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sulphruic acid, when an intense, rose-red colour is produced (I. / and hospitals (including the Jurujuba yellow-fever hospital

The constitution of nicotine was established by A. Pinner (see and the Barreto isolation hospital), the government palace, papers in the Berichte, 1891 to 1895). With bromine in acetic acid

a municipal theatre and a large Salesian college situated in the solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, suburbs of Santa Rosa on an eminence overlooking the lower C.H.Br.NO-HBrs, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by bay. Several large islands fill the upper bay near the eastern potash, gives dibromcotinine, CooHoBr2N0, from which cotinine, shore; some are used as coal deposits for the great steamship nicotine with bromine in hydrobromic acid solution

for some hours companies, and one (Flores) is used as an immigrants' depôi. at 100° C., dibromticonine hydrobromide, CHAN,Br 02.HBr, There is a small, rocky and picturesque island nearer the results. Dibromcotinine on hydrolysis yields oxalic acid, methy. harbour entrance, which is crowned by a small chapel, dedicated lamine and B-methyl pyridyl ketone: (H..Brą,0+3H40+0= to Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem. Manufactures include H,C,0,+CH NH,+C.H.N.COCH,+2HBr; whilst dibromticoninc yields methylamine, malonic acid and nicotinic acid : C..H, Br,N,0,+ cotton and woollen fabrics, tobacco, spirits, soap and tiles. 4H,O=CH NH,+CH (CO2H)2+C,H.N.COH+2HBr, or if heated The first settlement on the east side of the Bay of Rio de with zinc and caustic potash, methylamine and pyridyl-By-dioxy- Janciro dates from 1671, when a chapel was erected at Praia butyric acid. Thus the groupings

Grande, in the vicinity of an Indian village. The settlement

did not become a village until 1819, when it was named Villa -C.C >N.CH, and C.C.C Real da Praia Grande. In 1834 the city and municipal district

of Rio de Janeiro was separated from the province, and Praia exist in the molecule, and the alkaloid is to be represented as Grande became the capital of the latter in the following year. a-pyridyl-N-methyl-pyrollidine.

İn 1836 it was raised to the dignity of a city and received the This result has been confirmed by its synthesis by A. Pictet and appropriate name of Nictheroy, from the Indian name Nylerõi, P. Crépieux (Comples rendus, 1903, 137, p. 860) and Pictet and Rotschy (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1225): B-aminopyridine is converted

"hidden water.” In the naval revolt of 1893-94 the older into its mucate, which by dry distillation gives N-B-pyridylpyrrol. districts of the city suffered much damage from desultory By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, bombardments, but the insurgents were too few to take possession. it yields the isomeric aß-pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which Soon afterwards the seat of government was removed to and pyrrol nuclei. By distillation over time, the methyl group is Petropolis, where it remained until 1903, when Nictheroy removed from the pyridine ring, and the resulting a-pyridyl-N- again became the capital of the state. methylpyrrol gives i-nicotine on reduction. This base is resolved into NIDIFICATION (from Lat. nidus), the process of making a its active components by d-tartaric acid, 1-nicotine-d-tartrate nest (9.v.). Nidification is with most birds the beginning of the crystallizing out first. The natural (laevo) base is twice as toxic as breeding season, but with many it is a labour that is scamped the dextro. The following formulac are important:

if not shirked. Some of the auk tribe place their single egg on N -CH



a bare ledge of rock, where its peculiar conical shape is but CH CH


a precarious safeguard when rocked by the wind or stirred

by the thronging crowd of its parents' fellows. The stone-curlew CH


and the goatsucker deposit their eggs without the slightest N-B-Pyridylpyrrol, ab-pyridylpyrrol, nicotine.

preparation of the soil on which they rest; yet this is not don, Acetyl and benzoyl derivatives of nicotine on hydrolysis do not yield nicotine, but an isomeric, inactive oily liquid (metanicotine). almost to an inch, the very same spot which year after year

at haphazard, for no birds can be more constant in selecting, It is a secondary base, and boils at 275°-278° C.

Nicolimine is a colourless liquid which boils at 250°-255°C. Its they choose for their procreant cradle. In marked contrast aqucous solution is alkaline. "Nicoteine is a liquid which boils at to such artless care stand the wonderful structures which others, 267° C. It is separated from the other alkaloids of the group, by such as the tailor-bird, the bottle-ritmouse or the fantail-warbler, ating the residue. It is soluble in water and is very poisonous build for the comfort or safety of their young. But every variety Nicotelline crystallizes in needles which melt at 147° C. and is readily of disposition may be found in the class. The apieryx seems soluble in hot water.

to entrust its abnormally big egg to an excavation among the NICTHEROY, or Niterov, a city of Brazil and capital of roots of a tree-fern; while a band of female ostriches scrape the state of Rio de Janeiro, on the E. shore of the Bay of Rio holes in the desert-sand and therein promiscuously drop their de Janeiro, opposite the city of that name. Pop. (1890) 34,269, eggs and leave the task of incubation to the male. Some (1900 estimate) 35,000. A railway connects the city with megapodes bury their eggs in sand, leaving them to come to the interior--the old Cantagallo line, now a part of the Leo maturity by the mere warmth of the ground, while others poldina system, a branch of which runs north-eastward to raise a huge hotbed of dead leaves wherein they deposit theirs, Macahé, on the coast, and another northward from Nova and the young are hatched without further care on the part Friburgo to a junction with the railway lines of Minas Geraes. of either parent. Some of the grebes and rails seem to avail Nicther is pr a residential suburb of Rio de Janeiro. themselves in a less degree of the heat generated by vegetable It occupies, in great part, the low alluvial plain that skirts the decay and, dragging from the bottom or sides of the waters shores of the bay and fills the valleys between numerous low they frequent fragments of aquatic plants, form of them a rude wooded hills. The site is shut off from the sea coast by a range hali-Noating mass which is piled on some growing water-weedof high rugged mountains. The shore line of the bay is broken but these birds do not spurn the duties of maternity, by large, deeply indented bays (that of Jurujuba being nearly Many of the gulls, sandpipers and plovers lay their eggs in a surrounded by wooded hills), shallow curves and sharp pro shallow pit which they hollow out in the soil, and then as incuba. montories. Within these bays are beaches of white sand, called tion proceeds add thereto a low breast work of haulm. The praias, such as the Praia da Icarahy, Praia das Flechas and ringed plover commonly places its eggs on shingle, which they Praia Grande, upon which face low tile-covered residences so much resemble in colour, but when breeding on grassy uplands surrounded with gardens. The city consists of a number of it paves the nest-hole with small stones. Pigeons mostly make these partially separated districts-Praia Grande, São Domingos, an artless platform of sticks so loosely laid together that their Icarahy, Jurujuba, Santa Rosa, São Lourenço, l'onta d'Areia pearly treasures may be perceived from beneath by the inquisitive and Barreto-all together covering 8 or 9 m. of the shore. observer. The magpie, as though self-conscious that its own An electric street railway connects all the outlying districts thieving habits may be imitated by its neighbours, surrounds with the ferry stations of Praia Grande and São Domingos, its nest with a hedge of thorns. Very many birds of almost The city is characteristically Portuguese in the construc-every group bore holes in some sandy cliff, and at the end of tion and style of its buildings-low, heavy walls of broken their tunnel deposit their eggs with or without bedding. Such stone and mortar, plastered and coloured outside, with an bedding, too, is very various in character; thus, while the occasional facing of glazed Lisbon tiles, and covered with sheldduck and the sand-martin supply the softest of materials red tiles. Among the public buildings are several churches the one of down from her own body, the other of leathers collected

by dint of diligent search-the kingfisher forms a couch of the In the strongest contrast to these amiable qualities is the undigested spiny fish bones which she ejects in pellets from her parasitic nature of the cuckoos of the Old World and the cowown stomach. Other birds, such as the woodpeckers, hew holes birds of the New. The egg of the parasite is introduced into the in living trees, even when the timber is of considerable hardness, nest of the dupe, and after the necessary incubation by the fond and therein establish their nursery. Some of the swifts secrete fool of a foster-mother the interloper successfully counterfeits from their salivary glands a fluid which rapidly hardens as it the heirs, who perish miserably, victims of his superior strength. dries on exposure to the air into a substance resembling isinglass, The whole process has been often watched, but the reflective and thus furnish the "edible birds' nests” that are the delight naturalist will pause to ask how such a state of things came of Chinese epicures. In the architecture of nearly all the about, and there is not much to satisfy his inquiry. Certain it passerine birds, too, some salivary secretion seems to play an is that some birds whether by mistake or stupidity do not important part. By its aid they are enabled to moisten and infrequently lay their eggs in the nests of others. It is within the bend the otherwise refractory twigs and straws, and glue them knowledge of many that phcasants' eggs and partridges' eggs to their place. Spiders' webs also are employed with great are often laid in the same nest, and gulls' eggs have been found advantage for the purpose last mentioned, but perhaps chiefly in the nests of eider-ducks and vice versa; a redstart and a pied to attach fragments of moss and lichen so as to render the whole flycatcher will lay their eggs in the same convenient hole-the structure less obvious to the eye of the spoiler. The tailor-bird forest being rather deficient in such accommodation; an owl deliberately spins a thread of cotton and therewith stitches and a duck will resort to the same nest-box, set up by a scheming together the edges of a pair of leaves to make a receptacle woodsman for his own advantage; and the starling, which for its nest. Beautiful, too, is the felt fabricated of fur or hairs constantly dispossesses the green woodpecker, sometimes disby the various species of titmouse, while many birds ingeniously covers that the rightful heir of the domicile has to be brought weave into a compact mass both animal and vegetable fibres, up by the intruding tenant. In all such cases it is not possible forming an admirable non-conducting medium which guards to say which species is so constituted as to obtain the mastery, the eggs from the extremes of temperature outside. Such a but it is not difficult to conceive that in the course of ages that structure may be open and cup-shaped, supported from below which was driven from its home might thrive through the fosteras that of the chaffinch and goldfinch, domed like that of the ing of its young by the invader, and thus the abandonment of wren and bottle-uitmouse, slung hammock-wise as in the case domestic habits and duties might become a direct gain to the of the golden-crested wren and the orioles, or suspended by a evicted householder.

(A. N.) single cord as with certain grosbeaks and humming-birds.

Nests and Coloration.-The correlation between nests and the Certain warblers (Aedon and Thamnobia) invariably lay a coloration of the birds has been investigated by A. R. Wallace. piece of snake's slough in their nesis-to repel, it has been accordingly he divides birds into two main groups, first those in suggested, marauding lizards who may thereby fear the neigh- which the sexes are alike and of conspicuous or showy colours, bourhood of a deadly enemy. The clay-built edifices of the and which midificate in a covered site; secondly, those in which the swallow and martin are known to everybody, and the nuthatch for their nests. The many exceptions to these generalizations caused plasters up the gaping mouth of its nest-hole till only a postern J. A. Allen (Bull. Null. Orn. Club, 1878) to write an adverse criticism. large enough for entrance and cxit, but easy of defence, is left. Ć. Dixon (H. Seebohm's Hist. Brit. Birds, ii., 1884, introduction) In South America the oven-birds (Furnariidae) construct on the has reviewed the question from Wallace's point of view. He branches of trees globular ovens, so to speak, of mud, wherein 1. Birds in which

the plumage of the male is bright and conspicuous the eggs are laid and the young hatched. The flamingo erects in colour, and that of the female dull and sombre, and which nidificate in the marshes it frequents a mound of earth sometimes 2 ft. in in open sites. In these very common cases, the female alone in. height, with a cavity atop. The females of the hornbills submit cubates, and obviously derives protection from its inconspicuous to incarceration during this interesting period, the males im


2. Birds in which the plumage of both sexes is showy or brilliant muring them by a barrier of mud, leaving only a small window to in colour, and which nidificate in open nests. This group forms one admit air and food.

of those exceptions which at first sight appear seriously to affect the But though in a general way the dictates of hereditary instinct validity of Wallace's theory. In most of the cases, however, the are rigidly observed by birds, in many species a remarkable birds, as, for instance, crows, gulls, herons, are either well able to

dcfend themselves and their nests or, as, for instance, the sandpipers, degree of elasticity is exhibited, or the rule of habit is rui cly they seek safety for themselves in night, relying upon the protective broken. Thus the falcon, whose ordinary eyry is on the beetling tints of their eggs or young. cliff, will for the convenience of procuring prey condescend to

Birds in which the male is less brilliant than the female, and

which nidificate in open nests. Such birds are exceedingly few, e.g. lay its eggs on the ground in a marsh, or appropriate the nest

the Phalaropes, the common cassowary, the emu, a carrion hawk of some other bird in a tree. The golden eagle, too, remarkably (Milvago leucurus) from the Falkland Islands, an Australian treeadapts itself to circumstances, now rearing its young on a creeper (Climacteris erythrops) and an Australian goatsucker (Euryprecipitous ledge, now on the arm of an ancient monarch of the sto pódus albigularis). In all these cases the male performs the duty forest and again on a trecless plain, making a humble home of incubation. The male tinamous do the same, although they do amid grass and herbage. Herons will breed according to circum- not differ from their mates, but the conspicuously coloured male

ostrich takes this duty upon himself during the night. stances in an open fen, on sed-banks or (as is most usual) on lofty 4. Birds in which both sexes are brightly

coloured, and which rear trces. Such changes are easy to understand. The instinct of their young in holes or covered nests. For instance, the gaudy finding food for the family is predominant, and where most food coloured rollers, bee-eaters, kingfishers, the hoopoe, hornbills, is there will the feeders be gathered together. This explains, in toucans, parrots, tits, the sheldrake and many others.

5. Birds in which both sexes are dull in colour, and which build all likelihood, the associated bands of ospreys or fish-hawks, covered nests from motives of safety other than concealment. For which in North America breed (or used to breed) in large example, the swifts (Cypselus), the sand-martin (Colyle riparia), companies where sustenance is plentiful, though in the oid wrens, dippers and owls. World the same species brooks not the society of aught but its and which nidificate in covered nests; e.g. the redstart (Ruticilla

6. Birds in which the female is duller in colour than the male, mate. Birds there are of eminently social predilections. In phoenicura), the pied flycatcher (Muscicapa atricapilla), rockEurope, apart from sea-fowls--whose congregations are universal thrushes (Monlicola), chats (Saxicola) and robin-chats (Thamnobia). and known to all-only the heron, the fieldfare and the rook and birds of the genus Malurus. In some of these cases the showy habitually flock during the breeding season; but in other parts male bird assists in incubation, the kind of nest allowing him to do of the world many birds unite in company at that time, and in Similar difficulties beset the generalizations concerning the none possibly is this habit so strongly developed as in the anis correlation of the colour of the eggs and the exposed or hidden of the neotropical region, the republican swallow of North condition of the nest. The eggs of most birds which breed in holes, America and the sociable grosbeak of South Africa, which last or even in covered nests, are white, but the number of exceptions joins nest to nest until the tree is said to break down under the versely the number of birds which lay purely white eggs in open

is so great that no general rule can be laid down to this effect. 'Con. accumulated weight of the common edifice.

nests, c.8. pigeons, is also large. The eggs of owls are always white.

whether they be deposited in holes on the bare ground or in open He commenced his lectures with a course on the history of nests in a tree. The eggs of the goshawk are white, but those of Rome, which formed the basis of his great work Römische its small relation, the sparrowhawk, are always blotched, the nest of

The first two volumes, based upon his lectures, both being built precisely in the same kind of position, &c. In Geschichte. regard to the almost countless cases of spotted eggs in holes or covered were published in 1812, but attracted little attention at the time nests, of which so many groups of birds furnish examples cither owing to the absorbing interest of political events. In 1813 wholly or in part, it has been suggested that the species in question Niebuhr's own attention was diverted from history by the not yet got rid of the ancestral habit of secreting and despositing uprising of the German people against Napolcon; he entered pigment.

the Landwehr and ineflectually sought admission into the Length of Time of Incubation. Most of the smaller Passeres secm regular army. He edited for a short time a patriotic journal, 10 days, is recorded of the small Zosterops coerulescens; the largest, allicd sovereigns, and witnessed the battle of Bautzen, and was to hatch their young in from 13:15 days. The shortest period, only the Prussian Correspondent, joined the headquarters of the penguins and the condor. The best list, comprising birds of most subsequently employed in some minor negotiations. In 1815 he groups, is that by W. Evans (Ibis, 1891, pp. 52.93; and 1892, pp: lost both his father and his wise. He next accepted (1816) the 55-58). Speaking broadly, the largest birds lay the largest cggs and post of ambassador at Rome, and on his way thither he discovered require the longest time for incubation, but there are very many in the cathedral library of Verona the long-lost Institutes of each other. The domestic fowl takes 21 days, but the pheasant, Gaius, afterwards edited by Savigny, to whom he communicated though so very nearly allicd, takes 2 or 3 days longer, and even the the discovery under the impression that he had found a portion small partridge requires 24 days. The mallard takes 26, the domestic of Ulpian. During his residence in Rome Niebuhr discovered duck 27, the musk duck 35 days, like most of the swans. The cuckoo, and published fragments of Cicero and Livy, aided Cardinal Mai with 13 to 14 days, seems to have adapted itself to the short period in his edition of Cicero De Republica, and shared in framing the of its foster parents.

The whole question still affords ample opportunities of experimental plan of the great work on the topography of ancient Rome by investigation and comparison. The condition of the newly hatched Christian C. J. von Bunsen and Ernst Platner (1773-1855), to birds also varics extremely: The Nidifugae are born with their eyes which he contributed several chapters. He also, on a journey open, are thinly clothed with ncossoptiles of simple structure, Icave the nest on the first day and feed themselves. The Nidicolae arc home from Italy, deciphered in a palimpsest at St Gall the fragborn blind, remain a long time in the nest and have to be led by their ments of Flavius Merobaudes, a Roman poet of the 5th century. parents. Taken as a whole, the Nidifugae comprise most of the In 1823 he resigned the embassy and established himself at Bonn, phylogenetically older groups; but many of these may include some where the remainder of his life was spent, with the exception of closely allied members which have reached the developmental level of the Nidicolae: for instance, some Alcidae, the pigeons, Sphenisci,

some visits to Berlin as councillor of state. He here rewrote Tubinares, Ciconiac. For detail sec Birds: Classification. While in and republished (1827-1828) the first two volumes of his Roman the first category, the sense organs, tegumentary and locomotory History, and composed a third volume, bringing the narrative organs are far advanced, these are retarded in the Nidicolae, the down to the end of the First Punic War, which, with the help of period. Yet the length of the incubation is by no means always a fragment written in 1811, was edited after his death (1832) longer in thc Nidifugae, when compared with equal-sized Nidicolae. by Johannes Classen (1805-1891). He also assisted in August

For further information the reader may be referred to: A. R. Bekker's edition of the Byzantine historians, and delivered
Wallace, " A Theory of Birds' Nests," Journ. of Travel and Nat. courses of lectures on ancient history, ethnography, geo-
Hist., 1868, P: 73, reprinted in his Contributions to the Theory of graphy, and on the French Revolution. In February 1830 his
Natural Selection (London, 1870); A. McAldowic, “ Observations on
the Development and the Decay of the Pigment Layer in Birds'

house was burned down, but the greater part of his books and Eggs." Journ. An. Phys. xx., 1886, pp. 225-237: W. Hewitson, manuscripts were saved. The revolution of July in the same year Coloured Illustrations of the Eggs of British Birds (3rd ed., London, was a terrible blow to him, and filled him with the most dismal 1856); T. M. Brewer North American Oology (4to, Washington, anticipations of the future of Europe. He died on the end of 1857); A. Lefèvre, Atlas des aufs des oiseaux d'Europe (8vo, Paris, January 1831. 1845); F. W. Baedeker,. Die Eier der europäischen Vögel (fol., Lcipzig, 1863); E. Rcy, Eier d. Vögel Millel-Europa's (Gera, 1905);

Niebuhr's Roman History counts among epoch-making histories A. Newton, Ootheca Wolleyana (8vo, London, 1864-1907); and both as marking an era in the study of its special subject and for articles on Eggs " and "Nidification" in Dici. Birds (London, ils momentous influence on the general conception of history, 1893-1896).

(H. F. G.)

The main results," says Leonhard Schmilz, “arrived at by the NIEBUHR, BARTHOLD GEORG (1776-1831), German states inquiries of Niebuhr, such as his views of the ancient populaman and historian, son of Karsten Niebuhr (9.v.), was born at tion of Rome, the origin of the plebs, the relation between the Copenhagen on the 27th of August 1776. From the earliest age patricians and plebeians, the real nature of the ager publicus, and young Niebuhr manifested extraordinary precocity, and from many other points of interest, have been acknowledged by all 1794 to 1796, being already a finished classical scholar and his successors." Other alleged discoveries, such as the conacquainted with several modern languages, he studied at the struction of early Roman history out of still earlier ballads, university of Kiel. After quitting the university he became have not been equally fortunate; but if every positive conclusion private secretary to Count Schimmelmann, Danish minister of of Niebuhr's had been rcfuted, his claim to be considered the finance. But in 1798 he gave up this appointment and travelled first who dealt with the ancient history of Rome in a scientific in Great Britain, spending a year at Edinburgh studying agri- spirit would remain unimpaired, and the new principles introculture and physical science. In 1799 he returned to Denmark, duced by him into historical research would lose nothing of their where he entered the state service; in 1800 he married and importance. He suggested, though he did not elaborate, the settled at Copenhagen. In 1804 he became chief director of the theory of the myth, so potent an instrument for good and ill in National Bank, but in September 1806 quitted this sor a similar modern historical criticism. He brought in inference to supply appointment in Prussia. He arrived in Prussia on the eve of the place of discredited tradition, and showed the possibility the catastrophe of Jena. He accompanied the fugitive govern- of writing history in the absence of original records. By his ment to Königsberg, where he rendered considerable service theory of the disputes between the patricians and plebcians arising in the commissariat, and was afterwards still more useful as from original differences of race he drew attention to the immense commissioner of the national debt and by his opposition to ill. importance of ethnological distinctions, and contributed to the considered schemes of taxation. He was also for a short time revival of these divergences as factors in modern history. More Prussian minister in Holland, where he endeavoured without than all, perhaps, since his conception of ancient Roman story success to contract a loan. The extreme sensitiveness of his made laws and manners of more account than shadowy lawgivers, temperament, however, disqualified him for politics; he proved he undesignedly influenced history by popularizing that con. impracticable in his relations with Hardenberg and other ministers, ception of it which lays stress on institutions, tendencies and and in 1810 retired for a time from public life, accepting the social traits to the neglect of individuals. more congenial appointment of royal historiographer and Niebuhr's personal character was in most respects exceedingly professor at the university of Berlin.

attractive. His heart was kind and his affections were strong;

he was magnanimous and disinterested, simple and honest. von Arabien und anderen umliegenden Ländern. The fourth He had a kindling sympathy with everything lofty and generous, volume was not published till 1837, long after his death, under and framed his own conduct upon the highest principles. His the editorship of Niebuhr's daughter. He also undertook the chief defect was an over-sensitiveness, leading to peevish and task of bringing out the work of his friend Forskål, the naturalist unreasonable behaviour in his private and official relations, to of the expedition, under the titles of Descripliones animalium, hasty and unbalanced judgments of persons and things that had Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, and Icones rerum naturalium (Copengiven him annoyance, and to a despondency and discouragement hagen, 1775-1776). To a German periodical, the Deutsches which frustrated the great good he might have effected as a philo- Museum, Niebuhr contributed papers on the interior of Africa, sophic critic of public affairs.

the political and military condition of the Turkish empire, and The principal authority for Nicbuhr's life is the Lebensnachrichten other subjects. über B. G. Niebuhr, aus Briefen desselben 'und aus Erinnerungen French and Dutch translations of his narratives were published einiger seiner nächsten Freunde, by Dorothea Hensler (3 vols., 1838- during his lifetime, and a condensed English translation, by Robert 1839). In the English translation by Miss Winkworth (1852) a Heron, of the first three volumes in Edinburgh (1792). His son great deal of the correspondence is omitted, but the narrative is Barthold (sec above), published a short Life at Kiel in 1817; an rendered more full, especially as concerns Niebuhr's participation English version was issued in 1838 in the Lives of Eminent Men, in public affairs. It also contains interesting communications from published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Bunsen and Professor Locbell, and select translations from the Sce D. G. Hogarth, The Penetration of Arabia ("Story of ExKleine

Schriften. See also J. Classen, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, eine ploration " series) (1904).
Gedächtnisschrift (1876), and G. Eyssenhardt, B. G. Niebuhr (1886).
The first cdition of his Roman History was translated into English

NIEDERBRONN, a town of Germany, in the imperial province by F. A. Walter (1827),

but was immediately superseded by the Alsace-Lorraine, on the Falkensteiner Bach, situated under the translation of the second edition by Julius Harc and Connop Thirwall

, castern slope of the Vosges, 12 m. N.W. from Hagenau by rail. completed by William Smith and Leonhard Schmitz (last cdition, Pop. (1905) 3120. It contains an Evangelical and a Roman 1847-1851). The History has been discussed and criticized in a great Catholic church, a convent of the Sisters of the Divine Redeemer, Sir George Cornwall Lewis's Essay on the Credibihty of the Early and a high-grade and other schools. Niederbronn is one of the Roman History See further J. E. Sandys, History of Classical best-known watering places in the Vosges. Its brine springs, Scholarship (1908), iii., pp. 78-82.

with a hydropathic establishment attached, are specific in cases NIEBUHR, KARSTEN (1733-1815), German traveller, was of gout, obesity and liver disorders. Here, on the 26th of July born at Lüdingworth, Lauenburg, on the southern border of 1870, the first engagement between the Germans and the French Holstein, on the 17th of March 1733, the son of a small farmer. in the Franco-German war took place. There are several ruined He had little education, and for several years of his youth had castles in the neighbourhood, the most noteworthy of which is one to do the work of a peasant. His bent was towards mathematics, on the Wesenburg (1415 ft. high) crected in the 14th century. and he managed to obtain some lessons in surveying. It was Various Celtic and Roman antiquities have been found around while he was working at this subject that one of his tcachers, in Niederbronn. 1760, proposed to him to join the expedition which was being sent Sec Kuhn, Les Eaux de Niederbronn (3rd ed., Strassburg, 1860); out by Frederick V. of Denmark for the scientific exploration Mathis, Aus Niederbronns allen Zeiten (Strassburg. 1901); and of Egypt, Arabia and Syria. To qualify himself for the work Kirstcin, Das Wasgaubad Niederbronn (Strassburg, 1902). of surveyor and geographer, he studied hard at mathematics NIEDERLAHNSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian for a year and a half before the expedition set out, and also province of Hesse-Nassau, situated on the right bank of the Rhine managed to acquire some knowledge of Arabic. The expedition at the confluence of Lahn, 3 m. S.E. from Coblenz by the railway sailed in January 1761, and, landing at Alexandria, ascended thc to Ems, and at the junction of lines to Hochheim and Cologne, Nilc. Proceeding to Sucz, Niebuhr made a visit to Mount Sinai, Pop (1905) 4351. It has lwo Roman Catholic churches. The and in October 1762 the expedition sailed from Sucz 10 Jeddah, chief industries are the making of machinery and shipbuilding. journeying thence overland to Mocha. Herc in May 1763 the Nicderlahnstein obtained civic rights in 1332, and was until 1803 philologist of the expedition, van Haven, died, and was followed on the territory of the electors of Trier. Here on the ist of shortly after by the naturalist Forskål. Sana, the capital of January 1814 a part of the Russian army crossed the Rhine. Yemen, was visited, but the remaining members of the expedition in the vicinity are the Johanniskirche, a Romanesque church suffered so much from the climate or from the mode of life that restored in 1857, and the Allerheiligenberg, whereon stands a they returned to Mocha. Niebuhr seems to have saved his own chapel, once a famous place of pilgrimage. life and restored his health by adopting the native habits as 10

NIEDER-SELTERS, a village of Germany, in the Prussian dress and food. From Mocha the ship was taken to Bombay, province of Hesse-Nassau, situated in a well-wooded country on the artist of the expedition dying on the passage, and thesurgcon thc Ems, 12 m. S E. from Limburg by the railway to Frankfortsoon after landing. Niebuhr was now the only surviving member on-Main. Pop. (1900) 1339. Here are the springs of the famous of the expedition. He stayed fourteen months at Bombay, and Sellers or Seltzer water, employed as specific in cases of catarch then returned home by Muscat, Bushire, Shiraz and Persepolis, of the respiratory organs, the stomach and bladder. Until 1866 visited the ruins of Babylon, and thence went to Bagdad, Mosul the springs belonged to the duke of Nassau; since this date they and Aleppo. After a visit to Cyprus he made a tour through have been the property of Prussia. They became famous in the Palestine, crossing Mount Taurus to Crussa, rcaching Con-carlier part of the 19th century, although they had been known stantinople in February 1767 and Copenhagen in ļhe following many years previously November. He married in 1773, and for some ycars held a post in

Sce Grossmann, Due Heilquellen des Taunus (Wiesbaden, 1887). the Danish military service which cnabled him to reside at NIEDERWALD, a broad hill in Germany, in the Prussian Copenhagen. In 1778, however, he accepted a position in the province of Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the Rbine, civil service of Holstein, and went to reside at Meldorf, where he between that river and the Wisper, opposite Bingen, forming died on the 26th of April 1815.

the south-western apex of the Taunus range. Its summit is Niebuhr was an accurate and careful observer, had the in-clothed with dense forests of oak and beech, while its southern stincts of the scholar, was animated by a high moral purpose, and western sides, which descend sharply to Rüdesheim and and was rigorously conscientious and anxiously truthful in Assmannshausen on the Rhine, are covered with vineyards, and recording the results of his observation. His works have long produce some of the finest wines of the district. At the edge of been classics on the geography, the people, the antiquities the forest, on the crest of the hill above Rüdesheim, stands the and the archaeology of much of the district of Arabia which he gigantic“ Germania " stalue, the national monument of the war traversed. His first volume, Beschreibung von Arabien, was of 1870-71, which was unveiled on the 28th of September 1883 published at Copenhagen in 1772, the Danish goverpment de by the emperor William I., in the presence of all the rulers in fraying the expenses of the abundant illustrations This was Germany or their representatives. It was designed by Johannes followed in 1774-1778 by two other volumes, Reisebeschreibung Schilling, and the bronze figure of Germania is 33 it. high, the

pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures and portraits of not vitreous. Our knowledge of the process and materials German princes and generals. Cogtooth mountain railways employed in niello-work is derived mainly from four writers,run up the hill from Rüdesheim and Assmannshausen.

Eraclius the Roman (a writer probably of the rilh century), See Spielmann, Niederwald und Nationaldenkmal (Wiesbaden, Thcophilus the monk, who wrote in the 12th or 13th century,' 1898).

and, in the 16th century, Benvenuto Cellini' and Giorgio Vasari.. NIEHAUS, CHARLES HENRY (1855 ), American sculptor, The design was cut with a sharp graving tool on the smooth of German parentage, was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 24th surface of the metal, which was usually silver, buy occasionally of January 1855. He was a pupil of the McMichen School of gold or even bronze. An alloy was formed of two parts silver, Design, Cincinnati, and also studied at the Royal Academy, one-third copper and one-sixth lead; to this mixture, while Munich, returning to America in 1881; in 1885, after several Auid in the crucible, powdered sulphur in excess was added; and years in Rome, he established his studio in New York City. In the brittle amalgam, when cold, was finely pounded, and scaled 1906 he became a National Academician. His principal works are: a statue of President Garfield, for Cincinnati; the Hahne up in large quills for future use. A solution of borax to act as a mann Memorial, in Washington; “ Moses” and “Gibbons," into its incised lines. The powdered amalgam was then shaken

lux was brushed over the metal plate and thoroughly worked for the Congressional Library, and " James A. Garfield," "John out of the quills on to the plate, so as to completely cover all the J. Ingalls, “ William Allen,” and “Oliver P.. Morton," for engraved pattern. The plate was now carefully heated over a Statuary Hall, Capitol, Washington; “ Hooker" and "Daven; charcoal fire, fresh amalgam being added, as the powder fused, port," State House, Hartford, Connecticut; the Astor Memorial

upon any defective places. When the powder had become doors, Trinity Church, New York;“ General Forrest,” Memphis, thoroughly liquid, so as to fill all the lines, the plate was allowod Tennessee; Generals Sherman and Lee, and William the Silent; to cool, and the whole surface was scraped, so as to remove the “ The Scraper; or Greek Athlete using a Strigil "; statues of superfluous niello, leaving only what had sunk into and filled up Lincoln, Farragut and McKinley, at Muskegon, Michigan; a

the engraved pattern. Last of all the nielloed plate was very statuc of McKinley and a lunette for McKinley's tomb, at Canton, highly polished, till it presented the appearance of a smooth Ohio, and “ The er,” at Titusville, Pennsylvania, in memory metal surface enriched with a delicate design in finc grey-black of Colonel E. L. Drake, who, in 1859, sank the first oil well in lines. This process was chiefly used for silver work, on account Pennsylvania.

of the vivid contrast between the whiteness of the silver and the NIEL, ADOLPHE (1802-1869), marshal of France, was born darkness of the nicllo. As the slightest scratch upon the metal at Muret on the 4th of October 1802, and entered the Ecole received the niello, and became a distinct black line, ornament Polytechnique in 1821, whence he passed to the engineer school of the most minute and refined description could easily be proat Metz, becoming lieutenant in the Engineers in 1827 and

duced. captain in 1833. At the storming of Constantine he led the

The earliest specimens of niello belong to the Roman periods engineer detachment with one of the storming parties, and his Two fine examples are in the British Museum. Onc is a bronze conduct gained for him the rank of chef de bataillon (1837). statuette of a Roman general, nearly 2 ft. high, found at Barking In 1840 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and in 1846 colonel, Hall in Suffolk. The dress and armour bave patterns partly and his next war service was as chief of staff to General Vaillant inlaid in silver and partly in niello. The dark tint of the bronze during the siege of Rome (1849), after which he was made general rather prevents the nicllo from showing out distinctly. This of brigade and director of engineer services at headquarters. statuette is apparently a work of the ist century. The other In 1851 he became a member of the Committee of Fortifications, cxample is not carlier than the 4th century. It is a silver casket in the following year a member of the council of state, and in

or lady's toilet box, in which were found an ampulla and other 1853 general of division. In the first part of the Crimcan War small objects, enriched with nicllo-work.5 he was employed in the expedition to the Baltic, and directed

From Roman times till the end of the 16th century the art of engineer operations against Bomarsund, but early in 1855 he working in nicllo scems to have been constantly practised in was sent to the Crimea, where he succeeded General Bizot as some part at least of Europe, while in Russia and India it has chief of engineers. For some years he had been the most trusted survived to the present day. From the 6th to the 12th century military adviser of Napoleon III., and he was now empowered to

a large number of massive and splendid works in the precious advise the generals on the spot in accordance with the wishes of metals were produced at Byzantium or under Byzantine influence, the sovereign and the home government. This delicate and many of which were largely decorated with nicllo; the silver difficult task Niel managed to carry out with as much success dome of the baldacchino over the high altar of S. Sophia was as could be expected, and he had the credit of directing the siege probably one of the most important of these. Niello is frequently operations against the Malakoff (see CRIMEAN WAR). His mentioned in the inventories of the treasures belonging to the reward was the grand cross of the Legion of Honour. From 1855 great basilicas of Rome and Byzantium. The Pala d'Oro at S. to 1859 he was employed at headquarters, and also served in the Mark's, Venice, roth century, owes much of its refined beauty senate. In the war against the Austrians in the latter year (see to niello patterns in the borders. This art was also practised by ITALIAN WARS) Niel commanded the IV. corps, and took a

Bernward, artist-bishop of Hildesheim (ob. 1023); a fine silver brilliant part in the battles of Magenta and Solferino. On the paten, decorated with figures in niello, attributed to his hand, field of battle of Solferino he was made a marshal of France. I still exists among the many rich treasures in the church of HanAfter service for some years in a home command, he became over Palace. Other nielli, probably the work of the same bishop, minister of war (1867). In this capacity he drafted and began are preserved in the cathedral of Hildesheim. In France, too, to carry out a far-reaching scheme of army reform, based on

judging both from existing specimens of ecclesiastical plate and universal service and the automatic creation of large reserves, many records preserved in church inventories, this mode of which needed only time to mature. He also rearmed the whole decoration must have been frequently applied all through the of the army with the chassepôt rifle. But he did not live to middle ages: especially fine examples once existed at Notre complete the development of his system. He died on the 13th Dame, Paris, and at Cluny, where the columns of the sanctuary of August 1869 in Paris, and a year later the Franco-German War

were covered with plates of silver in the IIth century, each plate destroyed the old imperial army upon which the new formations being richly ornamented with designs in niello. Among the were to have been grafted.

early Teutonic and Celtic races, especially from the 8th to the NIELLO (the Italian form of Lat. nigellum, diminutive of th centuries, both in Britain and other countries, niello was niger, "black"; Late Gr. pedavóv), a method of producing delicate and minute decoration on a polished metal surface by I Div. Art. Sched. iii, 27-29 (scc Hendric's edition, 1847).

Trallato dell' oreficeria. incised lines filled in with a black metallic amalgam. In some

Tse arti del disegno. cases it is very difficult to distinguish niello from black enamel;

• Sec Soc. Ant. Vet. Mon. iv. pls. 11-15. but the black substance differs from true enamel in being metallic, 1 . Sec Visconti, Una Antica Argentaria (Rome, 1793).

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