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(at first on Fridays), is printed in a different form, and separately £ In 1904 a “Financial and Commercial Supplement" (at t on Mondays, and later on Fridays) was added; in 1905 an “Engineering Supplement” (Wednesdays), and in 1910 a “Woman's Su £ e publishing department of The Times also invaded several new fields of enterprise. The Times Atlas was first published in 1895, and this publication was supplemented by that of The Times (previously Longmans') Gazetteer. A much larger amd more imant venture was the issue, in 1898 of a reprint of the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica at less than half the original price, on a new system of terms (known as The Times system) that enabled the purchaser to receive the whole work at once and to pay for it by a series of equal monthly payments. This was followed by a similar sale of the Century Dictionary and of a reprint of the first fifty years of Punch ; and eleven new volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, supplementing the ninth edition, and forming with it the tenth edition, were issued by The Times in 1902 on similar terms (see ENCYclopaediA). In #' The Times, through its Vienna correspondent, purchased from Dr Moritz Busch the MS. and entire copyright of his journals, containing a very minute record of his intimate relations with Bismarck. It was stipulated in the contract that these were not to be published until after the death of the prince. That event occurred on the 30th July 1898, and on the 12th September of the same year The Times published through Messrs Macmillan (in 3 vols.) Bismarck: Some Secret Pages of his History, by Dr. Moritz Busch. The Times History of the War in South Africa arose out of a desire to preserve in a more readable form the excellent work done by the numerous Times correspondents in South Africa. When originally £ in the early days of 1 it was hoped that the war would of short duration, and that the history of it could be rapidly completed. The length of the war naturally upset all these calculations, and eventually, the sixth and last volume was only issued in 1909. For a long period after the establishment of The Times, no effort to found a new daily London # newspaper was ever conspicuously successful. Among unfruitful attempts were--(1) the New Times, started by Dr (afterwards Sir John) Stoddart, upon his departure from Printing-House Square; (2) the Representative (1824), established by John Murray, under circumstances which seemed at the outset exceptionally promising; (3) the Constitutional, begun in 1836 and carried on for eight months by a joint-stock company, exceptionally favoured in having for editor and subeditor Laman Blanchard and Thornton Hunt, with a staff of contributors which included Thackeray, Douglas Jerrold and Bulwer; (4) the Morning Star, founded in 1856, and kept afloat until 1870, when it was merged in the Daily. News; (5) in 1867, the Day, for six weeks only; (6) in 1873 the Hour, for three years; (7) in 1878, the Daily Express, which soon failed. A measure of greater success followed the establishment (1794) of the Morning Advertiser, under special circumstances. It was the joint-stock venture of a large society of licensed victuallers,

- - - - - : amongst whom subscription to the paper was the condivertiser.” tion of membership. For nearly sixty years its circulation

lay almost entirely in public-houses and coffee-houses, but amongst them it sold nearly 5000 copies daily, and it yielded a steady profit of about £6000 a year. Then, by the ability and enterprise of an experienced editor, £ Grant (1802-1879), it was within four years raised to a circulation of nearly 8ooo, and to an aggregate profit of £12,000 a year. In 1891 its price was reduced from threepence to a penn

The history 'the Daily # founded in 1846, has been told by

Mr Justin # '' £ ohn R. £ £ of ** “ political and social retrospect" publis in 1806 on £. the occasion of its jubilee. It could boast of havin

s. continuously been the champion of Liberal ideas and principles—of what (so long as Mr Gladstone lived) might be called

official Liberalism at home and of liberty abroad. It became a penny paper in 1868. Its only rival in the history of Liberal journalism in London for many years was the Morning Star, which in 187o

it absorbed. Notably, it led British public opinion in foreign affairs as champion of the North in the American Civil War, of the cause of Italy, of the emancipation of Bulgaria from the Turk and of Armenia. Its early editors were Charles Dickens (21st JanuaryMarch 1846), John Forster (March—October 1846), E. E. Crowe (1847–1851), F. K. Hunt (1851–1854), W. Weir (1854–1858), T. Wałkcr (1858-1869). In 1868 the price was reduced to a penny, and it came under the management of Mr (afterwards Sir) John R. Robinson (1828–1903), who #' retired in 1901. Its later editors included (1868–1886) Mr F. H. Hill (the brilliant author of Political Portraits), and subsequently Sir John Robinson, as managing editor, in conjunction with Mr P. W. Clayden (1827-1902), the author of Life of Samuel Rogers, England under the Coalition and other able works, as political and literary editor, down to 1896, and Mr E.T. Cook from 1896 to 1901. Mr Cook, during the negotiations with the Boer government in 1899, strongly supported Sir Alfred Milner; and under him the Daily News, as an exponent of Lord Rosebery's Liberal Imperialism, gave no countenance to the pro-Boer views of some of the more active members of the Liberal party. In 1901, however, the proprietary changed, and Mr George

Cadbury became chief owner of the paper, Mr. E. T. Cook, who had shown brilliant ability as a publicist, but whose views on the Boer War were not shared by the new proprietor, retired, subsequently joining the staff of the Daily Chronicle; the journal then became an organ of the anti-imperialist section of the Liberal party. Mr A. G. Gardiner became editor in 1902; and in 1904 considerable changes were made in the style of the paper, which was reduced in price to a halfpenny... The influence of Mr Cadbury, and of the group of Quaker families-largely associated with the manufacture of cocoa-who followed his example in promoting the publication of Liberal and Free Trade newspapers, led in later years to somewhat violent attacks from political opponents on the so-called “Cocoa Press,” with the Daily News at its head. The first number of the Daily £ was published on 29th

# *# As a twopenny newspaper. Its proprietor was Colonel leigh. This gentleman soon foun

himself in pecuniary

straits, and in satisfaction of the debt for the printing :* of the £ r it was transferred to Mr Joseph Moses Levy c h.” in the following September. On 17th September Mr Levy graph.

published it as a four-paged penny journal, the first penny newspaper produced in London. His son, afterwards Sir £ : (b. 1833), who was created Baron Burnham in 1904, immediately entered the office, and after a short time became editor, a post which he only abandoned in 1885, when he became managi proprictor and sole director. From the outset Mr Levy gather round him a staff of high literary skill and reputation. Among the first were Thornton Hunt, Geoffrey Prowse, George Hooper and Sir Edwin Arnold. E. L. Blanchard was among the earliest of the dramatic critics, and Alexander Harper the City editor. Later there came George Augustus Sala (q.v.), then one of Charles Dickens's 'oung men; Clement Scott (£ at one time a clerk in the ar Office; and Edward Dicey (b. 1832), then fresh from Cambridge. The Hon. Frank £ to journalism from official life; and among the most remarkable of the early contributors to the paper was J. P. Benjamin, the at Anglo-American lawyer. 1" D. Traili was a leader-writer for well-nigh, a quarter of a century. : M. Le Sage (b. 1837), for many years the managing editor, began is connexion with the paper under Mr. Levy. Others prominently associated with the paper have been W. Courtney (b. 1850), a distinguished man of letters who, after several years of work as tutor at New College, Oxford, joined the staff in #. and in 1894 also became editor of the Fortnightly Review; E. B. Iwan-Müller (d. 1910) and J. L. Garvin (from 1899), afterwards (1904) editor of the Observer. After 1890 Mr H. W. L. Lawson, Lord Burnham's eldest son and heir, assisted his father in the general control of the paper. The Daily Telegraph '' be said to have led the way in London journalism in capturing a large and important reading public from the monopoly of The Times. It became the great organ of the middle classes, and was distinguished for its enterprise in many fields. In June # the Telegraph despatched George Smith to carry out a series of archaeological researches in Ninevch, which resulted in the discovery of the missing fragments of the cuneiform account of the Deluge, and many other inscriptions. ..In co-operation with the New York Herald it equipped H. M. Stanley's second great expedition to Central Africa (1875–1877). Another geographical feat with which the name of the Daily Telegraph is associated was the exploration of Kilimanjaro (1884-1885) by Mr (afterwards Sir) Harry Johnston, whose account of his work appeared in the Daily Telegraph during 1885. And Mr Lionel Declé's march from the Cape to Cairo, in 1899 and 1900, was also undertaken under the auspices of the paper. The Telegraph raised many large funds for public purposes. Almost the first was the subscription for the relief of the sufferers by the cotton, famine in Lancashire, in the winter of 1862-1863; the fund in aid of the starving and impoverished ple of Paris at the close of the siege in 1871; the prince of Wales's Hospital Fund in commemoration of the Jubilee of 1897; and the Shilling Fund for the soldiers' widows and orphans in connexion with the Boer War. An undertaking of a more festive kind was the fête given to 30,000 London school children in Hyde Park on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887. in politics, the Daily, Telegraph was consistently Liberal up to 1878, when it opposed Mr Gladstone's foreign policy as explained in his Midlothian speeches. After 1886 it represented Unionist opinions. Among special feats of which it can st was the first news brought to # of the conclusion of peace after the FrancoGerman War. Prior to 1874 the Daily Telegraph was printed by eight- and tenfeeder machines, through which every sheet had to be passed twice to complete the impression. Under these conditions it was necessary to start printing one side of the paper as early as ten or eleven o'clock. The handicap which this im on the satisfactory production of a newspaper was removed by the introduction of Hoe's web machines at the end of 1874. No further change took place until 1891, when they were superseded by others built by the same makers capable of rinting a 12-page paper at the rate of about 24,ooo an hour. cut. olded, delivered and counted in quires. In 1896 they were modified so as to be suitable for turning out an 8-, io-, 1.2-, 14- or 16-page £ Up to 1894 the setting of ' had been done entirely by and, but in that *: the linotype, after an experimental trial, was introduced on a large scale.

The Standard was established as an evening paper in the Tory interest (as the express organ of the opponents of the measure for the removing Roman Catholic disabihties) in 1827, its first s"dard editor being Stanley, Lees, Giffard, father of the first earl of Halsbury, who had Alaric Watts and Dr William Maginn, famous as one of the originators of Fraser's Magazine, as his chief helpers. In the course of two or three years it me a pecuniary, as it had from the first been a political, success, and W', ousted the Courier, which was for a time conducted by William Mudford, whose son half a century later became the most distinguished editor of the Standard. In course of time the latter became the property of Mr Charles Baldwin, whose father was roprietor of the Morning Herald, and when the father died the son ound himself in possession of both a morning and an evening journal. In his hands neither of them prospered, although the Standard retained a large circulation and constantly printed early and accurate political information. At length, midway in the 'fifties, both papers were purchased by Mr James Johnstone, Mr John Maxwell, the publisher, being for a time associated with him in the ownership. Mr Johnstone realized that he had before him a great opportunity, and at once set to work to grasp it. He brought out the Standard as a morning paper (29th June 1857), increased its size from four to eight pages, and reduced the price from fourpence to twopence. One of the most curious features of the early numbers was a novel by William Howard Russell. The evening edition was continued. In February 1858 Mr Johnstone again reduced the price, this time to a penny. When that step was taken the Standard announced that its politics were “enlightened amelioration and progress,” but that it was "bound to no party"; and to those independent lines it in the main adhered. In the course of four or five years it became a financial success, and then began to attract to itself many brilliant ns, one of its contributors in the 'sixties, Lord Robert Cecil, £ destined to become illustrious as marquess of Salisbury. Lord Robert was an occasional leader-writer, whose contributions were confined almost entirely to political subjects. It was at this time that the Standard laid the foundation of the great reputation for carly and detailed foreign news which it has ever since enjoycd. During the American Civil War it obtained the services of a representative signing himself “Manhattan,” whose vivid and forcible letters from the battlefield arrested attention from the beginning. As the campaign progressed, these full, picturesque and accurate accounts of the most terrible struggle of modern times were looked for with eager interest. There were no “special cables" to discount the poignant curiosity of the reader, and the paper reached a circulation far beyond anything hitherto known. he distinction thus £ was maintained £ the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866, and greatly increased by the letters and telegrams describing the triumphs and disasters of the campaign of 187o. In the early 'sixties the staff had been reinforced by the engagement of Mr William Heseltine Mudford. In the midst of his work as a parliamentary reporter, he was sent as special correspondent to Jamaica in 1865 to report upon the troubles which involved the recall of Governor Eyre; a further period in the gallery of the House of Commons followed, and in 1873 Mr Mudford became business manager. Mr Johnstone's first editor was Captain Hamber, who afterwards seceded to the short-lived Hour, with whom had been associated Mr David. Morier Evans as manager. He was succeeded by the owner's eldest son, to whom Mr (afterwards Sir) John Gorst was joined in a consultative capacity. In 1876 Mr.Mudford became editor, still, however, retaining managerial control. Mr Johnstone, the £ rietor to whose energy and perspicacity the paper owed so much, died in 1878, and under his will Mr Mudford was appointed editor and manager for life, or until resignation. property, the Standard in Mr Mudford's hands entered upon a very £ period. He had for his first assistant-editor Mr Gilbert Venables, who was succeeded after a short term by Mr George Byron Curtis, previously one of the leader-writers, who thus held the ition through nearly the whole of Mr Mudford's long editorship. he staff at this time comprised many men, and some women, whose names are distinguished in letters as well as in journalism. Mr Alfred Austin, Mr T. H. S. Escott, Miss Frances Power Cobbe and Professor Palmer were all writing for the paper at the same time. To them must be added, among others, Mr E. D. J. Wilson, the brilliant political leader-writer (afterwards of The Times), Mr Percy Greg, son of “Cassandra” Greg, Mr T. E. Kebbel and Dr Robert Brown, who wrote £ upon scientific and miscellaneous subjects. Foremost among the war correspondents were Mr G. A. Henty, who represented the paper on many a stricken field; Mr John A. Cameron, who was killed at Abu Klca; and Mr William Maxwell. In January 190o Mr Mudford retired, and was succeeded in the editorship by Mr G. Byron Curtis (d. 1907), Mr S. H. Jeyes, whose connexion with the paper had begun in 1891, becoming assistant-editor. In November 1904 the Standard, which had at that time taken rather a strong line in deprecating the tariff reform movement within the Unionist party, was sold to Mr C. Arthur Pearson £ of the Daily Express, see below), who was chairman of the Tariff Reform League, and considerable changes were made in the paper, Mr H. A. Gwynne becoming editor. In 191o Mr Pearson, owing to ill-health, transferred his interests in the proprietary company he had formed in 1904 to Mr Davison Dalziel.

Already a great.

The Daily Chronicle arose, as already mentioned, out of the local Clerkenwell News, the latter paper having been purchased by Mr Edward Lloyd in 1877, and converted into “an Imperial Dal morning paper", on independent Liberal lines... Under £e. the editorship of Mr R. Whelan Boyle the Daily Chronicle * soon took rank among the other £ daily journals, the only traces of its original character being shown in the attention paid to metropolitan affairs and the appearance of numerous small advertisements. The independent tone of the journal was conspicuous in its treatment of the Home Rule question. At first deprecating the system of combined agitation and outrage with which the term was synonymous, the Daily Chronicle, under the editorship of Mr A. E. £ £: ceased to be a Unionist journal, and supported Mr Gladstone's Bill of 1893. Another instance was £ in the course of the Boer War. During the negotiations and the early stages of the campaign, the Daily Chronicle, which was then edited £ H. W. Massingham (b. 1860), strove for peace by supporting the Boer side against the diplomacy of Mr Chamberlain. Mr Massingham's policy was, however, not to the liking of the proprietors, and he retired from the editorship towards the end of 1899, Mr W. J. Fisher succeeding him as editor. In 1904 Mr Robert Donald became editor, and the price was reduced to a halfpenny. Mr Massingham during his editorship, ably seconded by Mr (afterwards Sir) # Norman (b. 1858), had largely incr the interest of the paper, particularly on its literary side. A new impetus had becn given in this direction in 1891, when a “literary page" was started, conducted at first by Mr J. A. Manson, and after 1892 by Mr Massingham, when he became assistant-cditor under Mr Fletcher. The Chronicle had taken a leading part in many public movements since # It was ‘' in its advocacy of the cause of the men in the London dock strike of 1889; and in the great minin dispute for a "living wage," which was brought to a close by Lor Rosebery in November 1893, raised over £ for the relics committees. Much attention was given to the theosophical discussion of 1891 and to the exposure of the adventurer" Rougemont" after he had appeared before the British Association at Bristol in # The Chronicle took an active part in the negotiations which led to the Venezuelan Arbitration Treaty of 1897; it energetically pleaded the cause of the Armenians and Cretans during the massacres of 1896, and it encouraged the Greeks in the war with Turkey in '' Its forcign policy was, however, more distinguished by goodwill than by discretion—and notably in the latter instance. The Chronicle also worked strenuously for the Progressive cause in London in regard to the County Council, Borough Councils and the School Board. Its new successes included the first announcement of the revolution in eastern Rumelia (1885); the first circumstantial account of the death of Prince Rudolph (1889); Nansen's own narrative of his expedition towards the North Pole: Sir Martin Conway's journey across Spitzbergen in 1896; and the first ascent of Aconcagua in 1897. In 1890 the illustrated morning daily paper, the Daily Graphic, was founded by W. L. Thomas (1830–1991) as an offshoot Daily from the £y illustrated Graphic, and soon came into Graphic. favour. - In 1906 a new Liberal morning daily was started by Mr Franklin Thomason in the shape of the Tribune, edited # Mr W. Hill, who retired after a few months, with Mr L. T. Hobhouse as tribune. political editor. . Later Mr Pryor became , managing , ..." editor, but at the beginning of 1908, after heavy losses, the publication was stopped. Two morning papers, at the popular price of halfpenny, appeared in the spring of i892, the Morning and the Morning Leader. They

raced for priority of publication, the former winning by AMorning a day. The Morning Leader, under the same manage "...: ment as the (evening) Star, continued to flourish, but the

Morning had but a brief career. The halfpenny Daily Mail was originated by Mr Alfred Charles H' (b. 1865), who was su # created a baronet (1904) and in 1905 a pecras Baron Northcliffe; it appeared in 1896, on the same day as Sir G. Newnes's penny Courier : (which only lasted a few weeks). In the evolution of English journalism the foundation of the Daily Mail carried still farther the work begun by the Daily Telegraph in carlier days. It was the first halfpenny morning newspaper to place at the disposal of its readers a news service competing with that of any of the higher-priced newspapers, and soon took an increasingly important place in the Press. At the opening of the 20th century, it claimed a regular circulation of about a million copies daily (and had occasionally sold as many as 1,500,ooo copies of a single issue), and it was produced simultaneously in London and Manchester, the whole of the contents being telegraphed nightly. In May 1904 it began publishing a continental edition in Paris. The sensational success of the Daily Mail, which first made Lord Northcliffe one of the dominant personalities in English journalism, was due, not to individual writers, but to a consistent policy of catering for a modern public and serving them with lively news and articles, and constant change of interest. lts large circulation, and resulting advertising revenue. ave it an influence which in politics was used on the Unionist side: £ the readers of the Daily Mail went to it, not for politics, but for news, brightly and briefly displayed. Its triumph represented the success of a business organization, in which individual views on affairs played a comparatively minor part. The halfpenny Daily # founded by Mr Cyril Arthur Pearson (b. 1866) on the lines of the Daily Mail, #: appeared in 1900, and soon won a large clientèle. With R. D. Blumenfeld as Dalò editor (from 1904) it worked strenuously for Tariff Reform. Express. The Daily Mirror, started by Mr Harmsworth as awomen's penny daily in 1904, failed to attract in its original form and was quickly changed into a halfpenny general daily, relying as a novelty on the presentation of news by photographic Af pictures of current events. is new feature soon ob- tained for it a large circulation under the enterprising management of Mr Kennedy Jones (b. 1865), who was already known for his successful conduct of the Evening News and his share in the business of the Daily Mail. The Globe (founded Jan. 1st, 1803), the oldest of existing London

evening papers, owed its origin to the desire of the booksellers or Głobe. publishers of the day for an advertising medium, at a

moment when the Morning Post gave them the cold shoulder. . A syndicate of publishers started a morning, paper,

the British Press (which had only a short career), to combat the Post, and the Globe as a rival to £e Courier (see above), which, like Post, was under Daniel Stuart's control. George Lane, previously Stuart's chief assistant, was the editor. From 1815 a prominent member of the staff was Mr (afterwards vice-chancellor Sir James) Bacon. After swallowing up some other journals, in 1823 it absorbed the property and title of the Traveller, controlled by Colonel Torrens, who in the reorganization became principal proprietor and brought over Walter Coulson as the editor. John Wilson succeeded as editor in 1834, '#' by Mr Moran; Thomas Love Peacock and H. Barham (“Ingoldsby ”) being famous contributors during his £ For some time the Globe was the principal Whi organ, and Mr (afterwards Deputy Judge Advocate Sir James O'Dowd its political inspirer. Mahony (“Father Prout") was its Paris correspondent. In 1842 the Courier was incor ted, but a ual decline in the fortunes of the paper, and Colonel Torrens's th in 1864, brought about a reorganization in 1866, when a small Conservative syndicate, including Sir Stafford Northcote, bought it and converted the Globe into a Conservative organ. In 1868 the pink colour since, associated with the paper was started., In, 1869 its price (originally sixpence) was lowered to a penny. Mr W. T. Madge (b. 1845), whose vigorous man nt was afterwards so valuable, and who in 1881 started with Captain Armstrong the People, a popular Sunday journal for the masses, joincd the paper in 1866; and after brief periods of editorship by Mcssrs Westcomb, R. H. Patterson, H. N. Barnett and Marwood Tucker (1868), in 1871 Captain George C. H. Armstrong £ who in 1892 was created a baronet, was put in control; he edited the paper for some rs, and then it became his property. The editorial chair was £ in succession by Mr Ponsonby Ogle, Mr Algernon Locker #} and the proprietor's son and heir Lieut. G. E. Armstrong, R.N. (1895), until in June 1907, after Sir G. Armstrong's death, the naper was sold to Mr Hildebrand Harmsworth. The Globe “Turnovers" (miscellaneous articles, turning over from the first to the second page) began in 1871, and became famous for variety and humour. The jocular “By the Way" column, another characteristic feature, was started in 1881, and owed much to Mr Kay. Robinson and Mr C. L. Graves. In the history of the Globe one of the bestknown incidents is its publication of the Salisbury-Schuvaloff treaty of 1878. It was the first London daily to use the linotype composing-machine (1892). - - - A new period of evening journalism, characteristic of the later 19th century, opened with the founding of the Pall Mall Gazette. Pall Mall £ number (at twopence) was issued on 7th February £ 1865 from £buy st: Strand. M. George Smith, of the publishing firm of Smith and Elder, was its first ietor; Mr Frederick Greenwood (q.v.), its first editor, took the Anti-Jacobin for his model; the paper was intended to realize Thackeray's picture (in Pendennis) of one “written by gentlemen for gentlemen.” Its political attitude was to be independent, and much space was to be given to literature and non-political matter. It had brilliant supporters, such as Sir J. Fitzjames Stephen as writer of leading articles (replaced to a certain extent, after 1869, by Sir Henry Maine), R. H. Hutton, Matthew, James Higgins (' £ Omnium"), James Hannay, and George Henry Lewes, with e Eliot, Anthony Trollope, Charles Reade, and Thomas Hughes as occasional contributors; but £ failed to attract the general public until, in the following year, Mr Greenwood's brother, James, furnish it with three articles on “A Night in a Workhouse: by an Amateur Casual.” A morning edition had already been tried and dropped, and so was a distinct morning paper attempted in 187o. . In 1867 new premises were taken in Northumberland Street, Strand. . Three years later the Pall Mall Gazette was the first to announce the surrender of Napoleon III. at Sedan. Matthew Arnold contributed his famous “Arminius” letters (“Friendship's Garland") in 1871, and Richard Jefferies contributed “The Gamekeeper at Home” in 1876 and onwards. Mr Greenwood made the paper £ Conservative and strongly adherent to Lord Beaconsfield's foreign policy. In 1880, however, Mr Smith handed over the Pall Mall

Gazette to his son-in-law, Mr Henry Yates Thompson, who turned x LX IQ

it into a Liberal journal. Mr Greenwood then retired from the editorship and shortly afterwards started the St James's Gazette ; Mr John (afterwards Viscount) Morley became editor of the Pall Mall, with Mr W. T. Stead (b. 1849) as assistant-editor. The price was reduced in 1882 to one penny. Many of the old contributors remained, and they were reinforced % obert Louis Stevenson, who wrote some “Letters from Davos,” Professor Tyndall, Professor Freeman, James Payn and Mrs Humphry Ward. When Mr. Morle exchanged journalism for politics in 1883, he was succeeded by Mr W. T. Stead (q.v.), with Mr Alfred Milner, afterwards Lord Milner, as his assistant. Adopting an adventurous policy, Mr Stead imrted the “interview" from America, and a report of General rdon's opinion was believed to have been the cause of his ill-fated mission to Khartum. A series of articles called “The Truth about the Navy" (1884) had considerable influence in causing the Admiralty to lay down more ships next year. But Mr Stead's career as the editor came to an end in 1889, in consequence of his publishin a series of articles called “The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon, urporting to further the Criminal Law Amendment Bill. Mr £ had made a feature of reprints called “extras"; and, edited by Mr Charles Morley, the Pall Mall Budget became an illustrated weekly. Mr Stead was replaced in 1889 by E. T. Cook, who had become assistant-editor in succession to Milner. The Pall Mall Gazette was now steadily Liberal and a strong advocate of Irish Home Rule. On its staff were Edmund Garrett (a gifted writer who became editor of the Cape Times in South Africa, and died prematurely in #!. F.C. Gould the caricaturist, and '. Alfred Spender (b. 1862)... Mr Cook resigned in 1892, on the sale of the paper to Mr William Waldorf Astor, the American millionaire, who turned it again into a Conservative organ, and also changed its shape, abandon# the old small pages for a larger sheet; and he and '. assistant Mr Spender continued the Liberalism of the Pall Mall in the Westminster (see below). Mr Henry Cust, M.P., was appointed editor, with Mr E. B. Iwan-Müller as assistant-editor. 'Mr Cust (b. 1861), who was Lord Brownlow's heir, and came fresh to editorship with enthusiasms acquired from his experiences in parliament and in society, made the columns of the Pall Mall very lively for the next couple of years. It became well known for its “booms,” and its "smartness” generally. Some, papers contributed to it. by Sir Charles Dilke and Mr Spenser Wilkinson resulted in the establishment of the Navy League in 1894. The £ had, too, the first news of Mr Gladstone's resignation and the appointment of Lord Rosebery to succeed him. But though the Pall Mall under Mr Cust had outshone all its competitors, its independence of those business considerations which ultimately appeal to most proprietors hardly represented a durable state of affairs; and eventually the relations between proprietor and editor became strained. In February 1 Mr Cust and Mr Iwan-Müller were succeeded respectively by Sir Douglas Straight and Mr Lloyd Sanders, the latter of whom retired in 1902. Sir Douglas Straight (b. 1844) had been in early days a well-known London barrister, and from # to 1892 was a judge in India. Sir Douglas Straight remained editor till the end of 1908, when he was succeeded by Mr Higginbottom. Founded in 188o by Mr H. Hucks Gibbs (afterwards Lord Aldenham), for Mr Frederick Greenwood to edit when he had left the Pall Mall, the St James's Gazette, represented the more

intellectual and literary side of Tory journalism in op- Thes: position to the new Liberalism of M' former #::

an; it was in fact meant to carry on the idea of the original Pall Mall as Mr Greenwood had conceived it, and was (like it) more of a daily review than a chronicle of news. In 1888 the paper having then been sold to Mr E. Steinkopff, Mr Greenwood retired and was succeeded as editor £ by Mr Sidney Low, subsequently author of The Governance of England and other able works, who had as his chief assistant-editors Mr S. H. Jeyes (till 1891),and Mr Hugh Chisholm (1892-1897),the latter suc ing him as editor (1897-1900). In those days mere news was not considered the important feature; or rather, original and sagacious views were identified with a sort of novelty such a paper could best promulgate. The St James's was for many years conspicuous for its literary character, and for the number d distinguished literary men who wrote for it, some of whom first became known to the public by means of its columns. Its interest in newspaper history is really that of a paper which appealed to and influenced a comparatively small circle of cultured readers, a “superior” function more and more difficult to reconcile with business considerations. It was one of the earliest supporters of the Imperialist movement, and between 1895 and 1899 was the chief advocate in the Press of resistance to the foreign bounties on sugar which were ruining the West Indies, thus giving an early impetus to the movement for Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference. During the years immediately following 1892, when the Pall Mall Gazette again became Conservative, the competition between Conservative evening papers became acute, because the Globe and Evening Standard were also

ny Conservative journals: and it was increasingly difficult to carry on the St James's on its old lines so as to secure a profit to the proprietor; by degrees modifications were made in the general character of the paper, with a view to its containing more news and less purely literary matter. But it retained its original shape; with sixteen '' 1897, twenty) small pages, a form which the

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When the Pall Mall Gazette was sold to Mr Astor in 1892 and converted into a Conservative organ, Mr E. T. Cook, the editor, and most of his staff, resigned, and in 1893 they came together The West- again on the Westminster Gazette, newly started for the * purpose by Sir G. Newnes (who had made a fortune out Gazette of £ and other popular papers) as a penny Liberal evening paper. It was printed on green paper, but the novelty of this soon wore off. The paper was conducted on the lines of the old Pall Mall, and it had the advantage of a brilliant political cartoonist in F. Carruthers Gould. In 1895 Mr Cook was appornted editor of the Daily News, and his place was '. filled by Mr.J.Alfred Spender, who had been his assistant-editor, Mr Gould (who was knighted in 1906) being his chief assistant. Apart from Sir F.C. Gould's cartoons, the Westminster became conspicuous in London evening journalism for its high standard of judicious political and literary criticism. It gradually became the chief organ of Liberal thought in London. One of its early literary successes was the original publication of Mr Anthony Hope's Dolly Dialogues, and it continued to maintain, more than any other evening paper, the older literary and political tradition of the “gentlemanly journalism" out of which it had sprung. . In 1908 a change of proprietorship took place, the paper being sold by Sir G. Newnes (d. 1910) to Mr (afterwards Sir) Alfred Mond, but without affecting the personnel or policy of the paper. The first modern English evening newspaper to be issued at a halfpenny was the London Evening News-afterwards known as the Day. his/ It was started in 1855, but soon failed to meet expenses "penny and disa peared from the scene. In 1868 appeared the Evenias London £ published by Henry Cassell. It had for its *** first editor, until 1875, Mr (afterwards Sir) Arthur Arnold (1833-1902), afterwards M.P. for Salford (1880-1886) and chairman of the London County Council (1895-1896), who was well known both as a writer and traveller and as founder of the Free Land League (1885). Baron Albert Grant (1830-1899), the pioneer of modern mammoth company-promoting, afterwards took the Echo in hand and wasted a fortune over it; and eventually it was owned for some years by Mr Passmore Edwards, coming to an end in £ The Evening News was begun at a halfpenny in 1881 as a Liberal organ, but was shortly afterwards bought by a Conservative syndicate. It saw stormy times, and at the end of thirteen years it had absorbed £298,000 and was heavily in debt. Its shares could then be purchased for threepence or fourpence each. In August 1894 it was purchased by Messrs Harmsworth for £25,000, and under Mr Kennedy Jones's management developed into a highly successful property. On 17th January 1888 the first number of the Star appeared, under the editorship of Mr T. P. O'Connor (b. 1848), as a halfpenny evening newspaper in support of Mr. Gladstone's policy. When Mr O'Connor left the per, Mr H. W. Massingham became its editor, and subsequently Mr rnest Parke. In 1909 the Star was acquired by a new proprietorship in which Messrs Cadbury and the Daily News had an important share. From the first it was conspicuous for its advanced attitude in politics, and also for excellent literary criticism. In 1893 Mr T. P. $8' founded the Sun, which eventually passed into the hands of a succession # P: and came to ani: in '. l f As regards the purely sporting press in London, Sporting Life, started £ £: a daily in 1883, and in 1886

Sporting incorporated the old Bell's Life... The "#: and the leading paper, was founded in 1865. e financial £" daily press is a modern creation and has taken many

shapes; the Financier was the first regular daily, but in 1884 the Financial News, under Mr H. H. Marks, made its appear

.* Albert Grant, who took that name though his father's was Gottheimer, was given the title of baron by King Victor Emmanuel of Italy in 1868 for his services in connexion with the Milan picture gallery. He made a large fortune by company-promoting, and in 1865 became M.P. for Kidderminster. He became a prominent public character in London. In '' he built Kensington House, a vast mansion close to Kensington Palace, which in 1883 was demolished and the site scized by his creditors. In 1874 he bought up Leicester Square, converted it into a public garden, and presented it to the Metropolitan Board of Works. But soon afterwards he failed, and from 1876 to his death he constantly figured in the law-courts at the suit of his creditors.

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the class of readers to which it more especially addresses *

itself. From the days of Daniel Defoe there have always */ n newspapers bearing the unmistakable impress of an *

individual and powerful mind. Cobbett's # Register . "

affords perhaps as striking an illustration of journalism in its greatness and in its meanness, as could be found throughout its entire annals. And Cobbett's £ has had many successors, some of which, profiting by the marvellous mechanical appliances of the present day, have attained a far wider popular influence than was possessed by the Weekly Register in its most prosperous days. The history of the weekly reviews practically-begins with the Examiner, which was founded in 1808 and had a long career as one of the most prominent organs of the Liberals, ending in 1881. That its literary reputation was t resulted naturally from a succession of such editors as Leigh Hunt, Albany Fonblanque, John Forster and Henry Morley. This was succeeded in January 1817 by the foundation of the Literary Gazette, the proprietor of which was Henry Colburn and the first editor William Jerdan. Jerdan succeeded in inducing Crabbe and Campbell to contribute to it, and among those who assisted him were Bulwer Lytton, Barry Cornwall and Mrs Hemans. The Literary Gazette came to an end in 1862. At the end of 1820. Theodore Hook founded John Bull, which for a time had extraordinary popularity; to it he contributed the most brilliant of his jeux d'esprit. Epochs in the development of this form of literature were marked by £ of the Athenaeum by James Silk Buckingham in anuary 1828 and by that of the Spectator by Robert Stephen ter in the same year. The Spectator was edited for thirty years by Robert Rintoul. In 1858 the latter sold the paper to Mr Scott, who retired, however, from the editorship after a few months; and for a time the £ low water. In 1861 it passed into the hands of R. H. Hutton (q.v.) and Meredith Townsend, and under Saturday them became a successful exponent of moderate Liberalism Review and thoughtful criticism, particularly in the discussion of religious problems, such as were uppermost in the days of the Metaphysical iety. The high character and literary reputation of the Spectator were already established when, in 1897, it passed into the hands of Mr J. St Loe Strachey (b. 1860), but under him it became a more powerful organ, if only because it more than maintained its position while the other weekly papers declined. Unionist in politics since 1886, the Spectator after 1903 was the leading organ of FreeTrade Unionists who opposed tariff reform, until the progress of socialism and the extravagance of Mr Lloyd-George's budget in 1909 caused it to accept the full policy of the Unionist party in preference to the dangers of socialistic radicalism. No paper in London, it may well be said, has earned higher respect than the Spectator, or carried more weight in its criticisms, both on politics and on literature. This has not been on account of any special brilliance of the pyrotechnic order, but because of continuous sobriety and good sense and unimpeachable good faith. The Saturday Review, on the other hand, is important historically rather for the brilliance of its “palmy days.” First published on the 3rd of November 1855, it was founded by A. J. B. Beresford Hope (1820-1887), a brother-in-law of Lord Salisbury, M.P. for Maidstone and for Cambridge University, and a prominent churchman and art patron; with John Douglas Cook (1808-1868) as editor. Mr Hope was the son of James Hope (1770-1831), author of Anastatius; and it was reputed that Douglas Cook was “Anastatius ” Hope's natural son. For several years the Saturday maintained an exceptional position in London journalism. the political side it was at first Peelite, but the strong churchmanship of Mr Beresford Hope and antagonism to Mr Gladstone did much to bring it round to a pronounced Conservative view. Most, though not all, of its early staff had already worked under Mr Cook, when he was editor of the Morning Chronicle (from 1848 to 1854). In its literary comment it gave much space to articles of pure criticism and scholarship, and almost every writer of contemporary note on the Tory side contributed to its columns... But the matter which did most to give it its peculiar character was found in its outspoken or even sensational “middles”—“The Frisky Matron,” “The Girl of the Period." (by Mrs Lynn Linton), “The Birch in the Boudoir,” &c. The editorship remained in the hands of Mr Cook till his death in 1868. In 1861 a secession from the Saturday lasting till 1863, led to the temporary brilliance of the London Review £ started by Charles Mackay. Douglas Cook was succeeded by Philip Harwood (1809-1887), who had followed him from the Morning Chronicle and under whom Mr Andrew Lang became a contributor, with others of note. Mr Harwood retired in 1883, and was succeeded by his former assistant Mr Walter Herries Poitock, under whom the paper underwent some modifications in form to meet changes in the public taste; Mr G. Saintsbury and Mr H. D. Traill were then prominent members of the staff, and Mr Frederick Greenwood wrote for the paper till he started the Anti-Jacobin. In 1894 the Saturday Review

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was sold by the heirs of Mr Beresford Hope to Mr Lewis Edmunds, from whose hands it soon passed to Mr Frank Harris. In 1899 the per was sold to Lord Hardwicke and came under the editorship of # Harold Hodge, who remained in this position when, after Lord Hardwicke's death in 1905, it passed into the hands of Mr Gervase Becket. The Saturday Review and Spectator, as the exponents of brilliant Toryism and serious Liberalism, had the field practically to themselves for some years; but when in 1886 the Spectator followed the Liberal Unionists in opposing Home Rule for Ireland, and ceased to support Mr Gladstone, the result was the addition to London journalism of the Radical Speaker (1898); and in 1898 the threepenny Outlook (altered in price in 1905 to sixpence) was started, to present more particularly the growing interests of the Colonies, and the Empire, a side further developed in 1905 and 1906 under the editorship of Mr J. L. Garvin (b. 1868) in its advocacy of Mr Chamberlain's ' of a preferential tariff, when the Spectator became *# reeTrade. In December 1906 the Outlook was sold by its proprietor, Mr C. S. Goldman, to Lord Iveagh, and Mr Garvin resigned the editorship. In 1907 the Speaker was incorporated with the Nation, a new Radical weekly, edited by H. W. Massingham. Several ambitious new weeklies meanwhile started, and some passed away before the end of the century, such as the Realm, the British Review and the Review of the Week. The most brilliant of all these, which also lasted the longest, was the Scots (soon renamed the National Observer £). edited at first by W. E. Henley (q.v.), an subsequently by J. E. Vincent (d. 1909). Mr Henley, assisted by Mr Charles Whibley, collected a band of clever young writers, who formed almost a “school" of literary journalism, and man 0f whom won their spurs in literature by their contributions to this paper. The Pilot (') under Mr D. C. £ was another brilliant attempt, but it failed to pay its way and hardly lasted for three years. Among purely literary weeklies the Athenaeum found a rival in the Academy, founded in October 1869 by Dr Ag: and edited by him. Later, under the editorship £1. S. Cotton, it was famous for its signed reviews and scholarly character; but the small circle to whom pure literature appealed made financial success difficult. In 1896 the Academy was bought by Mr Morgan Richards, and for some years was edited by Mr Lewis Hind, amalgamating Literature (a weekly which had been started by The Times) in 1901; and subsequently under changed proprietors it was sucćessive !. edited by Mr Teignmouth Shore...and 1r Anderson. Graham. In April 1907 it was bought from Sir G. Newnes by Sir Edward Tennant, and ' y passed under, the control of Lord Alfred Douglas, who in 1919 parted with it to a new £ The publication of £y editions of the daily papers has not found the same favour in England as in the United States. In 1 Sund a Sunday Daily Mail and a Sunday Daily Telegrap : appeared simultaneously; but public opinion was so violent against seven-day journalism t withdrawn. The oldest of the Sunday papers, the Observer (1791), was conducted by one editor, Mr Doxat, for more than fifty years. It was one of the first papers to contain illustrations. In later years

Mr Edward Dicey was a notable editor. '' the Observer ssed into the hands of Lord Northcliffe, his first editor being Mr Austin Harrison, a son of Frederic Harrison... In 1907 Mr # L rvin

became editor, and under him the old influence of the Observer revived. Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper started as an unstamped illustrated journal at a penny in September 1842. In 1843 it was enlarged in size, and the price raised to threepence. Curiousingenuity was shown in advertising it by all sorts of expedients. Amongst others, all the pennies its proprietor could lay his hands on were embossed, by a #leverly constructed machine, with the title and price of the new £ The times drew attention to this defacement of the coin of the realm, and so gave it a better advertisement still. From a weekly sale of 33,000 in 1848 it rose to 170,000 in 1861, In antici; pation of the abolition of the paper duty, the price was then reduced to a penny, and its circulation continued to increase. In later years it had an able editor in Mr T. Catling. Reynolds's Weekly Newspa£er. an extreme Radical paper with a large circulation, dates from Ma 1850. Other Sunday papers came later into existence—the # 1881), the Sunday (afterwards Weekly) Sun (1891), the Sunday § cial #- with which in 1904 was amalgamated the Sund

!ay 'mes (is23). The Referee (1877), a paper with a strong sporting and theatrical interest, is famous for the humorous contributions by * Dagonet” (G. R. Sims) and the pungency of its miscellaneous articles. Öf the London illustrated weekly papers the oldest, the Illustrated London News, was founded in 1842; the Graphic in 1869; while the Pictorial World, which lasted for some years, began in 1874. Illustrated In 1891 Black and White was started; and in 1892 the * Sketch, edited by Mr Clement Shorter (also then editor of papers. the Illustrated #. News), introduced a lighter vein. Mr Shorter gave up the editorship of these two weeklies in 1901, and became editor of a new illustrated weekly, the Sphere, with the proprietorship of which came also to be associated the Tailer. Another new illustrated weekly of a high class, Country Life Illustrated, began in 1897. - - The "Societv" weeklies. Truth (1877), Vanity Fair (1868)-with

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a separate cartoon as a special feature, famous for the artistic work of Pellegrini, Leslie Ward and others—and the World ..

- - Society * ular journalism, and :

orld largely con

## rought a new “note" into re r Edmund Yates's success with the tributing to the increase of the personal style which he did so much to introduce; and Truth made its proprietor, the politician Mr Henry Labouchere, one of the most prominent men cf the day, not so much for its aggressive Radicalism as for its vigorous exposures of all sorts of public charlatanry. Among other weeklies, important ones are such ecclesiastical as the Guardian (1846), the Record (1828), the Church Times # # the Tablet (1840), Christian World (1857), Methodist Times 1885); the medical papers, the Lancet (1823) and British Medical - nal ; the financial papers, the Economist (1843) and Statist # and the great sporting and country-house paper, the Field 1853 Among humorous papers Punch c.' of which (i } Mr M. H. Spielmann published a History; Fun £ 4901), Mr Harry Furniss's Lika Joko (1894, only for a few months), Judy (1867), Moonshire (1879) isso" and Pick-me-up (1888), have also catered for popular * gaiety. The introduction of women into English journalism in any large degree was one of the new departures of the last quarter of the 19th century. It was indeed no new thing for women to write for the Press. Harriet Martineau was, in her day, one of the £ members of the Daily Newsstaff, and Miss Frances ower Cobbe (1822-1905)the advocate of anti-vivisectionism, was an active journalist: Miss Flora Shaw (Lady Lugard), as writer of colonial topics for The Times, or Mrs Crawford, as Paris correspondent of the Daily News, are other notable instances of the prominence of women's work in the same spheres with the ablest men. But such cases as these were exceptional, in which something in the nature of a personal mission and a peculiar aptitude gave the impulse. £ as a profession for women came, however, to be widely resorted to, partly through its obvious reeommendation in a day when women's education required an alternative outlet, for those who had to earn their living, to that of the teaching profession; partly, and pari passu, through the immense increase in women readers and the immensely increased publicity given in newsPapers to matters of primarily feminine interest. In 188o the onl ladies' paper" of any importance was the , a weekly '. dates from 1861. But subsequently a considerable number of new weeklies entered the field: £, the Lady's Pictorial (1880); the Lady (1885); Woman (1889); the Gentlewoman (1899), which owed its success to the vigorous management of Mr J. S. Wood; Madame (1895); and the Ladies' Field (1898), New monthlies also appeared, in the Englishwoman, the Ladies' Realm and the Woman at Home. The sphere of action of the lady journalist was soon # no means confined to the “ladies' papers,” or to the writin of columns on dress or cookery for such general journals as foun it useful to cultivate feminine readers; women invaded every other field of journalism, especially the large new field of “interviewing" and fashionable gossip. The increase in women-writers £y. novelists, dramatists, poets, reacted on their connexion £ journalism; the increased “respectability" of journalism made it easier for them to work side by side with men; and gradually nobody thought the introduction of women into this sphere anything out of the common; a lady journalist, in fact, was much less remarkable than a lady doctor." British Provincial Press. England and Wales.—Though the real £ of English provincial £ as a power co-ordinate with that of London, only dates from the abolition of the stamp duty in 1855, many country newspapers before that time had been marked by literary ability and originality of character. The history of the provincial press of England begins in 1690 with the weekly Worcester Postman (now Berrow's Worcester Journal). The Stamford Mercury (1695; earliest known 1712; long known as Lincoln, Rutland and Stamford Mercury);... Norwich Postman" (1706); Nottingham Courant (1710), afterwards renamed Journal; Newcastle Courant (1711); Liverpool Courant # shortlived); # Journal (1713); Salisbury Postman (1715); Bristol Felix Farley's Journal (1715; merged into the Bristol Times in 1735?); the Canterbury Kentish Post (1717; afterwards Kentish Gazette); Leeds Mercury (1717); Exeter Mercury, Protestant Mercury, and Postmaster or Loyal Mercury (all 1718 3. York Mercury (1718), and Manchester Weekly Journal (1719), came

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* The Norwich Postman, a small quarto of meagre contents, was published at a Benny, but its proprietor notified that "a halfpenny is not refused "! Within a few years Norwich also had its Courant (1712) and Weekly Mercury or Protestant's Packet (1720).

*Amalgamated with the Bristol Mirror (1773) in 1865 to form the Daily Bristol Times and Mirror.

* £ was then fiercely political. These three newspapers commented so freely on £ s in parliament that their editors were summoned to appear at bar (Journal of the House of Commors xix. 30, 43, 1718). The incident is curious as showing that each represented a rival MS. news-letter writer in London.

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