirty three dollars thirty three cents and four mills, to the Chippeway nation, one thousand six hundred sixty six dollars sixty six cents and six mills,
How the con
sideration is to be apportioned and paid.
Indians to have the privilege of hunting, &c. on lands ceded.
U. S. to supply
ART. IV. The United States, to manifest their liberality, and dispothe Indians with sition to encourage the said Indians, in agriculture, further stipulate, to
furnish the said Indians with two blacksmiths, one to reside with the Chippeways, at Saguina, and the other to reside with the Ottaways, at the Miami, during the term of ten years; said blacksmiths are to do such work for the said nations as shall be most useful to them.
Ante, p. 49.
to the Wyandotte nation, one thousand six hundred sixty six dollars sixty six cents and six mills, to the Pottawatamie nation, and likewise an annuity forever, of two thousand four hundred dollars, to be paid at Detroit, in manner as aforesaid: the first payment to be made on the first day of September next, and to be paid to the different nations, in the following proportions: Eight hundred dollars to the Ottaways, eight hundred dollars to the Chippeways, four hundred dollars to the Wyandottes, and four hundred dollars to such of the Pottawatamies, as now reside on the river Huron of lake Erie, the river Raisin, and in the vicinity of the said rivers.
Indians acknowledge the protection of the U.S.
ART. III. It is further stipulated and agreed, if at any time hereafter, the said nations should be of the opinion, that it would be more for their interest, that the annuity aforesaid should be paid by instalments, the United States will agree to a reasonable commutation for the annuity, and pay it accordingly.
ART. V. It is further agreed and stipulated, that the said Indian nåtions shall enjoy the privilege of hunting and fishing on the lands ceded as aforesaid, as long as they remain the property of the United States.
ART. VI. It is distinctly to be understood, for the accommodation of the said Indians, that the following tracts of land within the cession aforesaid, shall be, and hereby are reserved to the said Indian nations, one tract of land six miles square, on the Miami of lake Erie, above Roche de Boeuf, to include the village, where Tondaganie, (or the Dog) now lives. Also, three miles square on the said river, (above the twelve miles square ceded to the United States by the treaty of Greenville) including what is called Presque Isle; also four miles square on the Miami bay, including the villages where Meshkemau and Wau-gau now live; also, three miles square on the river Raisin, at a place called Macon, and where the river Macon falls into the river Raizin, which place is about fourteen miles from the mouth of said river Raizin; also, two sections of one mile square each, on the river Rouge, at Seginsiwin's village; also two sections of one mile square each, at Tonquish's village, near the river Rouge; also three miles square on lake St. Clair, above the river Huron, to include Machonce's village; also, six sections, each section containing one mile square, within the cession aforesaid, in such situations as the said Indians shall elect, subject, however, to the approbation of the President of the United States, as to the places of location. It is further understood and agreed, that whenever the reservations cannot conveniently be laid out in squares, they shall be laid out in paralelograms, or other figures, as found most practicable and convenient, so as to contain the area specified in miles, and in all cases they are to be located in such manner, and in such situations, as not to interfere with any improvements of the French or other white people, or any former cessions.
ART. VII. The said nations of Indians acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the United States, and no other power, and will prove by their conduct that they are worthy of so great a blessing. IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, the said William Hull, and the sachems, and war chiefs representing the said nations, have hereunto set their hands and seals.
DONE at Detroit, in the territory of Michigan, the day and year first above written.
Miere, or walk in the water,
Meu-e-tu-ge-sheck, or the Little
In presence of Geo. McDougall, Chief Judge Ct. D. H. and D. C. Rush, AttorneyGeneral. Jacob Visger, Associate Judge of the D. Court. Jos. Watson, Secretary to the Legislature of Michigan. Abijah Hull, Surveyor for Michigan Territory. Harris H. Hickman, Counsellor at Law. Abraham Fuller Hull, Counsellor at Law and Secretary to the commission. Whitmore Knaggs, William Walker, Sworn Interpreters.
To the Indian names are subjoined a mark and seal.
ARTICLES OF A TREATY
Made and concluded at Fort Clark, on the right bank of the Missouri, about five miles above the Fire Prairie, in the territory of Louisiana, the tenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eight, between Peter Chouteau, esquire, agent for the Osage, and specially commissioned and instructed to enter into the same by his excellency Meriwether Lewis, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the territory aforesaid, in behalf of the United States of America, of the one part, and the chiefs and warriors of the Great and Little Osage, for themselves and their nations respectively, on the other part.
Nov. 10, 1808. 28, 1810. Ratified, April
A fort to be
ART. 1. The United States being anxious to promote peace, friendship and intercourse with the Osage tribes, to afford them every assis- built. tance in their power, and to protect them from the insults and injuries of other tribes of Indians, situated near the settlements of the white people, have thought proper to build a fort on the right bank of the Missouri, a few miles above the Fire Prairie, and do agree to garrison the same with as many regular troops as the President of the United States may, from time to time, deem necessary for the protection of all orderly, friendly and well disposed Indians of the Great and Little Osage nations, who reside at this place, and who do strictly conform to,
A store of
ART. 2. The United States being also anxious that the Great and goods to be kept Little Osage, resident as aforesaid, should be regularly supplied with
at the fort.
every species of merchandise, which their comfort may hereafter require, do engage to establish at this place, and permanently to continue at all seasons of the year, a well assorted store of goods, for the purpose of bartering with them on moderate terms for their peltries and furs.
A blacksmith, &c. to be furnished by U. S.
Property stolen by the Osages before the acquisition of Louisiana, to be paid for by U.S.
Merchandise to be delivered.
Boundary line established.
and pursue the counsels or admonitions of the President of the United States through his subordinate officers.
Lines to be run by U.S.
ART. 3. The United States agree to furnish at this place, for the use of the Osage nations, a black-smith, and tools to mend their arms and utensils of husbandry, and engage to build them a horse mill, or water mill; also to furnish them with ploughs, and to build for the great chief of the Great Osage, and for the great chief of the Little Osage, a strong block house in each of their towns, which are to be established near this fort.
ART. 4. With a view to quiet the animosities which at present exist between the inhabitants of the territory of Louisiana, and the Osage nations, in consequence of the lawless depredations of the latter, the United States do further agree to pay to their own citizens, the full value of such property as they can legally prove to have been stolen or destroyed by the said Osage, since the acquisition of Louisiana by the United States, provided the same does not exceed the sum of five thousand dollars.
ART. 5. In consideration of the lands relinquished by the Great and Little Osage to the United States as stipulated in the sixth article of this treaty, the United States promise to deliver at Fire Prairie, or at St. Louis, yearly, to the Great Osage nation, merchandize to the amount or value of one thousand dollars, and to the Little Osage nation, merchandize to the amount or value of five hundred dollars, reckoning the value of said merchandize at the first cost thereof, in the city or place in the United States, where the same shall have been procured.
And in addition to the merchandize aforesaid, the United States have, at and before the signature of these articles, paid to the Great Osage nation, the sum of eight hundred dollars, and to the Little Osage nation, the sum of four hundred dollars.
ART. 6. And in consideration of the advantages which we derive from the stipulations contained in the foregoing articles, we, the chiefs and warriors of the Great and Little Osage, for ourselves and our nations respectively, covenant and agree with the United States, that the boundary line between our nations and the United States shall be as follows, to wit: beginning at fort Clark, on the Missouri, five miles above Fire Prairie, and running thence a due south course to the river Arkansas, and down the same to the Mississippi; hereby ceding and relinquishing forever to the United States, all the lands which lie east of the said line, and north of the southwardly bank of the said river Arkansas, and all lands situated northwardly of the river Missouri. And we do further cede and relinquish to the United States forever, a tract of two leagues square, to embrace fort Clark, and to be laid off in such manner as the President of the United States shall think proper.
ART. 7. And it is mutually agreed by the contracting parties, that the boundary lines hereby established, shall be run and marked at the expense of the United States, as soon as circumstances or their convenience will permit; and the Great and Little Osage promise to depute two chiefs from each of their respective nations, to accompany the commissioner, or commissioners who may be appointed on the part of the United States, to settle and adjust the said boundary line.
ART. 8. And the United States agree that such of the Great and Hunting Little Osage Indians, as may think proper to put themselves under the ground. protection of fort Clark, and who observe the stipulations of this treaty with good faith, shall be permitted to live and to hunt, without molestation, on all that tract of country, west of the north and south boundary line, on which they, the said Great and Little Osage, have usually hunted or resided: Provided, The same be not the hunting grounds of any nation or tribe of Indians in amity with the United States; and on any other lands within the territory of Louisiana, without the limits of the white settlements, until the United States may think proper to assign the same as hunting grounds to other friendly Indians.
ART. 9. Lest the friendship which is now established between the United States and the said Indian nations should be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby agreed that for injuries done by individuals, no private revenge or retaliation shall take place, but instead thereof complaints shall be made by the party injured to the other, by the said nations or either of them, to the superintendent or other person appointed by the President to the chiefs of the said nation; and it shall be the duty of the said chiefs, upon complaints being made as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or persons against whom the complaint is made, to the end that he or they may be punished agreeably to the laws of the state or territory, where the offence may have been committed; and in like manner, if any robbery, violence or murder shall be committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to either of said nations, the person or persons so offending shall be tried, and if found guilty, shall be punished in like manner as if the injury had been done to a white man. And it is agreed that the chiefs of the Great and Little Osage, shall to the utmost of their power exert themselves to recover horses or other property which may be stolen from any citizen or citizens of the United States, by any individual or individuals of either of their nations; and the property so recovered shall be forthwith delivered to the superintendent or other person authorised to receive it, that it may be restored to the proper owner; and in cases where the exertions of the chiefs shall be ineffectual in recovering the property stolen as aforesaid, if sufficient proof can be adduced that such property was actually stolen by any Indian or Indians belonging to the said nations, or either of them, the superintendent, or other proper officer, may deduct from the annuity of the said nations respectively a sum equal to the value of the property which has been stolen. And the United States hereby guarantee to any Indian or Indians of the said nations respectively, a full indemnification for any horses or other property which may be stolen from them by any of their citizens: Provided, That the property so stolen cannot be recovered, and that sufficient proof is produced that it was actually stolen by a citizen of the United States. And the said nations of the Great and Little Osage engage, on the requisition or demand of the President of the United States, or of the superintendent, to deliver up any white man resident among them.
ART. 11. And if any person or persons, for hunting or other purpose, shall pass over the boundary lines, as established by this treaty, into the
Injuries, how to be prevented and punished.
ART. 10. The United States receive the Great and Little Osage Osages renations into their friendship and under their protection; and the said ceived into the nations, on their part, declare that they will consider themselves under protection of the U.S. the protection of no other power whatsoever; disclaiming all right to cede, sell or in any manner transfer their lands to any foreign power, or to citizens of the United States or inhabitants of Louisiana, unless duly authorised by the President of the United States to make the said purchase or accept the said cession on behalf of the government.
the Indian hunting grounds.