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whether they be deposited in holes on the bare ground or in open nests in a tree. The eggs of the goshawk are white, but, those of its small relation, the sparrowhawk, are always blotched, the nest of both being built precisely in the same kind of position, &c. In regard to the almost countless cases of spotted eggs in holes or covered nests, of which so many groups of birds furnish examples either wholly or in part, it has becn suggested that the species in question has taken to hiding its eggs in times comparatively recent, and has not yet got 'd of the ancestral habit of secreting and despositing igment. p £ of Time of Incubation.—Most of the smaller Passeres seem to hatch their young in from 13-15 days. The shortest period, only io days, is recorded of the small Zosterops coerulescens; the largest, amounting to about 8 weeks, is that of some of the larger Ratitae, penguins and the condor. The best list, comprising birds of most groups, is that by W. Evans (Ibis, I # 52-93; and 1892, pp. 55-58). Speaking broadly, the largest birds lay the iargest cggs and require the longest time for incubation, but there are very man exceptions, and only birds of the same group can be compared wit each other. The domestic fowl takes 21 days, but the pheasant, though so very nearly allicd, takes 2 or 3 days longer, and even the £ requires 24 days. The mallard takes 26, the domestic duck 27, the musk duck 35 # like most of the swans. The cuckoo, with 13 to 14 days, seems to have adapted itself to the short period of its foster parents. The whole question still affords ample opportunities of experimental investigation and comparison. The condition of the newly hatched birds also varies extremely. The Nidifugae are born with their eyes open, are thinly clothed with neossoptiles of simplc structure, leave the nest on the first day and feed themselves. The Nidicolae are born blind, remain a long time in the nest and have to be fed by their parents. Taken as a whole, the Nidifugae comprise most of the phylogenetically older groups; but many of these ' include some closely allied members which have reached the developmental level of the Nidicolae: for instance, some Alcidae, the pigeons, Sphenisci, Tubinares, Ciconiac. For detail see BiRDs: Classification. While in the first category the sense organs, tegumentary and locomotory organs are far advanced, these are retarded in the Nidicolae, the development of these structures being shifted on to the postembryonic :riod. Yet the length of the incubation is by no means always !' in the Nidifugae, when compared with equal-sized Nidicolae. For further information the reader may be referred to: A. R. Wallace, “A Theory of Birds' Nests,” Journ. of Travel and Nat. Hist., 1868, p. 73, reprinted in his Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection (London, 1870); A. McAldowie, “Observations on the Development and the Decay of the Pigment Layer in Birds' Eggs,” Journ. An. Phys; xx., 1886, pp. 225-237; W., Hewitson, Coloured Illustrations of the Eggs of British Birds (3rd ed., London, 1856); T. M. Brewer, North American Oology (4to, Washington, 1857); A. Lefèvre, Atlas des aufs des oiseaux d'Europe (8vo, Paris, 1845); F. W. Baedeker, Die Eier, der europäischen Vögel (fol., Leipzig, 1863); E. Rey, Eier d. Vögel Mittel-Europa's (Gera, 1905); A. Newton, Ootheca Walleyana (8vo, London, 1864–1907); and articles on “Eggs" and “Nidification ” in Dict. Birds £ 1893–1896). (H. F. G.) NIEBUHR, BARTHOLD GEORG (1776–1831), German statesman and historian, son of Karsten Niebuhr (q.v.), was born at Copenhagen on the 27th of August 1776. From the earliest age young Niebuhr manifested extraordinary precocity, and from 1794 to 1796, being already a finished classical scholar and acquainted with several modern languages, he studied at the university of Kiel. After quitting the university he became private secretary to Count Schimmelmann, Danish minister of finance. But in 1798 he gave up this appointment and travelled in Great Britain, spending a year at Edinburgh studying agriculture and physical science. In 1799 he returned to Denmark, where he entered the state service; in 18oo he marricq and settled at Copenhagen. In 1804 he became chief director of the National Bank, but in September 1806 quitted this for a similar appointment in Prussia. He arrived in Prussia on the eve of the catastrophe of Jena. He accompanied the fugitive government to Königsberg, where he rendered considerable service in the commissariat, and was afterwards still more useful as commissioner of the national debt and by his opposition to illconsidered schemes of taxation. He was also for a short time Prussian minister in Holland, where he endeavoured without success to contract a loan. The extreme scnsitiveness of his temperament, however, disqualified him for politics; he proved impracticable in his relations with Hardenberg and other ministers, and in 181o retired for a time from public life, accepting the more congenial appointment of royal historiographer and professor at the university of Berlin.
He commenced his lectures with a course on the history of Rome, which formed the basis of his great work Römische Geschichte. The first two volumes, based upon his lectures, were published in 1812, but attracted little attention at the time owing to the absorbing interest of political events. In 1813 Niebuhr's own attention was diverted from history by the uprising of the German people against Napoleon; he entered the Landwehr and ineffectually sought admission into the regular army. He edited for a short time a patriotic journal, the Prussian Correspondent, joined the headquarters of the allied sovereigns, and witnessed the battle of Bautzen, and was subsequently employed in some minor negotiations. In 1815 he lost both his father and his wife. He next accepted (1816) the post of ambassador at Rome, and on his way thither he discovered in the cathedral library of Verona the long-lost Institutes of Gaius, afterwards edited by Savigny, to whom he communicated the discovery under the impression that he had found a portion of Ulpian. During his residence in Rome Niebuhr discovered and published fragments of Cicero and Livy, aided Cardinal Mai in his edition of Cicero De Republica, and shared in framing the plan of the great work on the topography of ancient Rome by Christian C. J. von Bunsen and Ernst Platner (1773-1855), to which he contributed several chapters. He also, on a journey home from Italy, deciphered in a palimpsest at St Gall the fragments of Flavius Merobaudes, a Roman poet of the 5th century. In 1823 he resigned the embassy and established himself at Bonn, where the remainder of his life was spent, with the exception of some visits to Berlin as councillor of state. He here rewrote and republished (1827-1828) the first two volumes of his Roman History, and composed a third volume, bringing the narrative down to the end of the First Punic War, which, with the help of a fragment written in 1811, was edited after his death (1832) by Johannes Classen (1805–1891). He also assisted in August Bekker's edition of the Byzantine historians, and delivered courses of lectures on ancient history, ethnography, geography, and on the French Revolution. In February 183o his house was burned down, but the greater part of his books and manuscripts were saved. The revolution of July in the same year was a terrible blow to him, and filled him with the most dismal anticipations of the future of Europe. He died on the 2nd of January 1831.
Niebuhr's Roman History counts among epoch-making historics both as marking an era in the study of its special subject and for its momentous influence on the general conception of history. “The main results,” says Leonhard Schmitz, “arrived at by the inquiries of Niebuhr, such as his views of the ancient population of Rome, the origin of the plebs, the relation between the patricians and plcbeians, the real nature of the ager publicus, and many other points of interest, have been acknowledged by all his successors.” Other alleged discoverics, such as the construction of early Roman history out of still earlier ballads, have not been equally fortunate; but if every positive conclusion of Niebuhr's had been refuted, his claim to be considered the first who dealt with the ancient history of Rome in a scientific spirit would remain unimpaired, and the new principles introduced by him into historical research would lose nothing of their
importance. He suggested, though he did not elaborate, the
theory of the myth, so potent an instrument for good and ill in modern historical criticism. He brought in inference to supply the place of discredited tradition, and showed the possibility of writing history in the absence of original records. By his theory of the disputes between the patricians and plebcians arising from original differences of race he drew attention to the immense importance of ethnological distinctions, and contributed to the revival of these divergences as factors in modern history. More than all, perhaps, since his conception of ancient Roman story made laws and manners of more account than shadowy lawgivers, he undesignedly influenced history by popularizing that conception of it which lays stress on institutions, tendencies and social traits to the neglect of individuals. Niebuhr's personal character was in most respects exceedingly attractive. His heart was kind and his affections were strong;
he was magnanimous and disinterested, simple and honest. He had a kindling sympathy with everything lofty and generous, and framed his own conduct upon the highest principles. His chief defect was an over-sensitiveness, leading to peevish and unreasonable behaviour in his private and official relations, to hasty and unbalanced judgments of persons and things that had given him annoyance, and to a despondency and discouragement which frustrated the great good he might have effected as a philosophic critic of public affairs. The principal authority for Nicbuhr's life is the Lebensnachrichten tiber B. G. Niebuhr, aus Briefen desselben 'und aus Erinnerungen einiger seiner ndchsten Freunde, by Dorothea Hensler (3 vols., 1838– 1839). In the English translation by Miss Winkworth (1852) a great deal of the correspondence is omitted, but the narrative is rendered more full, especially as concerns Nicbuhr's participation in public affairs. . It also contains interesting communications from Bunsen and Professor Locbell, and sclect translations from the Kleine Schriften. See also J. Classen, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, eine Gedächtnisschrift (1876), and G. Eyssenhardt, B. G. Niebuhr (1886). The first cdition of his Roman History was translated into English by F. A. Walter (1827), but was immediately superseded by the translation of the second edition by Julius Hare and Connop Thirwall, completed by William Smith and Leonhard Schmitz, (last cdition, 1847–1851). The History has been discussed and criticizcd in a great number of publications, the most important of which, perhaps, is Sir Cornwall Lewis's Essay on the Credibility of' # Roman History. See further J. E. Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (1908), iii., pp. 78-82. NIEBUHR, KARSTEN (1733–1815), German traveller, was born at Lüdingworth, Lauenburg, on the southern border of Holstein, on the 17th of March 1733, the son of a small farmer. He had little education, and for several years of his youth had to do the work of a peasant. His bent was towards mathematics, and hc managed to obtain some lessons in surveying. It was while he was working at this subject that one of his teachers, in 1760, proposed to him to join the expedition which was being scnt out by Frederick V. of Denmark for the scientific exploration of Egypt, Arabia and Syria. To qualify himself for the work of surveyor and geographer, he studied hard at mathematics for a year and a half before the expedition sct out, and also managed to acquire some knowledge of Arabic. The cxpedition sailed in January 1761, and, landing at Alexandria, ascended the Nile. Proceeding to Suez, Niebuhr made a visit to Mount Sinai, and in October 1762 the expedition sailed from Suez to Jeddah, journeying thence overland to Mocha. Herc in May 1763 the philologist of the expedition, van Haven, died, and was followed shortly after by the naturalist Forskál. Sana, the capital of Yemen, was visited, but the remaining members of the expedition suffered so much from the climate or from the mode of life that they returned to Mocha. Niebuhr seems to have saved his own life and restored his health by adopting the native habits as to dress and food. From Mocha the ship was taken to Bombay, the artist of the expedition dying on the passage, and the surgeon soon after landing. Niebuhr was now the only surviving member of the cxpedition. He stayed fourteen months at Bombay, and then returned home by Muscat, Bushire, Shiraz and Persepolis, visited the ruins of Babylon, and thence went to Bagdad, Mosul and Aleppo. After a visit to Cyprus he made a tour through Palestine, crossing Mount Taurus to Brussa, reaching Constantinople in February 1767 and Copenhagen in the following November. He married in 1773, and for some years held a post in the Danish military service which enabled him to reside at Copenhagen. In 1778, however, he acceptcd a position in the civil service of Holstein, and went to reside at Mclqorf, where he died on the 26th of April 1815. Niebuhr was an accurate and careful observer, had the instincts of the scholar, was animated by a high moral purpose, and was rigorously conscientious and anxiously truthful in recording the results of his observation. His works have long been classics on the geography, the people, the antiquities and the archaeology of much of the district of Arabia which he traversed. His first volume, Beschreibung von Arabien, was published at Copenhagen in 1772, the Danish goverpment defraying the expenses of the abundant illustrations This was followed in 1774-1778 by two other volumes, Reisebeschreibung
von Arabien und anderen umliegenden Ländern. The fourth volume was not published till 1837, long after his death, under the editorship of Niebuhr's daughter. He also undertook the task of bringing out the work of his friend Forskål, the naturalist of the expedition, under the titles of Descriptiones animalium, Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, and Icones rerum naturalium (Copenhagen, 1775-1776). To a German periodical, the Deutsches Museum, Niebuhr contributed papers on the interior of Africa, the political and military condition of the Turkish empire, and other subjects. French and Dutch translations of his narratives were published during his lifetime, and a condensed English translation, by Robert Heron, of the first three volumes in Edinburgh (1792). His son Barthold (see above) published a short Life at Kiel in 1817; an English version was issued in 1838 in the Lives of Eminent Men, ublished by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. *e D. G. Hogarth, The Penetration of Arabia ("Story of Exploration "series) (1904). NIEDERBRONN, a town of Germany, in the imperial province Alsace-Lorraine, on the Falkensteiner Bach, situated under the eastern slope of the Vosges, 12 m. N.W. from Hagenau by rail. Pop. (1905) 312o. It contains an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, a convent of the Sisters of the Divine Redeemer, and a high-grade and other schools. Nicderbronn is one of the best-known watering-places in the Vosges. Its brine springs, with a hydropathic establishment attached, are specific in cases of gout, obesity and liver disorders. Here, on the 26th of July 187o, the first engagement between the Germans and the French in the Franco-German war took place. There are several ruined castles in the neighbourhood, the most noteworthy of which is one on the Wesenburg (1415 ft. high) crected in the 14th century. Various Celtic and Roman antiquities have been found around Niederbronn. | Sce Kuhn, Les Eaux de Niederbronn (3rd cd., Strassburg, 1860); Mathis, Aus Niederbronns allen Zeiten (Strassburg, 1901); and Kirstein, Das Wasgaubad Niederbronn (Strassburg, 1902). NIEDERLAHNSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, situated on the right bank of the Rhine at the confluence of Lahn, 3 m. S.E. from Coblenz by the railway to Ems, and at the junction of lines to Hochheim and Cologne, Pop (1905) 4351. It has two Roman Catholic churches. The chief industries are the making of machinery and shipbuilding. Nicderlahnstein obtained civic rights in 1332, and was until 1803 on the territory of the electors of Trier. Here on the 1st of January 1814 a part of the Russian army crossed the Rhine. In the vicinity are the Johanniskirche, a Romanesque church restored in 1857, and the Allerheiligenberg, whereon stands a chapcl, once a famous place of pilgrimage. NIEDER-SELTERS, a village of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, situated in a well-wooded country on thc Ems, 12 m. S.E. from Limburg by the railway to Frankforton-Main. Pop (1900) 1339. Here are the springs of the famous Selters or Seltzer water, employed as specific in cases of catarrh of the respiratory organs, the stomach and bladder. Until 1866 the springs belonged to the duke of Nassau; since this date thcy have been the property of Prussia. They became famous in the carlier part of the 19th century, although they had been known many years previously See Grossmann, Die Heilquellen des Taunus (Wiesbaden, 1887). NIEDERWALD, a broad hill in Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, between that river and the Wisper, opposite Bingen, forming the south-western apex of the Taunus range. Its summit is clothed with dense forests of oak and becch, while its southern and western sides, which descend sharply to Rüdesheim and Assmannshausen on the Rhine, are covered with vineyards, and produce some of the finest wines of the district. At the edge of the forest, on the crest of the hill above Rüdesheim, stands the gigantic “Germania” statue, the national monument of the war of 1870-71, which was unveiled on the 28th of September 1883 by the emperor William I., in the presence of all the rulers in Germany or their representatives. It was designed by Johannes Schilling, and the bronze figure of Germania is 33 ft. high, the pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures and portraits of
German princes and generals. Cogtooth mountain railways
run up the hill from Rüdesheim and Assmannshausen. See Spielmann, Niederwald und Nationaldenkmal (Wiesbaden,
1898). 'haus. CHARLES HENRY (1855- ), American sculptor, of German parentage, was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 24th of January 1855. He was a pupil of the McMichen School of Design, Cincinnati, and also studied at the Royal Academy, Munich, returning to America in 1881; in 1885, after several years in Rome, he established his studio in New York City. In 1906 he became a National Academician. His principal works are: a statue of President Garfield, for Cincinnati; the Hahnemann Memorial, in Washington; “Moses” and “Gibbons,” for the Congressional Library, and “James A. Garfield,” “John J. Ingalls,” “William Allen,” and “Oliver P. Morton,” for Statuary Hall, Capitol, Washington, “Hooker” and “Davenport,” State House, Hartford, Connecticut; the Astor Memorial doors, Trinity Church, New York; “General Forrest,” Memphis, Tennessee, Generals Sherman and Lee, and William the Silent; “The Scraper; or Greek Athlete using a Strigil", statues of Lincoln, Farragut and McKinley, at Muskegon, Michigan; a statuc of McKinley and a lunette for McKinley's tomb, at Canton, Ohio, and “The Driller,” at Titusville, Pennsylvania, in memory of Colonel E. L. Drake, who, in 1859, sank the first oil well in Pennsylvania. NIEL, ADOLPHE (1802-1869), marshal of France, was born at Muret on the 4th of October 1802, and entered the École Polytechnique in 1821, whence he passed to the engineer school at Metz, becoming lieutenant in the Engineers in 1827 and captain in 1833. At the storming of Constantine he led the engineer detachment with one of the storming parties, and his conduct gained for him the rank of chef debataillon (1837). In 1840 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and in 1846 colonel, and his next war service was as chief of staff to General Vaillant during the siege of Rome (1849), after which he was made general of brigade and director of engineer services at headquarters. In 1851 he became a member of the Committee of Fortifications, in the following year a member of the council of state, and in 1853 general of division. In the first part of the Crimean War he was employed in the expedition to the Baltic, and directed engineer operations against Bomarsund, but early in 1855 he was sent to the Crimea, where he succeeded General Bizot as chief of engineers. For some years he had been the most trusted military adviser of Napoleon III., and he was now empowered to advise the generals on the spot in accordance with the wishes of the sovereign and the home government. This delicate and difficult task Niel managed to carry out with as much success as could be expected, and he had the credit of directing the siege operations against the Malakoff (see CRIMEAN WAR). His reward was the grand cross of the Legion of Honour. From 1855 to 1859 he was employed at headquarters, and also served in the senate. In the war against the Austrians in the latter year (see ITALIAN WARs) Niel commanded the IV. corps, and took a brilliant part in the battles of Magenta and Solferino. On the field of battle of Solferino he was made a marshal of France. After service for some years in a home command, he became minister of war (1867). In this capacity he drafted and began to carry out a far-reaching scheme of army reform, based on universal service and the automatic creation of large reserves, which needed only time to mature. He also rearmed the whole of the army with the chassepôt rifle. But he did not live to complete the development of his system. He died on the 13th of August 1869 in Paris, and a year later the Franco-German War destroyed the old imperial army upon which the new formations were to have been grafted. NIELLO (the Italian form of Lat. nigellum, diminutive of niger, “black”; Late Gr. aeXavów), a method of producing delicate and minute decoration on a polished metal surface by incised lines filled in with a black metallic amalgam. In some cases it is very difficult to distinguish niello from black enamel; but the black substance differs from true enamel in being metallic,
not vitreous. Our knowledge of the process and materials employed in niello-work is derived mainly from four writers,— Eraclius the Roman (a writer probably of the 11th century), Theophilus the monk, who wrote in the 12th or 13th century," and, in the 16th century, Benvenuto Cellini” and Giorgio Vasari." The design was cut with a sharp graving tool on the smooth surface of the metal, which was usually silver, but occasionally gold or even bronze. An alloy was formed of two parts silver, one-third copper and one-sixth lead; to this mixture, while fluid in the crucible, powdered sulphur in excess was added; and the brittle amalgam, when cold, was finely pounded, and scaled up in large quills for future use. A solution of borax to act as a flux was brushed over the metal plate and thoroughly worked into its incised lines. The powdered amalgam was then shaken out of the quills on to the plate, so as to completely cover all the engraved pattern. The plate was now carefully heated over a charcoal fire, fresh amalgam being added, as the powder fused, upon any defective places. When the powder had become thoroughly liquid, so as to fill all the lines, the plate was allowed to cool, and the whole surface was scraped, so as to remove the superfluous niello, leaving only what had sunk into and filled up the engraved pattern. Last of all the nielloed plate was very highly polished, till it presented the appearance of a smooth metal surface cnriched with a delicate design in fine grey-black lincs. This process was chiefly used for silver work, on account of the vivid contrast betwcen the whiteness of the silver and the darkness of the nicllo. As thc slightest scratch upon the metal received the nicllo, and became a distinct black line, ornament of the most minute and refined description could easily be produced.
The earliest specimens of niello belong to the Roman periodTwo fine examples are in the British Museum. Onc is a bronze statuette of a Roman general, nearly 2 ft. high, found at Barking Hall in Suffolk. The dress and armour have patterns partly inlaid in silver and partly in nicllo. The dark tint of the bronze rather prevents the niello from showing out distinctly. This statuette is apparently a work of the 1st century." The other example is not carlier than the 4th century. It is a silver casket or lady's toilet box, in which were found an ampulla and other small objects, enriched with nicllo-work.”
From Roman times till the end of the 16th ccntury the art of working in nicllo seems to have been constantly practised in some part at least of Europe, while in Russia and India it has survived to the present day. From the 6th to thc 12th century a large number of massive and splendid works in the precious metals were produced at Byzantium or under Byzantine influence, many of which were largely decorated with nicllo; the silver dome of the baldacchino over the high altar of S. Sophia was probably one of the most important of these. Niello is frequently mentioned in the inventories of the treasures belonging to the great basilicas of Rome and Byzantium. The Pala d'Oro at S. Mark's, Venice, 10th century, owes much of its refined beauty to niello patterns in the borders. This art was also practised by Bernward, artist-bishop of Hildesheim (ob. 1023); a fine silver paten, decorated with figures in niello, attributed to his hand, still exists among the many rich treasures in the church of Hanover Palace. Other nielli, probably the work of the same bishop, are preserved in the cathedral of Hildesheim. In France, too, judging both from existing specimens of ecclesiastical plate and many records preserved in church inventories, this mode of decoration must have been frequently applied all through the middle ages: especially fine examples once existed at Notre Dame, Paris, and at Cluny, where the columns of the sanctuary were covered with plates of silver in the 11th century, each plate being richly ornamented with designs in nicllo. Among the early Teutonic and Celtic races, especially from the 8th to the 11th centuries, both in Britain and other countries, niello was
* Div. Art. Sched. iii. 27-2 £ Hendric's edition, 1847).
frequently used to decorate the very beautiful personal ornaments of which so many specimens enrich the museums of Europe. The British Museum possesses a fine fibula of silver decorated with a simple pattern in niello and thin plates of repoussé gold. This, though very similar in design to many fibulae from Scandinavia and Britain, was found in a tomb at Kerch (Panticapacum). Several interesting gold rings of Saxon workmanship have been found at different times, on which the owner's name and orna- mental patterns are formed in gold with a background of niello. One with the name of Ethelwulf, king of Wessex (836-838), is now in the British Museum (see figure). Another in the Victoria and Albert Museum has the name of Alhstan, who was bishop of Sherborne from 823 to 867. The metal-workers of | | Ireland, whose skill was quite unrivalled, practised largely the art of niello from *** S9 the 10th to the 12th century, and pos| "EXE"T":... sibly even earlier. Fine croziers, shrines, Gold and Niello Ring. fibulae, and other objects of Irish workmanship, most skilfully enriched with elaborate niello-work, exist in considerable numbers. From the 13th to the 16th century but little nicllo-work appears to have becn produced in England. Two specimens have been found, one at Matlask, Norfolk, and the other at Devizes, which from the character of the design appcar to be English. They are both of gold, and seem to be the covering plates of small pendant reliquaries about 1 in. long, dating about the end of the 15th century. One has a crucifix between St John the Baptist and a bishop; the other, that found at Devizes, has the two latter figures, but no crucifix." It is, however, in Italy that the art of niello-work was brought to greatest perfcction. During the whole medicval period it was much used to dccorate church plate, silver altar-frontals, and thc like. Thc magnificent frontals of Pistoia cathedral and the Florence baptistery are notable instances of this. During the 15th century, cspecially at Florence, the art of niello-work was practised by almost all the great artist-goldsmiths of that period. Apart from the beauty of the works they produced, this art had a special importance and interest from its having led the way to thc invention of printing from engravings on metal plates (sec LINE-ENGRAVING). Vasari's account of this invention, given in his lives of Pollaiuolo and Maso Finiguerra, is very interesting, but he is wrong in asserting that Maso was the first worker in nicllo who took proofs or impressions of his plates. An important work of this sort, described at length by Vasari and wrongly ascribed by him to Maso Finigucrra (q.v.), still exists in the Opcra del Duomo at Florence. It is a pax with a very rich and delicate niello picture of the coronation of the Virgin; the composition is very full, and the work almost microscopic in minuteness; it was made in 1452. Impressions from it are preserved in the British Museum, the Louvre and other collections. The British Muscum possesses the finest existing example of 15th-century German niello. It is a silver beaker, covered with graceful , scroll-work, forming medallions, in which are figures of cupids employed in various occupations (see Shaw's Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages, 1858, vol. ii.). Authorities—The Archaeological Journal of 1862 (vol.xix. p.323) has an excellent monograph on the subject, see also vol. xii. p. 79 and vol. iv. p. 247; Archaeologia, xxxi., 404; Merrifield, Ancient Practice of Painting, vol. i. (1849) (gives MSS. of Eraclius and other early writers); Catalogue of Museum of Royal Irish Academy; Les Nielles a la cath. d'Aix-la-Chapelle (Paris, '' Alvin, £: de la bibliothèque roy, de Belgique (1857); Duchesne, Nielles des orfèvres florentins (1826); Passavant, Peintre-graveur (18601864); Ottley, History of Engraving (1816) and Collection of Facsimiles of Prints (1826); Cicognara. Storia della scultura, iii. p. 168 (Prato, 1823), and Storia della #: (Prato, 1831); £ Sloria pittorica, '' i. sec., iii. (1809); Baldinucci, Professori del disegno (1681-1728) and L'Arte di intagliare in rame (1686); Zani, Origine dell' incisione in rame (1802); Labarte, Arts of the Middle Ages (1855); Texier, Dictionnaire l'orfèvrerie p. 1822 (Paris,
1857); Bartsch Le Peintre-graveur, xiii. 1-35; Rumohr, Unter. suchung der Grunde für die Annahme, (Leipzig, 1841); Lessing, Collectaneen zur Literatur (vol. xii. art. iellum "); C. Davenport, in Journal of Soc. of Arts (1901), vol. xlviii. (J. H. # NIEM [NYEM, or NIEHEIM], DIETRICH OF (c. 1345-1418), medieval historian, was born at Nieheim, a small town subject to the see of Paderborn. He became a notary of the papal court of the rota at Avignon, and in 1376 went with the Curia to Rome. Urban VI. here took particular notice of him, made him an abbreviator to the papal chancery, and in 1383 took him with him on his visit to King Charles at Naples, an expedition which led to many unpleasant adventures, from which he escaped in 1385 by leaving the Curia. In 1387 he is again found among the abbreviators, and in 1395 Pope Boniface IX. appointed him to the bishopric of Verden. His attempt to take possession of the see, however, met with successful opposition; and he had to resume his work in the chancery, where his name again appears in 1403. In the meantime he had helped to found a German hospice in Rome, which survives as the Instituto dell'Anima, and had begun to write a chronicle, of which only fragments are extant. His chief importance, however, lies in the part he took in the controversies arising out of the Great Schism. He accom. panied Gregory XII, to Lucca in May 1408, and, having in vain tried to make the pope listen to counsels of moderation, he joincd the Roman and Avignonese cardinals at Pisa. He adhered to thc pope elected by the council of Pisa (Alexander V.) and to his successor John XXIII., resuming his place at the Curia. In vicw of the increasing confusion in the Church, however, he became one of the most ardent advocates of the appeal to a general council. He was present at the council of Constance as adviser to the German “nation.” He died at Maastricht on the 22nd of March 1418. Niem wrote about events in which he either had an intimatc personal share or of which he was in an excellent position to obtain accurate information. His most important works are the Nemus union is and the De schismate. Of these the first, compiled at Lucca after the breach with Gregory XII., is a collection of documents which had fallen into his hands during the negotiations for union : pal pronouncements, pamphlets, letters written and received by imself, and the like. The De schismate libri III., completed on the 25th of May 1410, describes the history of events since 1376 as Niem himself had scen them. It was continued in the Historia de vita Johannis XXIII. Other works are De bono regimine Rom. pontificis, dedicated to the new pope '' XXIII.); De modis uniendi ac reformandi ecclesiam and De difficultate reformationis in concilio universali, advocating the convocation of a council, to which the pope is to bow; Contra dampnatos Wictivitas Pragae, against the Hussites; Jura ac privilegia imperii, a glorification of the empire in view of the convocation of the council of Constance: Avisãmenta pulcherrima de unione et reformatione membrorum et capitis fienda, a £ of church reform based on his experiences of the evils
of the # system. For bibliography sec Potthast, Bibl. hist, medii aevi (2nd ed., Berlin. 1896), p. 1951, s.v. “ Theodoricus de Nicm.”; and generally sce the article on Niem by Theodor Lindner in # deutsche t
NIEMCEWICZ, JULIAN URSIN (1758-1841), Polish scholar, poct and statesman, was born in 1757 in Lithuania. In the earlier part of his life he acted as adjutant to Kosciusko, was taken prisoner with him at the fatal battle of Maciejowice (1704), and sharcd his captivity at St Petersburg. On his release he travelled for some time in America, where he marricq. After the Congress of Vienna he was secretary of state and president of the constitutional committee in Poland, but in 1830-1831 he was again driven into exile. He died in Paris on the 21st of April 1841. Niemcewicz tricd many styles of composition. His comedy The Return of the Deputy (1700) enjoyed a great reputation, and his novel, John of Tenczyn (1825), in the style of Scott, gives a vigorous picture of old Polish days. He also wrote a History of the Reign of Sigismund III.(3 vols., 1819), and a collection of memoirs for ancient Polish history (6 vols., 18221823). But he is now best remembered by his Historical Songs of the Poles (Warsaw, 1816), a series of lyrical compositions in which the chief heroes are of the golden age of Sigismund I., and the reigns of Stephen Bathori and Sobieski. *
His coll i works were published in 12 vols. at Leipzig (18381840). will to animalso long
NIENBURG ON THE SAALE, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Anhalt, situated at the influx of the Bode into the Saale, 6 m. N. of Bernburg on the railway Calbe-Könnern. Pop. (1905) 5748. It contains a beautiful Gothic Evangelical church, an old castle, once a monastery (founded 975, dissolved 1546), and now devoted to secular uses, and a classical school. The industries embrace iron-founding and machine-making, malting and tanning NIENBURG ON THE WESER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, situated on the Weser, 33 m. N.W. from Hanover by the railway to Bremen. Pop. (1905) 9638. It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, a classical school and an agricultural college. Its industries consist chiefly in glass-blowing, distilling, biscuit-making and the manufacture of manures. The town is mentioned as early as 1025. It was fortified in the 12th century, obtained municipal rights in 1569, and passed in 1582 to the house of Lüneburg. It was occupied by the imperialists from 1627 to 1634, and by the French during the Seven Years' War. The walls were dismantled by order of Napoleon I. in 1807. "See Gade, Geschichte der Stadt Nienburg an der Weser (1862). NIEPCE, JOSEPH NICÉPHORE (1765-1833), French physicist, and one of the inventors of photography, was born at Châlonsur-Saône on the 7th of March 1765. In 1792 he entered the army as a sub-lieutenant, and in the following year he saw active service in Italy. Ill-health and failing eyesight compelled him to resign his commission before he had risen above the rank of lieutenant; but in 1795 he was nominated administrateur of the district of Nice, and he held the post until 1801. Returning in that year to his birthplace, he devoted himself along with his elder brother Claude (1763–1828) to mechanical and chemical researches; and in 1811 he directed his attention to the rising art of lithography. In 1813 the idea of obtaining sun pictures first suggested itself to him in this connexion, and in 1826 he learned that L. J. M. Daguerre was working in the same direction. In 1829 the two unitcd their forces, “pour coopérer au perfectionnement de la découverte inventée par M. Niepce et perfectionnée par M. Daguerre” (see also PhotoCPAPHY). Niepce died at Gras, his property near Châlon, on the 3rd of July 1833. A nephew, CLAUDE FELIX ABEL NIEPCE DE SAINTVICTOR (1805-1870), served with distinction in the army, and also made important contributions towards the advancement of the art of photography; he published Recherches photographiques (Paris, 1855) and Traité pratique de gravure héliographique sur acier et sur verre (Paris, 1866). NIEREMBERG, JUAN EUSEBIO (1595–1658), Spanish Jesuit and mystic, was born at Madrid in 1595, joined the Society of Jesus in 1614, and subsequently became lecturer on Scripture at the Jesuit seminary in Madrid, where he died on the 7th of April 1658. He was highly esteemed in devout circles as the author of De la afición y amor de Jesús (1630), and De la afición y amor de María (1630), both of which were translated into Arabic, Flemish, French, German, Italian and Latin. These works, together with the Prodigios del amor divino (1641), are now forgotten, but Nieremberg's version (1656) of the Imitation is still a favourite, and his eloquent treatise, De la hermosura de Dios y su amabilidad (1649), is the last classical manifestation of mysticism in Spanish literature. Nicremberg has not the enraptured vision of St Theresa, nor the philosophic significance of Luis de León, and the unvarying sweetness of his style is cloying; but he has cxaltation, unction, insight, and his book forms no unworthy close to a great literary tradition. NIERSTEIN, a village of Germany, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the left bank of the Rhine, 8 m. S. from Mainz by the railway to Worms. Pop. (1905) 4445. It contains a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, an old Roman bath-Sironabad-and sulphur springs. It is famous for its wines, in which a large export trade is done. Nierstein was originally a Roman settlement, and was a royal residence under the Carolingian rulers. Later it passed from the emperor to the elector palatine of the Rhine.
NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1844-1900), German philosopher, was the son of the pastor at Röcken, near Leipzig, where he was born on 15th October 1844. He was educated at Schulpforta, and studied the classics at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. In 1869, while still an undergraduate, he was, on F. W. Ritschl's recommendation, appointed to an extraordinary professorship of classical philology in the university of Basel, and rapidly promoted to an ordinary professorship. Here he almost immediately began a brilliant literary activity, which gradually assumed a more and more philosophical character. In 1876 eye (and brain) trouble caused him to obtain sick leave, and finally, in 1879, to be pensioned. For the next ten years he lived in various health resorts, in considerable suffering (he declares that the year contained for him 200 days of pure pain), but dashing off, at high pressure, the brilliant essays on which his fame rests. Towards the end of 1888, after recovering from an earlier attack, he was pronounced hopelessly insane, and in this condition he remained until he died on the 25th of August 1900. Nietzsche's writings must be understood in their relation to these circumstances of his life, and as the outcome of a violent revolt against them on the part of an intensely emotional and nervous temperament. His philosophy, consequently, is neither systematic in itself nor expounded in systematic form. It is made up of a number of points of view which successively appeared acceptable to a personality whose self-appreciation verges more and more upon the insane, and exhibits neither consecutiveness nor consistency. Its natural form is the aphorism, and to this and to its epigrammatic brilliance, vigour, and uncompromising revolt against all conventions in science and conduct it owes its persuasiveness. Revolt against the whole civilized environment in which he was brought up is the keynote of Nietzsche's literary career. His revolt against Christian faith and morals turns him into a proudly atheistic “free-thinker,” and preacher of a new “master” morality, which transposes the current valuations, deposes the “Christian virtues,” and incites the “over-man” ruthlessly to trample under foot the servile herd of the weak, degenerate and poor in spirit. His revolt against the theory of state supremacy turns him into an anarchist and individualist; his revolt against modern democracy into an aristocrat. His revolt against conventional culture leads him to attack D. F. Strauss as the typical “Philistine of culture”; his revolt against the fashion of pessimism to demand a new and more robust affirmation of life, not merely although, but because, it is painful. Indeed, his very love of life may itself be regarded as an indignant revolt against the toils that were inexorably closing in around him. He directs this spirit of revolt also against the sources of his own inspiration; he turns bitterly against Wagner, whose intimate friend and enthusiastic admirer he had been, and denounces him as the musician of decadent emotionalism; he rejects his “educator” Schopenhauer's pessimism, and transforms his will to live into a “Will to Power.” Nevertheless his reaction does not in this case really carry him beyond the ground of Schopenhauerian philosophy, and his own may perhaps be most truly regarded as the paradoxical development of an inverted Schopenhauerism. Other influences which may be traced in his writings are those of modern naturalism and of a somewhat misinterpreted Darwinism (“strength ” is generally interpreted as physical endowment, but it has sometimes to be reluctantly acknowledged that the physically feeble, by their combination and cunning, prove stronger than the “strong”), His writings in their chronological order are as follows: Dic Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik (1872); Unzeilgemässe Betrachtungen (1873-1876) (Strauss–Vom Nutzen and Machteil der Historie für das Leben-Schopenhauer als ErzieherRichard Wagner in Bayreuth); Mcnschliches, Allzumenschliches (1876-1880); Morgenröte (1881); Die frohliche Wissenschaft (1882); Also sprach Zarathustra (1883–1884), Jenseits von Gut und Böse (1886), Zur Genealogic der Moral (1887); Der Fall Wagner (1888); Gólzendimmerung (1888); Nietzsche contra Wagner, Der Antichrist, and Poems first appeared in the complete edition of his works, which also contains the notes for Wille