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procrastination, and at one time was thinking of appealing to the army to set Wilson aside and elect a successor; but at last, on the r3th of September, he forced Wilson to make up his mind to the assault, and he himself was chosen to lead the attacking oolumn. On the morning of the 14th he led his column, rooo strong, in the attack on the Kashmir gate, and successfully entered the streets of Delhi. But in trying to clear the ramparts as far as the Lahore Gate, he undertook a task beyond the powers of his wearicd troops. In encouraging them as they hesitated, he turned his back on the enemy and was shot in the back. The wound was mortal, but his magnificent physique allowed him to linger for nine days before finally succumbing on the 23rd of September.
His best epitaph is found in the words of Sir John Lawrence's Mutin Report:—
" Bngadier-Geneml john Nicholson is now beyond human inc and human reward. But so long as British rule shall endure in ndia, his lame can never perish. He seems especially to have been raised up for this juncture. He crowned a bright, thou Ih brief, career by dying of the wound he received in the moment 0 vrctory at Delhi. The Chief Commissioner does not hesitate to affirm that without john Nicholson Dtihi Could not have fallen."
See I. L. Trotter, Life of John Nicholson (H204); Sir John Kaye, Live: a] lndmn Ojfirerr (1889); Bosworth Smith, Life a Lord Lawrence (r883); Lady Edwardes, Mortar-fol: of Sir Ilzlbqt rder (r886); and S. S. Thorburn, Bannu (l876).
NICHOLSON, WILLIAI (r753—1815), English writer on natural philosophy, was born in London in 1753, and after leaving school made two voyages as midshipman in the East India service. He subsequently entered an attorney’soffice, but, having become acquainted, in r775, with Josiah Wedgwood, he lived for some years at Amsterdam as agent for the sale of pottery. On his return to England he was induced by Thomas Holcroft to devote himself to the composition of light literature for periodicals, assisting that writer also with some oi his plays and novels. Meanwhile he employed himself on the preparation of An Intra~ dlution to Natural Philosophy, which was published in r78r and was at once successful. A translation of Voltaire's Element: of the Newtonian Philosophy soon followed, and he now entirely devoted himself to scientific pursuits and philosophical journalism. in 1784 he was appointed secretary to the General Chamber of Manufacturers of Great Britain, and he was also connected with the Society for the Encouragement of Naval Architecture, established in r79r. He bestowed much attention upon the construction of various machines for comb-cutting, file-making, cylinder printing, &c.; be also invented an areometer. 1n r800 he began in London a course of public lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry, and about this period he made the discovery of the decomposition of water by the voltaic current. In r797 the Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the zlrtr, generally known as Nicholson‘s Journal, the earliest work of the kind in Great Britain, was begun; it was carried on till r8r4. During the later yearsof his life Nicholson's attention was chiefly directed to waterworks engineering at Portsmouth, at Gosport and in Southwark. He died in London on the arst of hlay 18r5.
Besides considerable contributions to the Philusnpiriml Transactions, Niclmlwn wrote translations of Fourcroy's Clremirtry (I787) and Chaptal's Chemistry (1758), First l’riluiplrx 0 Chemistry (t7h8) and .\ L‘Irenn'm! Dizliannry (1795); he also edited t e Bllltah Encyclopae'liu, or Dictionary of A 11: and Science: (6 vols" Bvo, London, 1809).
NICHOLSON, WILLIAI (r784—r844), Scottish painter, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne. llaving settled in Edinburgh, he painted portraits both in oil and water-colour; and along with Thomas Hamilton the architect he was one of the founders and most vigorous promoters of the Scottish Academy, of which he became the first sccrctary(r816-1833). In tS|8 he published a series of etchings entitled Portrait: of Dirtirrgur'sllcd Living Character: 0/ Scotland, including Sir Walter Scott, Lord JetIrey, Robert Burns and Professor Wilson.
NlClAS (d. 4r4 Be), a soldier and statesman in ancient Athens, inherited from his father Niceratus a considerable fortune invested mainly in the silver mines of Laurium. Evidence of his wealth is found in the fact that he had no less than rooo slaves whom he hired out. He gravitated naturally to the aristocratic party, and was several times colleague with Pericles in the
strategia. 0n the death of Pericles he was left leader of the aristocrats against the advanced party of Cleon (qr). He made use of his wealth both to buy ofl enemies (especially informers) and to acquire popularity by the magnificent way in which be discharged various public services, especially those connected with the state religion, of which he was a strong supporter. In the field be displayed extreme caution, and prior to the great Sicilian expedition achieved a number of minor military successes. In 4n he took a prominent part in the arrangement of the “ Peace of Nicias," which terminated the first decade of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.). He now entered with varying success upon a period of rivalry with Alcibiades, the details of which are largely matters of conjecture. So bitter was the strife that the ostracism of one seemed inevitable, but by a temporary coalition they secured instead the banishment of the demagogue Hyperbolus (4r7). In 4r5 he was appointed with Alcibiadts and Lamachus to command the Sicilian expedition, and, after the flight of Alcibiades (q.v.) and the death of Lamachus, was practically the sole commander, the much more capable Demosthenes, who was sent to his aid, being apparently of comparatively little weight. How farit is just to attribute to his excessive caution and his blind faith in omens the disastrous failure it is difficult to say. At all events it is clear that the management of so great an enterprise was a task far beyond his powers. He was a man of conventional respectability and mechanical piety,without the originality which was required to meet the crisis which faced him. Ilis popularity with the aristocratic party in Athens is, however, strikingly shown by the lament of Thucydidea over his death: “He assuredly, among all Greeks of my time, least deserved to come to so extreme a pitch of ill-fortune, considering his exact performance of established duties to the divinity " (vii. 86, Grote’s version).
Besides Th dides see Plutarch's Niriar and Diod. xii. 83; also the general aut oritics on the history of Greece, and the article Petoross'csum \Varr. I
NlClAS, son of Nicomedes, an Attic painter of the 4th century a.c. Pliny (xxxv. r3r) gives a list of his works. He was associated with Praxiteles, whose statues he coloured, thus adding to their value.
NICKEL (symbol Ni,atornic weight 58~68 (O: r6)),a metallic element. It has been known from the earliest times, being employed by the Chinese in the form of an alloy called pakfong. It was first isolated in an impure condition in r75r by A. F Cronstcdt from niccolite, and his results were afterwards confirmed by T. 0. Bergman in 1775 (De nicmlnmpusc. a, p. :3r; 3, p. 459; 4, p. 374)] It occurs in the uncombined condition and alloyed with iron in meteorites; as sulphide in millet-ile and nickel blende, as arsenide in niccolite and cloanthitc, and frequently in combination with arsenic and antimony in the form of complex sulphides. In recent years it has been found in considerable quantities in New Caledonia in the form of a hydrated silicate of nickel and magnesia approximating to the constitution (NiO, MgO)SiO|-nH;O (j. Garnicr, 1865). and in Canada in the form of nickelifcrous pyrrhotines, which consist of sulphides of iron associated with sulphides of nickel and copper, embedded in a matrix of gnciss. At the present time nickel is obtained practically entirely from garnierite and the nickcliferous pyrrhotincs. When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide. This sulphide is then by further heating converted into the oxide and finally reduced to the state of metal by ignition with carbon in clay crucibles. The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and melting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelled with a siliceous flux for .1 rich matte. This rich matte is then mixed with coke and salt-cake and melted down in an ope hearth furnace. The nickel sulphide so obtained is then roasted to oxide and reduced to metal. For a wet method oi extraction oi the matte see Giristoile and Bouilhet, French Pole-l 111501 (1876). L. Mond (Join. Soc. Chem. lnd. 18o5, p. 945) has obtained' metallic nitkel [mm the Canadian iiiattes by first routing them and then eliminating copper by the action oi sulphuric‘ acid, the product so obtained being then exposed to the reducing action oi producer gas at about 350° C. The reduced metal is then passed into a “ volatilizer " and exposed to the action oi carbon monoxide at about 80° C., the nickel carbonyl so ionned being received in a chamber heated to 180-200“ C., where it decomposes, the nickel being deposited and the carbon monoxide returned to the volatilizer. For an electrolytic method oi treating mattes, see T. Ulke, Monika! ru'enl., 1897, 49, p. 450. The metal as obtained by industrial methods rarely contains more than about 90—00'5'34. oi nickel, the chiei impurities being copper, iron,’ cobalt, silicon and carbon.
The iollowing tables show the output oi nickel irom Canada and the shipments oi nickel ore irom New Caledonia in recent years:—
nickel salts see A. Riche and Laborde, Join. Phani. Clue», 1888.
lNickel is used ior the manuiacture oi domestic utensils, ior crucibles, coinage, plating, and ior the preparation oi various alloys, such as German silver, nickel steels such as invar (nickel, 357%; steel, 64-37 , which has a negligible coefi'icient oi thermal expansion, and constantan (nickel, 45%; copper, 55%), which ha a negligible thermal coefficient oi its electricalresistance.
_ _ Compounda.
fluke! Oxides—Several oxides of nickel are lrnown. A suboxide, NM) (P), described by W. Muller (Pngg. 11011., I860. 212. p. 9). is not certainly known. The monoxide. NiO, occurs naturain as hunscnitc. and is obtained artificially when nickel hydroxide, carbonate. nitrate or sulphate is heated. it may also be prepared by the action 0i nickel on water. by the reduction oi the oxide NiJO; uvith hydrogcn at about 200° C. (H. Moissan, Ann. Chm. Phy1., l5l- 2|, p. 1171)). or by heating nickel chloride with sodium carbonate and extracting the inset] mass with water. It is a green powder whit it becomes yellow when heated. It dissociates at a red heat. and
The metal may also be obtained on the small scale by the reduction oi the oxide by hydrogen or by carbon, by ignition oi the oxalate or oi nickel ammonium oxalate (I. ]. Berzelius), by reduction oi the chloride in a current oi hydrogen (E. l’éligot), by electrolysis oi nickel ammonium sulphate (Winkler, Zrit. mg. Chm. 1804, 8, p. 1), and by reduction oi the chloride with calcium caibide.
It is a greyish white metal, and is very malleable and ductile. Its specific gravity varies according to the method employed ior its preparation, the extreme values being 8-279 and o-25. it melts between 1400-1606 C. lts specific heat increases with rise oi temperature, the mean value irom_ 15° to 100° C. being 0-1084 (A. Naccuri, Gnu, 1858, 18, p. 13). it is magnetic, but loses its magnetism when heated, the loss beingcomplete at about 340-550“ C.- On the physical constants see H. Copaux, Campus undue, 1905, 140, p. 651. Nickel occludes hydrogen readily, is attacked by the halogen elemmts, and oiid'uxs easily when heated in air. In the massive state it is unacted upon by dry air, but ii moistened with acidified water, oxidation takes place slowly. When obtained by reduction processes at as low a temperature as possible the finely divided metal so iormed Ls pyrophoric, and according to P. Schutzenbergt-r (Complci rrndus, 1891, 1 13, p. 1 77) dry hydrochloric acid gas converts this iorni into nickel chloride and a volatile compound oi composition NiHCl. 1t decomposu water at a red heat. According to E. St Edme (Complex rtndus, 1886, too, p. 1079) sheet nickel is passive to nitric acid, and the metal remains passive even when heated to redness in a current oi hydrogen. On the reduction of organic compounds by hydrogen in the presence of metallic nickel see P. Sabaticr and I. B. Senderens, Ann. Chim. Phys, 1905 , 4, pp. 319, 433.
It rapidly oxidizes when iused with caustic soda, but is scareer acted upon by caustic potash (W. Dittmar, Jour. 89(Chen. Ind., 1884, 3, p. 103). Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids are almost without action on the metal, but it dissolves readily in dilute nitric acid. Nickel salts are antiseptic; they arrest icrmentation and stop the growth of plants. Nickel carbonyl, however, is extremely poisonous. On the toxic properties oi
peroxide, NiOh has been obtained . in the iorm oi clinickelite of barium, BaO-2Ni0,. . by hating the monoxide with anhydrous baryta in the electric iurnac'e (E. Duiau, Comptes rendiis, 1896,,123, p. 495). G. Pellini end D. Meneghini (Zeit. anorg. Chem. 1908' 60, E. 178) obtained a eyish rccn powder oi composition NiOrxHD.
y adding an alco olic soution oi potassium h rate to nickelc loride and hydrogen roxide at -30‘. it hasal the rendionsol hydrogen roxide. and? Tanatar( m, 1009. 42. p. 1516_)'1egnrds it as Ni0~ 20;. An oxide. Ni,0.. has been obtained by heating nickel chloride in a current oi moist oxygen at about 400" C. (H. Baubigny, Complai- rendut, [128, 81, . tube), or by heating the Besquioxidt- in hydrogen at 190' . (l . Kioi .in, Amt. Chim. Phyr., I890 , 11, p. 199). e iormor method yields greyish. nietallic~looking, microscopic crystals, the latter is grey amorphous powder. A hydrated iorm, Ni,O|-2H,O, is obtained when the monoxide is iused with sodium peroxide at a red heat and the iustd mass extracted with water.
Nickel Sella—Only one series of salts is known. nnrnel those corresponding to the monoxide. in the anhydrous state t y are usually oi a yellow colour, whilst in the hydrated condition they are green. They may be recognized by the browni>h violet colour they impart to a born bead when heated in an oxidizing flame. The caustic alkali: added to solutions oi nickel stilts give a pale reen precipitate d the hydroxide, insoluble in excess oi the precipitant.
his latter reaction is hindered by the presence oi many organic acids (tartaric acid, citric acid, 810?. Potassium cyanide ives a greenish yellow precipitate oi nicke e anirle, NiiCNli. so ublt-jn excess oi potassium cyanide. iorming a ouble salt. NitCNJyZKCN, which remains unalt when boiled with excess oi potassium cyanide in presence oi air (of. COBALT). Ammonium sulphide preci ltatis black niekcl sulphide, which is somewhat soluble in excess
the precipitate (especially ii yellow ammonium sul hide be used), ionning a dark-coloured solution. Ammonium hy ruxide gives I green precipitate oi the h droxide, soluble in excess oi ammonia, iorming a blue solution. umerous methods have been devised ior the lepnration oi nickel and cobalt, the more important o'i which are: —-the cobaltinitrite method by which the cobalt is precipitated in the presence oi acetic acid b means oi potassium nitrite (the alkaline earth metals must not be present); the nnitle method (1. v. Lit-tiig,Ann., 1848,65,p.244; 1853,87.p.128),m which the twornetals ari- precipitated by excess oi tassiunt cyanide in alkaline solution. bromine being aiterwards ad ed Ind the solution warmed. when the tiirkcl is precipitated. The latter method has bet-n modified by adding potassium cyanide in slight excess to the solution oi the mixul slits, heatin ior some time and then adding mercuric oxide and water, the who e being then warmed on the water bath, when I precipitate oi mercuric :rude and nickel hydroxide is obtained (Liebig). M. Ilinski and G. v. Knorre (Bery 1885, 18, p. 169) separate the metals by adding nitroso-8-naphthol in the presence of 50% acetic acid, a precipitate of cobalti, nitroso-8-naphthol, [Cich.O(NO)],Co, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, being formed, whilst the corresponding nickel compound dissolves in hydrochloric acid. E. Pinerua separates the metals by taking advantage of the fact that cobalt chloride is soluble in ether which has been saturated with hydrochloric acid gas at low temperature. For an examination of the above and other methods see E. Hintz, Zeit. anal. Chem., 1891,
30, p. 227. N: uoride, NiF, obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on nickel chloride, crystallizes in yellowish green prisms which volatilise above £o: It is difficultly soluble in water, and combines with the alkaline fluorides to form double salts. Nickel chloride, NiCl3, is obtained in the anhydrous condition by # the hydrated salt to 140°C., or b £ heating the finely divided metal in a current of chlorine. It readily sublimes when heated in a current of chlorine, forming golden yellow scales. It is easily reduced when heated in hydrogen. It forms crystalline £ with ammonia and the o £es. It is soluble in alcohol and in water. Three hydrated forms are known, viz, a mono-, di-, and hexa-hydrate; the latter being the form usually obtained by the solution of the oxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid. Nickel chloride ammonia, NiCl2-6NH2, is obtained as a white powder when anhydrous nickel chloride is exposed to the action of ammonia gas (H. Rose, Pogg. Ann., 1830, 96, P. 155), or in the form of blue £ evaporating a solution of nickel chloride in aqueous ammonia. When heated to 100° C. it loses four molecules of ammonia. Two hydrated forms have been described, one containing three molecules of water and the other half a molecule. Numerous double chlorides of nickel and other metals are known. The bromide and iodide of nickel resemble the chloride and are prepared in a similar fashion. Several sulphides of the element have been obtained. A subsulphide, Ni,S(?), results when the sulphate is heated with sulphur or when the precipitated £ is heated in a current of hydrogen. It forms a light yellow amorphous mass which is almost insoluble in acids. The monosulphide, NiS, is obtained by heatin nickel with sulphur, by heating the monoxide with sulphurett hydrogen to a red heat, and by heating potassium sulphide with nickel chloride to 160-180° C. When prepared by dry methods it is an exceedingly stable, yellowish, somewhat crystalline mass. When prepared by the precipitation of nickel salts with alkaline sulphide in neutral solution it is a greyish black amorphous compound which readily oxidizes in moist air, forming a basic nickel sulphate. The freshly precipitated sulphide is £ in sulphurous acid and somewhat soluble in hydrochloric acid and yellow ammonium sulphide (see H. Baubigny, Comptes rendus, 1882, 94, pp. 961, 1183; 95, p. 34). , Nickel sulphate, NiSO4, is obtainca £ as a yellow powder, when any of its hydrates are heated. When heated with carbon it is reduced to the metal. It forms hydrates containing one, two, five, six and seven molecules of water. The heptahydrate is obtained b dissolving the metal or its oxide, hydroxide or carbonate in dilute sulphuric acid (preferably in the presence of a small quantity nitric acid), and allowing the solution to crystallize between 15° and 20°C. It crystallizes in emerald-green rhombic prisms and is moderately soluble in water. It effloresces gradually on exposure to air and passes into the hexahydrate. It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300° C., The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by £ of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20° and 30°C., and a monoclinic form between 50° and 70°C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine. The nitrate, Ni(NO3)2.6H2O, is obtained by dissolving the metal in dilute nitric acid and concentrating the solution between 40° and 50°C. It crystallizes in green prisms which deliquesce rapidly on exposure to moist air. Nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO), is obtained as a colourless mobile liquid # passing carbon monoxide over reduced nickel at a temperature of about 60° C. (L. Mond, Langer and Quincke, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1890, 57, p. 749). It boils at 43° C. (751 mm.), and sets at −25° C. to a mass of crystalline needles. It is readily soluble in hydrocarbon solvents, in chloroform and in alcohol. Its critical pressure is 3o atmospheres and its critical temperature is in the neighbourhood of 195°C. (J. Dewar, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1903, 71, p. 427). It decomses with explosive violence when heated rapidly. Dewar and £ (Journ. Chem. Soc., 1904, p. 203) have made an exhaustive study of its reactions, and find that it is decomposed by the halogens (dissolved in carbon '' with liberation of carbon monoxide and formation of a nickel halide, Cyanogen iodide and iodine mono- and tri-chloride effect similar decompositions with simultaneous liberation of , iodine; sulphuric acid reacts slowly, forming nickel sulphate and liberating £ and carbon monoxide. Hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids are without action; hydriodic acid only reacts slowly. With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at loo°C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.
metallic nickel which is probably the reducing agent effecting the change, since it is only dissolved in any quantity when the anthracene hydrocarbon is produced. When mesitylene is used, the reaction does not proceed beyond the aldehyde stage since hydrocarbon formation is prevented by the presence of a methyl group in the ortho-position to the -CHO group. Acids and alkalis are in general without action on nickel carbonyl. The vapour of nickel carbonyl burns with a luminous flame, a cold surface depressed in the flarne being covered with a black deposit of nickel. It is an extremely powerful poison. Mond and his assistants have discovered several other car '' For example cobalt gives Co(CO)4, as orange crystals which melt at 51°, decomposing at a higher temperature, iving Co(CO), and CO at 60°; Co(CQ), forms jet black # or iron carbonyls see IRON; also L. Mond, H. Hirtz and . D. Cowap, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1910, 97, p. 798. Nickel carbonate, NiCOs, is obtained in the anhydrous state by heating nickel chloride with calcium carbonate in a sealed tube to 150°C. (H. de Sénarmont, Ann. Chim. Phys., 1859 .30, 138). It crystallizes in microscopic rhombohedra insoluble in cold acids. By precipitation of nickel salts with solutions of the alkaline carbonates, basic carbonates of variable composition are obtained. Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nickel have been published, the values obtained '' from 58.o. to approximately # The more recent work of T. W. Richards and Cushman (Chem. ews, 1899, 79, 163, 174, 185) gives for the atomic weight of the metal the values 58.69 and 58.70. NICKNAME, a name given to a person in addition to his personal names, Christian and surname, either as a playful or familiar form of address or as a mark of ridicule, contempt or hatred. The Middle English form of the word, nckename, shows that it is a corruption of “an ekename" (i.e. “added ” name; eke, earlier eche, from the root seen in Lat. augere, Gr. at #ávetw), and is therefore equivalent to the Lat. agnomen. There is an interesting list of national nicknames in Notes and Queries, 9th series, 4, 212-214. NICOBAR ISLANDS, a British group of twelve inhabited and seven uninhabited islands in the Bay of Bengal, between Sumatra and the Andaman Islands, to which latter they are administratively appended. They have an aggregate area of about 635 sq. m., Great Nicobar (Loong), the largest and southernmost of any size, covering 333 sq. m. Six others range in area from about 20 sq. m. to 62 sq. m.; the rest are mere islets. A careful census of the natives, taken by Mr E. H. Man in 1901, gave a total population of some 6700, at about which figure the estimates of the number of inhabitants have always stood. Car Nicobar (Pu), the most northerly island, with an area of 49 sq. m., was by far the most densely populated, and had 3500 inhabitants, Great Nicobar containing only 450. The marine surveys of these islands are still meagre and unsatisfactory, but the whole of the Nicobars and outlying islands were surveyed topographically by the Indian Survey Department in 1886-1887, when a number of maps on the scale of 2 in. to the mile were produced, giving an accurate coast-line. Some of the islands have mere flat, coral-covered surfaces; others, again, are hilly, the Great Nicobar rising to 2105 ft. . On that island there are considerable and beautiful streams, but the others generally are badly off for fresh surface water. There is one good harbour, a magnificent land-locked shelter called Nancowry Harbour, formed by the islands of Camorta and Nancowrv (both known to natives as Nankauri).
Geology.—The Nicobars form part of a great submarine chain, of which the Andamans are a continuation. Elaborate geological reports were issued by a Danish scientific expedition in 1846 and an Austrian expedition in 1858. Dr Rink of the former found no trace of true volcanic rocks, though the chain as a whole is known for its volcanic activity, but features were not wanting to indicate considerable upheavals in the most recent periods. He considered that the islands belonged to the Tertiary age. Von Hochstetter of the Austrian expedition classified the most important formations thus: eruptive, serpentine and gabbro; marine deposits, probably late Tertiary, consisting of sandstoncs, slates, clay, marls, and plastic clay, recent corals. He considered the whole group connected geologically with the great islands of the Malay Archipelago farther south. The vexed question of the presence of coal and tin in the Nicobars has so far received no decided scientific support. The white clay marls of Camorta and Nancowry have become famous as bein true polycistinan marls like those of Barbados. Earthquakes great violence were recorded in 1847 and 1881 (with tidal wave), and mild shocks were £ in December 1899.
Thus by using benzene, benzaldehyde and anthracene are obtained. Dewar and j' suggest that in the latter reaction it is the
Meteorology.-It has always been held to important to main: tain a meteorological station on the Nicobars, for the purpose ol
chuite inferior in economic value to those of the more northerl
group; besides fruit trees-such as the coco-nut (Cocos nucifera), the betel-nut (Areca catechu), and the mellori (Pandanus leeram)—a thatching palm (Nipa fruticans) and various timber trees have some commercial value, but only one timber tree (Myristica irya)would be considered first-class in the Andamans. The palms of the Nicobars Instances of the introduction of foreign economic plants are frequently mentioned in the old rmissionary records, and nowadays a number of familiar Asiatic fruit-trees are carefully and successfully cultivated. As with the logy and the flora, certain phases of the fauna of the islands ave been extensively reported. The mammals are not numerous. In the southernmost islands are a small monkey, rats and mice, treees nic.), bats, and flying-foxes, but it is doubtful ttle, when introduced and left, inds of birds, ible-nest-building s is caniceps) and Fowls, snipe and teal thrive after
are, however, exceedingly graceful.
shrews (Cl if the “wild" pig is indigenous; ca. have speedily e “wild.” There are man notably, the megapod (Megapodius nic.), the swift (Collocalfa nidifica), the hackled and pied mic, and Carpophaga bicolor), a paroquet (P an oriole (Oriolus macrourus). importation or migration. Reptiles—snakes, lizards and chameleons, crocodiles, turtles and an enormous variant of the edible Indian crab-are numerous; butterflies and insects, the latter very troublesome, have not yet been syst water fish are reported to be of £ types found in Sumatra. Natives.—The Nicobarese may be bcst described as a Far Eastern race, having generally the characteristics of the less civilized tribes of the Malay Peninsula and the south-eastern portion of the Asiatic continent, and speaking varieties of the Mon-Annam group of languages, though the several dialects that prevail are mutually unintelligible. Their figure is not graceful, and, owing to their habit of dilating the lips by betelchewing, the adults of both sexes are often repulsive in appearance. Though short according to the standard of whites (average height, man, 5 ft. 33 in.; woman, 5 ft.), the Nicobarese are a fine, well-developed race, and live to seventy or eighty years of age. Their mental capacity is considerable, though there is a great difference between the sluggish inhabitant of Great Nicobar and the keen trader of Car Nicobar. The religion is an undisguised animism, and all their frequent and elaborate ceremonies and festivals are aimed at exorcising and scaring spirits. Though for a long time they were callous wreckers and pirates, and cruel, and though they show great want of feeling in the “devil murders”—ceremonial murders of one of themselves for grave offences against the community, which are now being gradually put down-still on the whole the Nicobarese are a quiet, inoffensive people, friendly to each other, and not quarrelsome, and by inclination friendly and not dangerous to foreigners. The old charge of cannibalism may be generally said to be quite untrue. Tribes can hardly be distinguished, but there are distinctions, chiefly territorial. All the differences observed in the several kinds of Nicobarese may with some confidence be referred to habitat and the physical difficulties of communication. Such government as there is, is by the village; but the village chiefs have not usually much power, though such authority as they have has always been maintained by the foreign Powers who have possessed the islands. The clothing, when not a caricature of European dress, is of the scantiest, and the waggling tags in which the loin-cloths are tied behind early gave rise to fanciful stories that the inhabitants were naked and tailed. The houses are good, and often of considerable size. The natives are skilful with their lands, and though they never cultivate cereals, exercise some care and knowledge over the coco-nut and tobacco, and have had much success with the foreign fruits and vegetables
kind pigeons (Calaena
ematically collected. The fresh
introduced by the missionaries. The staple article of trade has always been the ubiquitous coco-nut, of which it is computed that 15 million are produced annually, 1o million being taken by the people, and 5 million exported about equally from Car Nicobar and the rest of the islands. The usual cheap European goods are imported, the foreign trade being carried on with the native traders of the neighbouring Asiatic countries. There is an old-established internal trade, chiefly between the older islands and Chowra, for pots (which are only made there) and racing and other canoes. History.-The situation of the Nicobars along the line of a very ancient trade route has caused them to be reported by traders and seafarers through all historical times. In the 17th century the islands began to attract the attention of missionaries. At various times France, Denmark, Austria and Great Britain all had more or less shadowy rights to the islands, the Danes being the most persistent in their efforts to occupy the group, until in 1869 they relinquished their claims in favour of the British, who at once began to put down the piracies of the islanders, and established a penal settlement, numbering in all about 35o persons, in Nancowry harbour. The health of the convicts was always bad, though it improved with length of residence and the adoption of better sanitary measures; and an attempt to found a Chinese colony having failed in 1884 through mismanagement, the settlement was withdrawn in 1888. There are native agencies at Nancowry harbour and on Car Nicobar, both of which places are gazetted ports. At the latter is a Church of England mission station under a native Indian catechist attached to the diocese of Rangoon. AUTHORITIES.-E. H. Man, Dictionary # the Central Nicobarese £ 1889); F. Maurer, Die Nikobaren Berlin, 1867); Dr Svoboda, Die Bewohner des Nikobaren-Archipels (Leiden, 1893); F. A. De Roepstorff, Dictionary of the Nancowry Dialect (Calcutta, # Vocabulary of Dialects in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1875); Prevost and Heing, Report on Preliminary Tour through the Nicobar Islands (Government, Rangoon, 1897); J. B. Kloss, In the Andamans and Nicobars (London, 1902); A. Alcock, A Naturalist in the Indian Seas (London, 1902). (R.C. T.) NICOL, JAMES (1810–1879), Scottish geologist, was born at Traguair, near Innerleithen, in Peeblesshire, on the 12th of August 1810. His father, the Rev. James Nicol (1769–1819), was minister of Traquair, and acquired some celebrity as a poet. Educated at Edinburgh University (1825), James Nicol attended the lectures of Jameson, and thereby gained a keen interest in geology and mineralogy; and he pursued their study in the universities of Bonn and Berlin. After returning home he worked zealously at the local geology and obtained prizes from the Highland Society for essays on the geology of Peeblesshire and Roxburghshire; he subsequently extended his researches over various parts of Scotland, and in 1844 published his able Guide to the Geelogy of Scotland. In 1847 he was appointed assistant secretary to the Geological Society of London, in 1849 professor of geology in Queen's College, Cork, and in 1853 professor of natural history in the University of Aberdeen, a post which he retained until a few months before he died, on the 8th of April 1879. During these years he carried out important researches on the southern uplands of Scotland and on the structure of the Highlands. In the former region he gave the first clear account of the succession of the fossiliferous Lower Palaeozoic rocks (1848–1852); and when he came to deal with the still older Highland rocks he made out the position of the Torridon sandstone and Durness limestone and their relations to the schists and gneisses. His matured views, although contested by Murchison, have subsequently been substantiated by Professor C. Lapworth and others. The more important of his papers were: “On the Structure of the North-Western Highlands" (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1861), and “On the Geological Structure of the Southern Grampians" (ib., 1863). He contributed the article "Mineralogy" to the ninth edition of the # Britannica. £ other works were Manual of Minera # Elements #. ''' 2nd ed., 1873); Geological Map of Scotland (1858); and gy and Scenery of the North of Scotland (1866). NICOL, WILLIAM (? 1768-1851), Scottish physicist, was born about 1768, and died at Edinburgh on the 2nd of September
1851. Nothing is known of his early history beyond the fact that, after amassing a small competence as a popular lecturer on natural philosophy, he settled in Edinburgh to live a very retired life in the society of his apparatus alone. Besides the invention of the prism known by his name (“A method of increasing the divergence of the two rays in calcareous spar, so as to produce a single image,” New Edin. Journ., 1828), he devoted himself chiefly to the examination of fluid-filled cavitics in crystals, and of the microscopic structure of various kinds of fossil wood. His skill as a working lapidary was very great; and he prepared a number of lenses of garnet and other precious stones, which he preferred to the achromatic microscopes of the time. NICOLAI, CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH (1733-1811), German author and bookseller, was born on the 18th of March 1733 at Berlin, where his father, Christoph Gottlieb Nicolai (d. 1752), was the founder of the famous Nicolaische Buchhandlung. He received a good education, and in 1749 went to Frankfort-onOder to learn his father's business, finding time also to become acquainted with English literature. In 1752 he returned to Berlin, and began to take part in literary controversy by defending Milton against the attacks of J. C. Gottsched. His Briefe iber den jetzigen Zustand der.schönen Wissenschaften in Deutschland, published anonymously in 1755 and reprinted by G. Ellinger in 1894, were directed against both Gottsched and Gottsched's Swiss opponents, Johann Jakob Bodmer and Johann Jakob Breitinger; his enthusiasm for English literature won for him the friendship of Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn. In association with Mendelssohn he established in 1757 the Bibliothek der schönen Wisscnschaften, a periodical which he conducted until 1760. With Lessing and Mendelssohn Nicolai founded in 1759 the famous Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend; and from 1765 to 1792 he edited the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek. This latter periodical served as the organ of the so-called “popular philosophers,” who warred against authority in religion and against what they conceived to be extravagance in literature. The new movement of ideas represented by Herder, Goethe, Schiller, Kant and Fichte, Nicolai was incapable of understanding, and he made himself ridiculous by foolish misrepresentation of the aims of these writers. Of Nicolai's independent works, perhaps the only one which has some historical value is his Anekdoten von Friedrich II. (1788-1792). His romances are forgotten, although Das Leben und die Meinungen des Herrn Magister Sebaldus Nolhanker (1773-1776), and his satire on Goethe's Werther, Freuden des jungen Werthers (1775), had a certain reputation in their day. Between 1788 and, 1796 Nicolai published in 12 vols. a Beschreibung einer Reise durch Deutschland und die Schweiz, which bears witness to the narrow conservatism of his views in later life. He died in Berlin on the 11th of January 1811.
in 1833 became organist to the German embassy in Rome. There his operas Enrico II (1839) and Il Templario (1840) were produced, besides some church music, a series of songs, and a number of compositions for the pianoforte. He was subsequently appointed Hof Kapellmeister at the Berlin Opera House; and there, only two days before he died (on the 11th of March 1849), was performed his brilliant opera, The Merry Wives of Windsor, the work by which he is now remembered. NICOLAS, SIR NICHOLAS HARRIS (1799–1848), English antiquary, fourth son of John Harris Nicolas (d. 1844), was born at Dartmouth on the 10th of March 1799. Having served in the navy from 1812 to 1816, he studied law and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1825. His work as a barrister, however, was confined principally to peerage cases before the House of
Lords, and his time was mainly devoted to genealogical and historical studies. In 1831 he was made a knight of the order of the Guelphs, and in 1832 chancellor and knight-commander of the order of St Michael and St George, being advanced to the grade of the grand cross in 1840. He became a member of the council of the Society of Antiquaries in 1826, but soon began to criticize the management of the society's affairs, and withdrew in 1828. He then criticized the Record Commission, which he regarded as too expensive. These attacks, which brought him into controversy with Sir Francis Palgrave, led in 1836 to the appointment of a select committee to inquire into the public records. He was also responsible for several reforms at the British Museum. In 1822 Nicolas married Sarah (d. 1867), daughter of John Davison of Loughton, Essex, a reputed descendant of the Tudor statesman William Davison. By her he left two sons and six daughters. Pecuniary difficulties compelled him to leave England, and he died near Boulogne on the 3rd of August 1848. Although a sharp and eager controversialist Nicolas was a genial and generous man, with a great knowledge of genealogical questions. The most important of the works of Nicolas is his History of the Orders of Knighthood of the British Empire; of the Order of the Guelphs; and £, Clasps, &c., for Naval and Military Services (London, 1841-1842). Among his numerous other writings are, The Chronology of History (London, 1833); Life of William Davison (London, 1823); Synopsis of the Peerage of England (London, 1825); ife and Times of Sir Christopher. Hatton (London, 1847); and an uncompleted History of the Royal Navy (London, ##!. He edited Pr ings and Ordinances of the Privy Council of England, # 1542 (London, 1834-1837), and Despatches and Letters o ref Nelson (London, *# wrote lives of Chaucer, Burns, owper. Thomson, Collins, Kirke White and others for Pickering's Aldine edition of the poets; lives of Izaak Walton and Charles Cotton for an edition of the Compleat Angler; and several elaborate works on genealogical and kindred subjects printed for private circulation only. NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS, Greek historian and philosopher of Damascus, flourished in the time of Augustus and Herod the Great, with both of whom he was on terms of friendship. He instructed Herod in rhetoric and philosophy, and had attracted the notice of Augustus when he accompanied his patron on a visit to Rome. Later, when Herod's conduct aroused the suspicions of Augustus, Nicolaus was sent on a mission to bring about a reconciliation. He survived Herod, and it was through his influence that the succession was secured for Archelaus; but the date of his death, like that of his birth, is unknown. Fragments of his universal history ("Iaropla kaffo)\iki), from the time of the Assyrian empire to his own days, his autobiography, and his life of Augustus (Bios Kalaapos) have been preserved, chiefly in the extracts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Nicolaus also wrote comedies and tragedies, paraphrased and wrote commentaries on parts of Aristotle, and was himself the author of philosophical treatises. Fragments in C. Müller, Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum, iii.; see also F. Navet, Nikolaus von Damascus (1853), containing an account of his life and writings, and translation of the fragments. NICOLAUS OF LYRA (c. 1265–1349), French commentator, was born in Lire, now Vieille-Lyre, in the department of Eure, Normandy. He entered the Franciscan order at Verneuil about 13oo, and studied at Paris, where, becoming a doctor some time before 1309, he taught for many years. From 1319 he was provincial of his order in France, and was present in that capacity at the general chapter at Pérouse (1321). In 1325 he was provincial of Burgundy, and as executor of the estate of Jeanne of Burgundy, widow of King Philip VI., he founded the college of Burgundy at Paris, where he died in the autumn of 1349, being buried in the chapter hall of the convent of the Cordeliers. Among the authentic works of Nicolaus of Lyra are: (1) two commentaries on the whole Bible, one (Postilla litteralis, 1322– 1331) following the literal sense, the other (Postilla mystica seu moralis, 1339) following the mystic sense. There are numerous editions (Rome, 1471-1472; Douai, 1617; Antwerp. 1634). (2) Tractatus de differentia nostrae translationis (i.e Vulgate) ab Hebraica veritate, 1333. (3) Two treatises against the Jews. (4) A theological treatise on the Beatific Vision, directed against pope John XXII. (1334), unpublished. (5)