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Pall Mall abandoned in 1892. Gradually these changes took effect. , ance, and in 1888 the Financial Times; and these became the leading
In 1900 Mr Theodore Andrea Cook,, who had been assistant-editor papers of their class.
since 1898, became editor for a brief period, and subsequently. Mr The London weekly press (see also under Periodicals) has always
Ronald MacNeill (till 1903) acted in this capacity, with Mr W.D. worn a motley garb. Weekly publication facilitates the individuality
Ross as manager. Meanwhile the St James's Budget, which up to of a journal, both as respects its editorship and as respects

London 1893 had been a weekly edition of the Gazelle, was turned into an the class of readers to which it more especially addresses independent illustrated weekly, edited from the same office by itself. From the days of Daniel Defoe there have always

weekly Mr J. Penderel-Brodhurst (afterwards editor of the Guardian), who been newspapers bearing the unmistakable impress of an

news had been on the editorial staff since 1888; and it continued to be individual and powerful mind. Cobbett's Weekly Register papers. published till 1899. In 1903 the St James's was sold to Mr C. Arthur affords perhaps as striking an illustration of journalism in its greatPearson, who in 1905, having bought the morning Standard, amal ness and in its meanness as could be found throughout its gamated the St Jomes's with the Evening Standar

entire annals. And Cobbett's paper has had many successors, The Evening Standard had been founded in 1827 (see under the some of which, profiting by the marvellous mechanical appliBventos

Standard above), and when it was amalgamated with ances of the present day, have attained a far wider popular

the St James's Gazelle in 1905, the two titles covered a influence than was possessed by the Weekly Register in its most Standard.

new paper, in a new form, as the penny Evening Scondard prosperous days. and St James's Gaselte.

The history of the weekly reviews practically begins with the When the Pall Mall Gazette was sold to Mr Astor in 1892 and Examiner, which was founded in 1808 and had a long

career as one converted into a Conservative organ, Mr E.T. Cook, the editor, and of the most prominent organs of the Liberals, ending in 1881. That

most of his staff, resigned, and in 1893 they came together its literary reputation was great resulted naturally from a succession The West again on the Westminster Gazette

, newly started for the of such editors as Leigh Hunt, Albany Fonblanque, John Forster mloster

purpose by Sir G. Newnes (who had made a fortune out and Henry Morley: This was succeeded in January 1817 by the

of Til-bits and other popular papers) as a penny Liberal foundation of the Literary Gazette, the proprietor of which was Henry evening paper. It was printed on green paper, but the novelty of Colburn and the first editor William Jerdan. Jerdan succeeded in this soon wore off. The paper was conducted on the lines of the old inducing Crabbe and Campbell to contribute to it, and among those Pall Mall, and it had the advantage of a brilliant political cartoonist who assisted him were Bulwer Lytton, Barry Cornwall and Mrs in F. Carruthers Gould. In 1895 Mr Cook was appointed editor of Hemans. The Literary Gosette came to an end in 1862. At the end the Daily News, and his place was ably filled by Mr J. Alfred Spender, of 1820 Theodore Hook founded John Bull, which for a time had who had been his assistant-editor, Mr Gould (who was knighted in extraordinary popularity; to it he contributed the most brilliant 1906) being his chief assistant. Apart from Sir F.C. Gould's cartoons, of his jeux d'espril. the Westminster became conspicuous in London evening journalism Epochs in the development of this form of literature were marked for its high standard of judicious political and literary criticism. by the foundation of the Athenaeum by James Silk Buckingham in It gradually became the chief organ of Liberal thought in London, January 1828

and by that of the Spectator by Robert Stephen Rintoul One of its early literary successes was the original publication of later in the same year. Mr Anthony Hope's Dolly Dialogues, and it continued to maintain, The Spectator was edited for thirty years by Robert Rintoul. In more than any other evening paper, the older literary and political 1858 the latter sold the paper to Mr Scott, who retired, however, tradition of the “gentlemanly journalism " out of which it had from the editorship after a few months; and for a time the

Spectatos sprung. In 1908 a change of proprietorship took place, the paper Spectator was in low water. In 1861 it passed into the

hands and being sold by Sir G. Newnes (d. 1910) to Mr (afterwards Sir) Alfred Of R. H. Hutton (q.v.) and Meredith Townsend, and under Mond, but without affecting the personnel or policy of the paper.

Saturday them became a successful exponent of moderate Liberalism

Review The first modern English evening newspaper to be issued at a half- and thoughtful criticism, particularly in the discussion of penny was the London Evening News-afterwards known as the Dey. religious problems, such as were uppermost in the days of the Meta.

It was started in 1855, but soon failed to meet expenses physical Society; The high character and literary reputation of the Hallpeony and disappeared from the scene. In 1868 appeared the Spectator were already established when, in 1897, it passed into the Eveslag

London Echo, published by Henry Cassell. It had for its hands of Mr J. St Loe Strachey, (b. 1860), but under him it became Papers.

first editor, until 1875, Mr (afterwards Sir) Arthur Arnold a more powerful organ, is only because it more than maintained its (1833-1902), afterwards M.P. for Salford (1880-1886) and chairman position while the other weekly papers declined. Unionist in politics of the London County Council (1895-1896), who was well known since 1886, the Spectator after 1903 was the leading organ of Free Trade both as a writer and traveller and as founder of the Free Land League Unionists who opposed tarifi reform, until the progress of socialism (1885). Baron Albert Grant (1830-1899), the pioneer of modern and the extravagance of Mr Lloyd-George's budget in 1909 caused mammoth company-promoting, afterwards took the Echo in hand it to accept the full policy of the Unionist party in preference to the and wasted a fortune over it; and eventually it was owned for some dangers of socialistic radicalism. No paper in London, it may well years by Mr Passmore Edwards, coming to an end in 1905. The be said, has earned higher respect than the Spectator, or carried more Evening News was begun at a halfpenny in 1881 as a Liberal organ, weight in its criticisms, both on politics and on literature. This has but was shortly afterwards bought by a Conservative syndicate not been on account of any special brilliance of the pyrotechnic It saw stormny times, and at the end of thirteen years it had absorbed order, but because of continuous sobriety and good sense and £298,000 and was heavily in debt. Its shares could then be purchased unimpeachable good faith. for threepence or fourpence each. In August 1894 it was purchased The Salurday Review, on the other hand, is important historically by Messrs Harmsworth for £25.000, and under Mr Kennedy Jones's rather for the brilliance of its "palmy days." First published on management developed into a highly successful property. On i7th the 3rd of November 1855, it was founded by A. J. B. Beresford January 1888 the first number of the Star appeared, under the editor- Hope (1820-1887), a brother-in-law of Lord Salisbury, M.P. for ship of MrT.P.O'Connor (b. 1848), as a half penny evening newspaper Maidstone and for Cambridge University, and a prominent church. in support of Mr. Gladstone's policy. When Mr O'Connor left the man and art patron; with John Douglas Cook (1808-1868) as editor. paper, Mr H. W. Massingham became its editor, and subsequently Mr Mr Hope was the son of James Hope (1770-1831), author of Anas: Ernest Parke. In 1909 the Stor was acquired by a new proprietor- latius; and it was reputed that Douglas Cook was “ Anastatius ship in which Messrs Cadbury and the Daily News had an important Hope's natural son. For several years the Saturday maintained an share. From the first it was conspicuous for its advanced attitude exceptional position in London journalism. On the political side in politics, and also for excellent literary criticism. In 1893 MrT.P. it was at first Peelite, but the strong churchmanship of Mr Beresford O'Connor founded the Sun, which eventually passed into the hands Hope and antagonism to Mr Gladstone did much to bring it round of a succession of proprietors and came to an end in October 1906. to a pronounced Conservative view. Most, though not all, of its

As regards the purely sporting press in London, Sporting Life early staff had already worked under Mr Cook, when he was editor Sportlog

started in 1859, became a daily in 1883, and in 1886 of the Morning Chronicle (from 1848 to 1854). In its literary comincorporated the old Bell's Life. The daily Sportsman, ment it gave much space to articles of pure criticism and scholarship,

the leading paper, was founded in 1865. The financial and almost every writer of contemporary note on the Tory side Ndancial

daily press is a modern creation and has taken many contributed to its columns. But the matter which did most to give

shapes; the Financier was the first regular daily, but in it its peculiar character was found in its outspoken or even sensationa! 1884 the Financial News, under Mr H. H. Marks, made its appear "middles "-" The Frisky Matron,"

" The Girl of the Period

(by Mrs Lynn Linton), The Birch in the Boudoir," &c. The 1 Albert Grant, who took that name though his father's was editorship remained in the hands of Mr Cook till his death in 1868. Gottheimer, was given the title of baron by King Victor Emmanuel In 1861 a secession from the Saturday lasting till 1863, led to the of Italy in 1868 for his services in connexion with the Milan picture temporary brilliance of the London Review (1860-1868), started by gallery. He made a large fortune by, company-promoting, and in Charles Mackay. Douglas Cook was succeeded by Philip Harwood 1865 became M.P. for Kidderminster. He became a prominent public (1809-1887), who had followed him from the Morning Chronicle character in London. In 1873 he built Kensington House, a vast and under whom Mr Andrew Lang became a contributor, with others mansion close to Kensington Palace, which in 1883 was demolished of note. Mr Harwood retired in 1883, and was succeeded by his and the site seized by his creditors. In 1874 he bought up Leicester former assistant Mr Walter Herries Pollock, under whom the paper Square, converted it into a public garden, and presented it to the underwent some modifications in form to meet changes in the public Metropolitan Board of Works. But soon afterwards he failed, and taste; Mr G. Saintsbury and Mr H. D. Traill were then prominent from 1876 to his death he constantly figured in the law-courts at the members of the staff, and Mr Frederick Greenwood wrote for the suit of his creditors.

paper till he started the Anti-Jacobin. In 1894 the Saturday Review



and other



was sold by the heirs of Mr Beresford Hope to Mr Lewis Edmunds, , a separate cartoon as a special feature, famous for the artistic work from whose hands it soor passed to Mr Frank Harris. In 1899 the of Pellegrini. Leslie Ward and others and the World Society paper was sold to Lord Hardwicke and came under the editorship of (1874), brought a new "note" into regular journalism, Mr Harold Hodge, who remained in this position when, after Lord Mr Edmund Yates's success with the World largely conHardwicke's death in 1905, it passed into the hands of Mr Gervase tributing to the increase of the personal style which he

weeklies. Becket.

did so much to introduce; and Truth made its proprietor, the The Saturday Review and Spectator, as the exponents of brilliant politician Mr Henry Labouchere, one of the most prominent menci Toryism and serious Liberalism, had the field practically to them the day, not so much for its aggressive Radicalism as for its vigorous selves for some years; but when in 1886 the Spectator followed the exposures of all sorts of public charlatanry. Liberal Unionists in opposing Home Rule for Ireland, and ceased to Among other weeklies, important ones are such ecclesiastical support Mr Gladstone, the result was the addition to London journal- papers as the Guardian (1846), the Record (1828), the Church Times ism of the Radical Speaker (1898); and in 1898 the threepenny (1863), the Tablet (1840), Christian World (1857), Methodist Times Outlook (altered in price in 1905 to sixpence) was started, to present 1885); the medical papers, the Lancel (1823) and British Medical more particularly the growing interests of the Colonies and the Journal ; the financial papers, the Economist (1843) and Statist Empire, a side further developed in 1905 and 1906 under the editor- (1878); and the great sporting and country-house paper, the Field ship of Mr J. L. Garvin (b. 1868) in its advocacy of Mr Chamberlain's(1853). policy of a preferential tariff, when the Spectator became aggressively Among humorous papers Punch (1840) stands first (see CARIFree Trade In December 1906 the Outlook was sold by its pro CATURE) of which (1895) Mr M. H. Spielmann published a History: prietor, Mr C. S. Goldman, to Lord Iveagh, and Mr Garvin resigned Fun (1860 A901), Mr Harry Furniss's Lika Joko (1894, the editorship. In 1907, the Speaker was incorporated with the only for a few months), Judy (1867), Moonshine (1879) Humorous Nation, a new Radical weekly, edited by H. W. Massingham. Several and Pick-me-up (1888), have also catered for popular papers. ambitious new weeklies meanwhile started, and some passed away gaiety. before the end of the century, such as the Realm, the British Review The introduction of women into English journalism in any large and the Review of the Week. The most brilliant of all these, which degree was one of the new departures of the last quarter of the 19th also lasted the longest, was the Scots (soon renamed the National) century. It was indeed no new thing for women to write Observer (1888-1897), edited at first by W. E. Henley. (7.9.), and for the Press. Harriet Martineau was, in her day, one of the Womeo subsequently by J. E. Vincent (d. 1909): Mr Henley, assisted by Mr principal members of the Daily Newsstaff, and Miss Frances

Journal Charles Whibley, collected a band of clever young writers, who Power Cobbe (1822-1905)the advocate of anti-vivisectionformed almost a school" of literary journalism, and many of whom ism, was an active journalist. Miss Flora Shaw (Lady Lugard), as won their spurs in literature by their contributions to this paper.writer of colonial topics for The Times, or Mrs Crawford, as Paris The Pilo! (1900) under Mr D. C. Lathbury was another brilliant correspondent of the Daily News, are other notable instances of the attempt, but it failed to pay its way and hardly lasted for three years. prominence of women's work in the same spheres with the ablest

Among purely literary weeklies the Athenaeum found a rival in the But such cases as these were exceptional, in which something Academy, founded in October 1869 by Dr Appleton and edited by in the nature of a personal mission and a peculiar aptitude gave the him. Later, under the editorship of J. S. Cotton, it was famous impulse., Journalism as a profession for women came, however, for its signed reviews and scholarly character; but the small circle to be widely resorted to, partly through its obvious reeommendation to whom pure literature appealed made financial success difficult. in a day when women's education required an alternative outlet, In 1896 the Academy was bought by Mr Morgan Richards, and for for those who had to carn their living, to that of the teaching prosome years was edited by Mr Lewis Hind, amalgamating Literature session; partly, and pari passu, through the immense increase in (a weekly which had been started by The Times) in 1901; and women readers and the immensely increased publicity given in newssubsequently under changed proprietors it was successively edited papers to matters of primarily feminine interest. In 1889 the only by Mr Teignmouth Shore and Mr Anderson Graham. In April

Ladies' paper" of any importance was the Queen, a weekly which 1907 it was bought from Sir G. Newnes by Sir Edward Tennant, dates from 1861. But subsequently a considerable number of new and subsequently passed under the control of Lord Alfred weeklies entered the field: notably the Lady's Pictorial (1880): Douglas, who in 1919 parted with it to a new proprietary.

the Lady (1885); Woman (1889); the Gentlewoonan (1890), which The publication of Sunday, editions of the daily papers has not owed its success to the vigorous management of Mr J. S. Wood; found the same favour in England as in the United States. In 1899 Madame (1895); and the Ladies' Field (1898). New monthlies also Sunday

a Sunday Daily Mail and a Sunday Daily Telegraph appeared, in the Englishwoman, the Ladies' Realm and the Woman

appeared simultaneously; but public opinion was so al Home. The sphere of action of the lady journalist was soon papers.

violent against seven-day journalism that both were by no means confined to the "ladies' papers, or to the writing withdrawn. The oldest of the Sunday papers, the Observer (1791), of columns on dress or cookery for such general journals as found was conducted by one editor, Mr Doxat, for more than fifty years. it useful to cultivate feminine readers; women invaded every other It was one of the first papers to contain illustrations. In later years field of journalism, especially the large new field of " interviewing" Mr Edward Dicey was a notable editor. In 1905 the Observer passed and fashionable gossip. The increase in women-writers generally, into the hands of Lord Northcliffe, his first editor being Mr Austin novelists, dramatists, poets, reacted on their connexion with journalHarrison, a son of Frederic Harrison. In 1907 Mr J. L. Garvinism, the increased respectability" of journalism made it easier became editor, and under him the old influence of the Observer for them to work side by side with men; and gradually nobody revived.

thought the introduction of women into this sphere anything out of Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper started as an unstamped illustrated the common; a lady journalist, in fact, was much less remarkable journal at a penny in September 1842. In 1843 it was enlarged in than a lady doctor. size, and the price raised to threepence. Curious ingenuity was shown in advertising it by all sorts of expedients. Amongst others, all the

British Provincial Press. pennies its proprietor could lay luis hands on were embossed, by a England and Wales.—Though the real development of English cleverly constructed machine, with the title and price of the new provincial journalism, as a power co-ordinate with that of London, journal. The Times drew attention to this defacement of the coin only dates from the abolition of the stamp duty in 1855, many country of the realm, and so gave it a better advertisement still. From newspapers before that time had been marked by literary ability a weekly sale of 33,000 in 1848 it rose to 170,000 in 1861. In antici

and originality of character.. The history of the provincial press of pation of the abolition

of the
paper duty, the price was then reduced England begins

in 1690 with the weekly Worcester Postman (now to a penny, and its circulation continued to increase. In later years Berrow's Worcester Journal). The Stamford Mercury (1695; earliest it had an able editor in Mr T. Catling. Reynolds's Weekly Newspaper, known 1712; long known as Lincoln, Rutland and Stamford Meran extreme Radical paper with a large circulation, dates from May cury):. Norwich oPostman! (1706); Nollingham Courant (1710), 1850. Other Sunday

papers came later into existence--the people afterwards renamed Journal: Newcastle Courant (1711); Liverpool (1881), the Sunday afterwards Weekly) Sun (1891), the Sunday Courant (1712; shortlived); Hereford Journal (1713): Salisbury Special (1897) with which in 1904 was amalgamated the Sunday Postman (1715): Bristol Felix Farley's Journal (1715: merged into Times (1822). The Referce (1877), a paper with a strong sporting the Bristol Times in 1735%); the Conlorbury Kentish Posi (1717; and theatrical interest, is famous for the humorous contributions by afterwards Kentish Gaselte); Leeds Mercury (1717); Exeter Mercury,

Dagonet" (G. R. Sims) and the pungency of its miscellaneous Protestant Mercury, and Postmaster or Loyal Mercury (all 17185): articles

York Mercury (1718), and Manchester Weekly Journal (1719), came of the London illustrated weekly papers the oldest, the Illustrated London News, was founded in 1842; the Graphic in 1869; while the 1 The Norwich Postman, a small quarto of meagre contents, was

Pictorial World, which lasted for some years, began in 1874. published at a penny, but its proprietor notified that "a halfpenny Hlustrated

In 1891 Black and White was started; and in 1892 the is not refused ! Within a few years Norwich also had its Courant weekly

Sketch, edited by Mr Clement Shorter (also then editor of (1712) and Weekly Mercury or Protestant's Packet (1720). papers

the Ilustrated London News), introduced a lighter vein. Amalgamated with the Bristol Mirror (1773) in 1865 to form the Mr Shorter gave up the editorship of these two weeklies in 1901, Daily Bristol Times and Mirror. and became editor of a new illustrated weekly, the Sphere, with the * Exeter was then fiercely political. These three newspapers proprietorship of which came also to be associated the Tatler. commented so freely

on proceedings in parliament that their editors Another new illustrated weekly of a high class, Country Life Illus were summoned to appear at bar (Journal of the House of Commons. trated, began in 1897.

xix. 30, 43, 1918). The incident is curious as showing that each The " Society " weeklies, Truth (1877). Vanity Foir (1868)—with represented a rival MS. news-letter writer in London.

quickly afterwards; and other early, papers worth mentioning were however, was the bombardment of Alexandria and the subsequent the Salisbury Journal (1729); Manchester Gazelle (1730-1760): Egyptian War. The leading provincial newspapers had already Manchester Mercury (1762-1830); the carliest Birmingham emancipated themselves from localism, and in general news and paper, Aris's Gazelle (1741); the Cambridge, Chronide (1744); criticism had risen almost, if not quite, to the average level of the and the Oxford Journal (1753). Liverpool also boasted of the first-class London journals. Now they were to step abroad into the Liver pool Advertiser (1756) and Gore's General Advertiser (1765- field of war. Singly

or in syndicates, or by arrangement with London 1870). of the above the Leeds Mercury (1717). became an in journals, the leading provincial nrwspapers sent out war correcreasingly important provincial organ. It was originally published spondents, and were able to record the history of events as promptly weekly, and its price was three-hall pence. In 1729 it was reduced and fully as the metropolitan press. The first syndicate to send cut to four pages of larger size, and sold, with a stamp, at twopence. war correspondents was formed by the Glasgow News, the Liverpool From 1755 to 1766 its publication was suspended, but was resumed Daily Post, Manchester Courier, Birmingham Gazelle and Western in January 1767, under the management of James Bowley, who Morning News, who despatched two correspondents to Egypt, and continued to conduct it for twenty-seven years, and raised it to a the new departure was attended with complete success. The circulation of 3000. Its price at this time was fourpence. The Central News also sent out war correspondents to Egypt and the increase of the stamp duty in 1797 altered its price to sixpence, Sudan. During the South African War (1899-1902) the Press and the circulation sank from 3000 to 800. It was purchased in Association, in conjunction with Reuter's Agency, employed corre1801 by Edward Baines, who first began the insertion of " leaders," spondents, as well as the Central News. The leading provincial and whose family left an impress not only on journalism but on newspapers, however, all formed syndicates amongst themselves to literature in the North of England. It took him three years to secure war telegrams, and in many cases made arrangements

for the obtain a circulation of 1500; but the Mercury afterwards made simultaneous publication of the letters and telegrams of leading rapid progress. When the Stamp Tax was removed, its price was London journals. This system of securing simultançous publication, reduced to a penny, and in 1901 to a halspenny.. For many years it in provincial newspapers, of special contributions to London morning admitted neither racing nor theatrical new to its columns, and it newspapers was afterwards still further extended, and articles of had a powerful moral and political influence in Lancashire and exceptional interest that have been specially prepared for London Yorkshire.

journals may now be found on the same day in some of the leading The abolition of the duty on advertisements in 1853, of the provincial newspapers. stamp duty in 1855, and of the paper duty in 1861, opened the way By the beginning of 1880 the country had fallen upon a period of for a cheap press, and within ten years of the abolition of the paper low prices, and extra expenditure upon war telegrams and on an duty penny, morning newspapers had taken up commanding posi- improved supply of general news was to a considerable extent tions in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee and Aberdeen; in Liver- balanced by the reduced cost of paper. A list compiled at the compool, Manchester, Leeds, Bradford, Newcastle and Sheffield; in mencement of 1902 gave the names of eighty-seven halfpenny daily Birmingham and Nottingham; in Bristol, Cardiff and Plymouth; newspapers published in English provincial towns, a considerable and across St George's Channel in Dublin, Cork, Belfast and Water- number of these being morning journals. Of these, sixty-two had ford. As time went on, and increasingly after the 'seventies, pro- been issued since 1870, those bearing earlier dates of origin being in vincial evening papers began to multiply. But any real importance most cases sheets which formerly were issued at a penny or more, as organs of opinion was still confined to only a few of the great penny but had subsequently reduced their prices. Of the sixty-two that provincial dailies, notably the Yorkshire Post, Manchester Guardian, were issued since 1870, twenty-seven appeared between 1871 and Birmingham Post (1857). Sheffield Telegraph (associated with Sir 1882, nineteen between 1882 and 1892 and sixteen between 1892 W. Leng), Liverpool Daily Posi, Leeds Mercury and Western Morning and 1902. Under the stimulus of cheapness the news-sheet was News; others too numerous to mention here were at the same time enlarged. More advertisements, more news, more varied contricradling journalists who were to become famous in a larger sphere, butions, filled up the additional space. The cost of composition such as the Darlington Northern Echo, on which Mr W. T. Stead made increased, and, though circulation and revenue increased also, there his début, while Mr Joseph Cowen for some years made the Newcastle was some danger to the margin of profit. Again invention came to Daily Chronicle a powerful force.

the rescue. In the 'eightics some of the leading provincial newspapers The provincial journals began as strictly local organs. But even began to use type-setting machines. In this forward in 1870 it was beginning to be universally perceived that, though the provinces were far ahead of the London papers, excepting The Times. influence of a newspaper depends upon the sagacity, sound judgment The Southport Daily News-since dead-led the way by introducing and courage of the editor, its success as a business enterprise rests six Hattersley machines, and soon afterwards type-setting machinery mainly with the business manager. Managers demanded less local became the rule in the provincial press. In the development of ism, a wider range of news, prompter and fuller reports of all im- provincial papers, one factor of special importance must be noted, portant events, longer parliamentary reports, parliamentary the desire for news about all branches of sport. In 1870 sporting sketches, verbatim reports of speeches by statesmen of the first rank. meant horse-racing and little more. By degrees it embraced In the early 'seventies such a thing as a full telegraphic report in a athleticism in all its branches, and progressive newspapers were provincial morning newspaper of parliamentary proceedings, or of looked to for information on football, hockey, golf, cricket, lawn. a speech by a leading statesman, was almost unheard of. The Press tennis, yachting, boating, cycling, wrestling, coursing, hunting, polo, Association had been in cxistence a short time, but had not then running, bowls, billiards, chess, &c., quite as much as for notices of covered the country with its organization. Reuter's foreign news musical and dramatic performances, and of other forms of recreation service very bricfly reported important events. Leading articles were and amusement. The ordinary provincial press, and its hallpenny written during the day. Between 1870 and 1880 a complete revolu- evening representatives, largely depend on the attraction of the tion was effected, as the result of the social and educational changes. sporting news; and a number of special local papers have also been Leader-writers began to discuss the latest topics. Newspapers that started to cater for this public. had been content to fill their columns with local news and clippings Scotland. - The first newspaper purporting by its title to be from London and distant provincial papers put such matter aside. Scottish (the Scolch Intelligencer,' 7th September 1643) and the first Telegraphic news crushed it out. In February 1870 the govern- newspapers actually printed in Scotland (Mercurius Criticus and ment took over the telegraph system. The advantage of the change Mercurius Politicus, published at Leith in 1651 and 1653) were of was immediately felt by newspapers and their readers. Leading English manufacture--the first being intended to communicate English and Irish newspapers, following Scotland's lead, began to more particularly the affairs of Scodand to the Londoners, the open offices in London, where Fleet Street soon began to be an open others to keep Cromwell's army well acquainted with the London directory to the provincial press--English, Scottish and Irish. The news. The reprinting of the Politicus was transícrred to Edinburgh Scottish and the leading Irish newspapers of necessity, the wealthiest in November 1654, and it continued to appear (under the altered and most enterprising English papers for convenience and advantage, title Mercurius Publicus subsequently to April 1660) until the engaged special wires. Others that were near enough to London to beginning of 1663. Meanwhile an attempt by Thomas Sydserle to do so secured London news and advertisements by railway, and establish a really Scottish newspaper, Mercurius Caledonias, had completed their news supply by a liberal use of the telegraph. failed after the appearance of ten numbers, the first of which had Commercial news, both home and foreign, especially American, was been published at Edinburgh on the 8th of January 1660. It was expanded. The Press Association spread its news-collecting organ. not until March 1699 that a Scottish newspaper was firmly estabization over the whole country, and was stimulated to activity by the lished, under the title of the Edinburgh Gazetie, by James Watson, rising opposition of the Central News. All this energy had its a printer of eminent skill in his art. Before the close of the counterpart in the business side of the press. Rapid " perfecting" printing machines were introduced, and newspaper managers found This was followed by the Scotch Dove, the first number of which themselves in possession of newspapers full of the latest news, and is dated " September 30 to October 20, 1643," and by the Scottish procurable in practically unlimited quantities. By the use of Mercary (No. 1, October 5, 1643). In 1648 a Mercurius Scoticus and special trains and other organizations, circulation increased apace. a Mercurius Caledonius were published in London. The Scolch Done The development of news agencies, and their universal employment, was the only one of these which attained a lengthened existence. tended to produce sameness in the provincial press. From this fate * Watson was the printer and editor, but the person licensed was the more enterprising journals saved themselves by special London James Donaldson, merchant in Edinburgh ("Act in favors of letters, parliamentary sketches and other special contributions. James Donaldson for printing the Gazelle," March 10,1699, published In 1881 the reporters' gallery in the House of Commons was opened in Miscellany of the Maitland Club, ii. 232 sq.). Arnot,

in his llisiory to some provincial newspapers, and these accordingly enjoyed new of Edinburgh, mentions as the second of Edinburgh newspapers facilities for special effort and distinction. A more important matter, intervening between Mercurius Caledonius and the Gasette a

step. the

year the Gazelle was transferred to John Reid, by whose family it great ability until 1876. In: 1859 the first of Hoc's rotary machines long continued to be printed. In February 1705 Watson started the brought into Scotland was erected for the Scotsman. The Scotsman Edinburgh Courant, of which he only published fifty-five numbers. soon developed into a great newspaper, strong both on its literary He states it to be his plan to give "most of the remarkable foreign side and also in gathering news;

and it was circulated all over news from their prints, and also the home news from the ports of this Scotland, its publishing offices being opened in Glasgow, which was kingdom.

... now altogether neglected." The Courant appeared a better centre for distributing in the west, and in Perth for the thrice a week. Upon complaint being made to the privy council north. At last under Charles A. Cooper it succeeded in killing all concerning an advertisement inserted after the transfer of the paper its rivals in Edinburgh. In 1885 the Scotsman issued an evening to Adam Boig, the new printer presented a supplication to the paper. council in which he expressed his willingness that in all time The North British Advertiser was founded in 1826. The Witness coming no inland news or advertisements shall be put into the began in 1840 as the avowed organ of what speedily became the Courant, but at the sight and allowance of the clerks of council." Free Church party in Scotland. In its first prospectus it calls itself In 1710 the town council authorized Mr Daniel Defoe to print the the Old Whig. The paper appeared twice a weck, and its editor, Hugh Edinburgh Courant in the place of the deceased Adam Boig. Four Miller, very soon made it famous. In the course of less than sixteen years earlier (1706) the indefatigable pioneer of the Scottish press,

years he wrote about a thousand articles and papers, conspicuous for James Watson, had begun the Scots Courant, which he continued to literary ability, still more so for a wide range of acquirement and of print until after the year 1718.. To these papers were added in original thought, most of all for deep conscientiousness. It survived October 1708 the Edinburgh Flying. Post and in August 1709, the its first editor's death (1855) only a few years. Scots Postman. Five years later this paper appears to have been In Glasgow the Glasgow Herald was founded in 1782. When the incorporated with the Edinburgh Gazetie.' The Caledonian Mercury Scotsman extended its activities to Glasgow, the Herald opened an began April 28, 1720. At one period it was published thrice and office in Edinburgh; and it took an active part in breaking down afterwards twice a week. Its first proprietor was William Rolland, the old localism of Scottish papers. In later years it became a an advocate, and its first editor Thomas Ruddiman. The property powerful organ. The North British Daily Mail was established in passed to Ruddiman on Rolland's death in 1729, and remained in his April 1847. George Troup, its first editor, made it specially famous family until 1772. It is curious to notice that in his initiatory for the organizing skill with which he brought his intelligence at an number of April 1720, Rolland claimed a right to identify his unprecedented rate of speed from Carlisle, the nearest point then Mercury with that of 1660.. This journal, he said in his preface to the connected with London by railway. The Glasgow Evening News public, " is the oldest (existing) in Great Britain." And his successor was started in 1870. of the year 1860 followed suit by celebrating the second centenary"

The Aberdeen Journal was founded as a weekly paper in 1748 and of the Caledonian Mercury. He brought out a facsimile of No. 1 of became a daily in 1876. In 1879 it issued an evening edition. The Mercurius Caledonius (January 1660), in its eight pages of small Aberdeen Daily Free Press, originally a weekly, dates from 1853. quarto, curiously contrasting with the great double sheet of the day. In 1881 it issued an evening, paper in connexion with itself. The But sixty years is a long period of suspended animation, and the Dundee Advertiser, established in 1801, towards the latter part of the connexion of the two newspapers cannot be proved to be more than century extended its sphere of influence much on the lines of the nominal. The Caledoniar: Mercury was the first of Scottish journals Scotsman and Glasgow Herald. It issued the Evening Telegraph in to give conspicuous place to literature-foreign as well as Scottish. 1877. In 1859 the Dundee Courier, a halfpenny paper, had begun. In " the '45 one of its editors, Thomas Ruddiman, junior, virtually It may be added that a very large number of the men who have sacrificed his life, and the other, James Grant, went into exile, for distinguished themselves by their labours on the great newspapers the expression of conscientious political opinion. Its publication of London, and several who rank as founders of these, began their ceased after an existence of more than one hundred and forty career and have left their mark on the newspapers of Scotland. years.

Ireland.-In 1641 appeared a sheet called Warranted Tidings from Notwithstanding the positive assertion? that the Edinburgh Ireland, but this, with Ireland's True Diurnal (1642). Mercurius Courant and the Edinburgh Evening Courant were entirely different Hibernicus (1644), the Irish Courant (1690), were all of them London journals, and never had any connexion whatever with each other," newspapers containing Irish news. The real newspaper press of a substantial identity may be asserted upon better grounds than Ireland began with the Dublin News-Leller of 1685. Five years later those for which identity used to be claimed for thc Caledonian appeared the Dublin Intelligence (No. ptember 30, 1690). Mercury with Mercurius Caledonius. The grant by the town council Both of these were shortlived. Pue's Occurrences followed in 1700 of Edinburgh in December 1718 of a licence to James M'Ewan to and lasted for more than fifty years, as the pioneer of the daily print an Evening Courant three times a week appears to have been press of Ireland. In 1710 or in 1711 (there is some doubt as to the really a revival, in altered form, of the original

Courant, repeatedly date of the

carliest number) the Dublin Gazette began to appear, referred to in earlier, but not much carlier, records of the same the official organ of the vice-regal government. Falkener's Journal corporation. So revived, the Evening Courant was the first Scottish was established in 1728. Esdatle's News-Letter began in 1744. took paper to give foreign intelligence from original sources, instead of the title of Saunders's News-Letter in 1754 (when it appeared three repeating the advices sent to London. In 1789 David Ramsay times a week), and became a daily newspaper in 1777. became its proprietor. Under his management it is said to have In the Nationalist press the famous Freeman's Journal has long attained the largest Scottish circulation of its day. It was then of been prominent amongst the Dublin papers. It was established neutral politics. Subsequently, returning to its original title, and as a daily, paper by a committee of the first society of "United appearing as a daily morning paper, it ranked for long as the senior Irishmen" in 1763, and its first editor was Dr Lucas. Flood and organ of the Conservative party in Scotland, but at last the compe. Grattan were at one time numbered amongst its contributors, tition of the Scotsman caused its disappcarance, and after amalgamat- although the latter, at a subsequent period, is reported to have ing with the Glasgow News or the Scotlish News in 1886, it expired in exclaimed in his place in the Irish parliament, "The Freeman's 1888.

Journal is a liar... a public, pitiful liar." In 1870 it brought out The Edinburgh, Weekly Journal began in 1744, but it only attained the Evening Telegraph. In 1891 the dissensions among the Irish celebrity when, almost seventy years afterwards, it became the joint Nationalists led to the establishment of the Parnellite Dublin Daily property of Sir Walter Scott and of James Ballantyne. Scott wrote Independent and Evening Herald. In 1897 the Nation, formerly a in its columns many characteristic articles. Ballantyne edited it weekly, was brought out as a daily., On the Unionist side the until his death in 1833, and was succeeded in the editorship by principal Irish paper is the Dublin Irish Times (1859). Thomas Moir. The paper was discontinued about 1840. The Waterford possessed a newspaper as early as 1729, entitled the Edinburgh Evening News started in 1873.

Waterford Flying Post, It professed to contain "the most material The Scotsman, the leading Scottishoncwspaper, was established news both foreign and domestic," was printed on common writing as a twice-a-weck paper in January 1817 and became a daily in June paper and published twice a week at the price of a halfpenny. The 1855. It ranked as the chief organ of the Liberal party in Scotland, Waterford Chronicle was started in 1766. until the Home Rule split in 1886, when it became Unionist. It was Thé Belfast News-Letter was started in 1737; the Belfast Evening founded by William Ritchie, in conjunction with Charles Maclaren. Telegraph in 1870; the Belfast Northern Whig in 1824. For a short period it was edited by J. R. M'Culloch, the eminent political economist. He was succeeded by Maclaren, who edited the

British Dominions beyond the Sca. paper until 1845. and he in turn in 1848 by Alexander Russel (1814 It is unnecessary here to give all the statistics for the British 1876), who (with Mr Law as manager) continued to conduct it with Colonial press, which has enormously developed in modern times. Kingdom's Intelligencer. But this was a London newspaper, dating Gazelle was started in Barbadoes in 1731 and Granada followed with

So far as its carly history is concerned, it may be noted that Keimer's from 1662, which may occasionally have been reprinted in Scotland; a newspaper of its own in 1742. In Canada the Halifax Gazelle was no such copies, however, are now known to exist. In like manner

established in 1751 and the Montreal Gazetle in 1765. The first the Scollisk Mercury, No. 1, May 8, 1692, appears to have been a

Australasian paper was the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales London newspaper based upon Scottish news-letters, although in an article written in 1848, in the Scottish Journal of Topography, vol. ii.

Advertiser (1803-1843), the Derwent Slar, in Van Dieman's Land P. 303, it is mentioned as an Edinburgh newspaper.

(Tasmania), starting in 1910, In modern days all the British During an imprisonment of six weeks in the Tolbooth of Edin

dominions beyond the sea have produced important and well-con

ducted papers: burgh his health suffered so severely that he died very shortly after marked affinities with the American; but the Globe in Toronto, as

The Canadian press has naturally had certain his release. Grant, History of the Newspaper Press (1873), iü. 412.

See Noles and Queries, 5th series, vii. 45, viii. 205.

the organ of the Liberal party, has played a leading part in Canadian, feelings of disaffection to the government or antipathy between history. In Australia the Sydney Bulletin, the Sydney Morning persons of different castes or religions, or for purposes of extortion. Herald (1831-daily since 1840), Sydney Daily Telegraph, Melbourne Notification of warning is to be made in the official gazette is these Argus (18.4%) and Melbourne Age (1854), with the evening Melbourne regulations be infringed (whether there be bond or not); on repeti. Herald, have been the most important. In South Africa the Cape tion, a warrant is to issue for seizure of plant, &c.; if a deposit have Times (1876) has been the principal paper, but some of the Transvaal been made, forfeiture is to ensue. Provision is made not to exact English papers have exercised great influence in the disturbed a deposit if there be an agreement to submit to a government officer political conditions since about 1895.

prools before publication." After the disturbances of 1908-1909 India.--For a considerable period under the rule of the East India further and more stringent regulations were made. Company the Indian press was very unimportant both in character The Indian Daily Mirror (1863) was the first Indian daily in English and influence. It was permitted to shape its course and to gain edited by natives. The total number of journals of all kinds pub. a position as it could, under the potent checks of the deportation lished within all the territories of British India was reported by the power and the libel law, without any direct censorship: Nor was it American consular staff in 1882 as 373, with an estimated average lound difficult to inflict exemplary punishment on the writers of aggregate circulation per issue of 288,300 copies.. Of these, 43, with * offensive paragraphs.".

an aggregate circulation of 56,650 copies, were published in Cal. Prior to Lord Wellesley's administration the most considerable cutta : 60, with an aggregate circulation of 51.776 copies, at Bombay. newspapers published at Calcutta were the World, the Bengal Journal, In 1900 it appeared from the official tables that there were about the Hurkaru, the Calcutta Gazelle (the organ of the Bengal govern 600 newspapers, so called, published in the Indian empire, of which ment), the Telegraph, the Calcutta Courier, the Asiatic Mirror and about one-third, mostly dailies, were in the Indian vernaculars. the Indian Gazelle.' Mr Duane, the editor of the World, was sent to Calcutta had 15 dailies (Calculia Englishman &c.); Bombay 2 Europe in 1794 for “ an inflammatory address to the army." as was (Bombay Gazette): Madras 4 (Madras Mail); Rangoon 3, (Rangoon Mr Charles Maclean, four years afterwards for animadverting in Times). Allahabad 2 (Pioneer); Lahore 2 (Civil and Military the Telegrapk on the official conduct of a local magistrate.

Gazette). The Calculta Englishman dates from 1821. Lord Wellesley was the AUTEORITIES.-For late developments, see Mitchell's, Sell's and first governor-general who created a censorship (April 1799). His Willing's Press Directories. For historical information: 1. B. W. press-code was abolished by the marquis of Hastings in 1818. The Williams, Hist. of British Journalism to the Foundation of the Gazette power of transporting obnoxious editors to Europe of course remained. (1908); H. R. Fox-Bourne, English Newspapers (1877): "The Perhaps the most conspicuous instance of its exercise was the re. Newspaper Press,". Quarterly Review, cl. 498-537 (October, 1880); moval of the editor of the Calculla Journal (Silk Buckingham), Hatton, Journalistic London (1882); Pebody's English Journalism which occurred immediately after Lord Hastings's departure from (1882); Progress of British Newspapers in the roth Century (1901; India and during the government of his temporary successor, Mr published by Simpkin, Marshall & Co.); Andrews, History of British John Adan. Buckingham's departure was followed closely (14th Journalism (2 vols., 1860); Hunt, The Fourth Estate; Grant, The March 1823) by a new licensing act, far exceeding in stringency that Newspaper Press (3 vols., 1871-1873); Plummer, " The British of Lord Wellesley, and (şth April 1823) by an elaborate" Regulation Newspaper Press, " Companion to the Almanac (1876): Nichols, for preventing the Establishment of Printing-Presses without Licence, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, iv. 33-97. (H. Cu.) and for restraining under certain circumstances the Circulation of Printed Books and Papers." The first application of it was to

3. NEWSPAPERS OF THE UNITED STATES ? suppress the Calculla Journal.

Massachusetts.--Boston was the first city of America that In the course of the elaborate inquiry into the administration of India which occupied both Houses of Parliament in 1832, prior possessed a local newspaper; but the earliest attempt in that to the renewal of the Company's charter, it was stated that there direction, made in 1689, and a second attempt, under the title were, besides 5 native journals, 6 European newspapers: three Publick Occurrences, which followed in September 1690, were daily, the Bengal. Hurkáru, John Bull and the Indian Gazete; both suppressed by the government of Massachusetts. Nearly one published twice a week, the Government Gazelle; and two weekly the Bengal Herald and the Oriental Observer. At this

fourteen years afterwards (April 24, 1704), the first number of period every, paperwas published under a licence, revocable at

thc Boslon News-Leller was "printed by B. Green, and sold by pleasure, with or without previous inquiry or notice. At Madras, Nicholas Boone.” Its proprietor and editor-so far as it can be on the other hand, the press remained under rigid restriction. The said to have had an editor, for extracts from the London papers Madras censorship was removed whilst the parliamentary inquiry of 1832 was still pending.

were its staple contents-was John Campbell, postmaster of the One question only, and that but for a brief interval, disturbed town. In 1719 he enlarged his paper, in order, as he told his Lord William Bentinck's love of free discussion. The too famous readers, “to make the news newer and more acceptable; ... " Hall-Batta" measure led him to think that a resolute persistence whereby that which seem'd old in the former half-sheets becomes in an unwise policy by the home government against the known convictions of the men actually at the helm in India and an un.

new now by the sheet. ... This time twelvemonth we were lettered press were two things that could scarcely co-exist. It was

thirteen months behind with the foreign news beyond Great on this occasion that Sir Charles Metcalfe recorded his minute Britain, and now less than five months; so that

: . . we have of September 1830, the reasoning of which fully justifies the assertion retrieved about eight months since January last "; and he -" I have, for my own part, always advocated the liberty of the press, believing its benefits to outweigh its mischiefs; and I continue encourages his subscribers with the assurance that if they will of the same opinion." This opinion was amply carried out in the continue steady " until January next, life permitted, they will memorable law (drafted by Macaulay and enacted by Metcalfe as be accommodated with all the news of Europe . . . that are governor general in 1835), which totally abrogated the licensing needful to be known in these parts." But Campbell's new plans system. It left all men at liberty to express their sentiments on public affairs, under the legal and moral responsibilities of ordinary

were soon disturbed by the loss of his office, and the commencelife, and remained in force until the outbreak of the mutiny of ment of a new journal by his successor in the postmastership, 1857

William Brooker, entitled the Boston Gazette "published by In 1853 Garcin de Tassy, when opening at Paris his annual course authority” (No. 1, 21st December 1719). The old journalist of lectures on the Hindustani language, enumerated and gave some interesting details concerning twenty-seven journals (of all sorts) in

had a bitter controversy with his rival, but at the end of the year Hindustani. In 1860 he made mention of seventeen additional ones. 1722 relinquished his concern in the paper to Benjamin Green, Of course the circulation and the literary merits of all of them were who carried it on, with higher aims and greater success, until his relatively small. One, however, he said, had reached a sale of death, at the close of 1733, being then succeeded by his son-in4000 copies. In 1857 Lord Canning's law, like that of 1823, on which it was

law, John Draper, who published it until December 1762. By closely modelled, absolutely prohibited the keeping or using of Richard Draper, who followed his father, the title was altered printing-presses, types or other materials for printing, in any part to Massachusells Gazelle and Boston News-Letter; and the of the territories in the possession and under the government of maintenance of the British rule against the rising spirit of licence of government, and also gave full powers for the seizure and independence uniformly characterized his editorship and that prohibition from circulation of all books and papers, whether of his widow (to whom, at a subsequent period, a pension was printed within the Indian territories or elsewhere.

* For the general conditions producing the modern type of In 1878 an act was passed, which long remained in force, regulating American newspaper, see the first section of this article. In the the vernacular press of India :" Printers or publishers of journals in following account of American and foreign newspapers, the historical Oriental languages

must, upon demand by the due officer, give bond material in the 9th and joth editions of the Ency. Brit. has been not to print or publish in such newspapers anything likely to excite utilized and in parts repeated.

'In other words, the attention of the Bostonian politicians was "The Hurkaru and the Indian Gazette were long afterwards como engrossed on the siege of Belgrade, when their contemporaries in the bined under the new leading title, Indian Daily News (with the old mother country were intent on the destruction of the Spanish flect name appended).

on the coast of Sicily.

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