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History

ancient course of the upper river. When the upper Niger had this to the east, between 15° and 20° E: (see Rennell's map in HorneSahara, which rose in the Ahaggar mountains, is believed to have mann's Travels, 1802). To Rennell the Benue was an eastformed the upper course of the existing lower Niger. While the lowing continuation of the Niger. The imagined existence upper and lower parts of the Niger have all the appearance of ancient of mountains-called Kong in the west and Komri (Lunar) in the streams, the middle Niger is the result of a recent" capture; cast-stretching in a high and unbroken chain across Africa * it has no past, it scarcely has a present " (see R. Chudeau, Saharo about 10° N. long prevented geographers from thinking of a soudanais, Paris, 1909).

possible southern bend to the Niger. Vague ideas of the existence of the river were possessed by

That the vast network of rivers on the Guinea coast, of which the ancients. The great river flowing eastward reached by the the Nup was the chief, known as the Oil Rivers, formed the delta

Nasamonians as reported by Herodotus can be no of the Niger does not appear to have been suspected before the

other than the Niger. Pliny mentions a river Nigris, beginning of the 19th century. Consequently it was from the ploration, of the same nature with the Nile, separatii.g Africa direction of its source that the river was first explored in modern

and Ethiopia, and forming the boundary of Gaetulia; times. In 1795 Mungo Park (9.0.) was sent out by the African and it is not improbable that this is the modern Niger. In Association, and was the first European to see and describe Ptolemy, too, appears along with Gir (possibly the Shari) a the upper river. Park landed at the Gambia, and struck the certain Nigir (Niyap) as one of the largest rivers of the interior; Niger near Segu (a town some distance above Sansandig) on the but so vague is his description that it is impossible definitely 20th of July 1796, where he beheld it " glittering in the morning to identify it with the Niger.' Arabian geographers, such as

sun as broad as the Thames at Westminster and flowing slowly to Ibn Batuta, who were acquainted with the middle course of the eastward” (Travels, ist ed. p. 194). He descended the the river, called it the Nile of the Negroes. At the same time river some distance, and on his return journey went up stream contradictory opinions were held as to the course of the stream.

as far as Bamako. In 1805 Park returned to Africa for the It was supposed by some geographers to run west, an opinion purpose of descending the Niger to its mouth. He started as probably first stated by Idrisi in the 19th century. Idrisi before from the Gambia, reached the Niger, sailed down the gave the Nile of Egypt and the Nile of the Negroes a common river past Timbuktu, and on the eve of the successful accomplishsource in the Mountain of the Moon. Fountains from the ment of his undertaking lost his life during an attack on his boat mountain formed two lakes, whence issued streams which by the natives at Bussa (Nov. or Dec. 1805). Park held to the united in a very large lake. From this third lake issued two opinion that the Niger and Congo were onc river, though in 1802 rivers—the Nile of Egypt flowing north, and that of the Negroes C. G. Reichard, a German geographer, had suggested that the flowing west (see R. Dozy and M. J. de Goeje's Edrisi, Leiden, Rio Nun was the mouth of the Niger. Owing to Park's death the 1866: Premier Climat, ist 4 sections). From Idrisi's description results of his second journey were lost, and the work had to be it would appear that he regarded the Shari, Lake Chad, the begun afresh. In 1822 Major A. G. Laing (who had reached Benue, Niger and Senegal as one great river which emptied Timbuktu by way of Tripoli) obtained some accurate information into the Atlantic.? That the Niger flowed west and reached concerning the sources of the river, and in 1828 the French the ocean was also stated by Leo Africanus. The belief that a explorer René Caillié went by boat from Jenné to the port of western branch of the Nile emptied itself into the Atlantic was Timbuktu. In 1826 Bussa was reached from Benin by Hugh held by Prince Henry of Portugal, who instructed the navigators Clapperton, and his servant Richard Lander. On Clapperton's he despatched to Guinea to look for the mouth of the river, death Richard Lander and his brether John led in 1830 ar. and when in 1445 they entered the estuary of the Senegal the expedition which went overland from Badagry to the Niger Portuguese were convinced that they had discovered the Nile Canoeing down the river from Yawri—60 m. above Bussa-10 of the Negroes (sce Azurara's Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, the mouth of the Rio Nun they finally settled the doubt as to the Beazley and Prestage's translation, vol. ii., London, 1899, chaps. lower course of the stream. In 1832 Macgregor Laird established Ix. and lxi., and introduction and notes). The Senegal being the African Steamship Company, and Richard Lander and proved an independent river and the eastward flow of the R. A. K. Oldfield (as members of its first expedition) ascended Niger assumed, the theory that it ran into the Nile was revived, the Niger to Rabba, and the Benue as far as Dagbo (80 m.). and almost to the very year in which the course of the river in 1841 an expedition, consisting of three steamers of the British was actually demonstrated geographers, and travellers, such as J. G. Jackson in his Empire of Marocco, first published in navy, under Captain (afterwards Admiral) H. D. Trotter,

went 1809, fought zealously for the identity of the Nile of the Negroes up to Esga (Egam), but was forced to return owing to sickness

and mortality. with the river of Egypt. The highest scientific authority of the

Heinrich Barth (1851-1854) made known to Europe the day, Major James Rennell, believed, however, that the Niger course of the river from Timbuktu to Say. Barth sailed down ended, by evaporation, in the country of “Wangara "-a region from Saraiyamo (situated on a tributary stream south-west of located by him, through a misreading of Idrisi, far too much Timbukutu) to Kabara; then skirted the left bank to a small

1 Sir Rusane Donkin in a curious and learned work, A Dissertation town called Bornu in 16° N., and the right thence to Say. In on ... the Niger (1829), made the Niger join the Gir, which last stream he calls the Nile of Bornu. The united river ran north, 1880-1881 the German E. R. Flegel ascended the Niger to disappeared underground in the Sahara and reached the Mediter: Gomba opposite the confluence of the Sokoto river with the rancan at "the quicksands of the gulph of Sidra." Donkin believed main stream, and about 70 m. below Barth's southmost point. that the desert, advancing eastwards, would overwhelm the Egyptian Zweifel and Moustier, sent out by M. Verminck, a Marseilles Nile also in its lower course. become a plashy quicksand, a second Syrtis ! and the Nile shall merchant, discovered (1879) the sources of the Falico, &c., and cease to exist from the Lower Cataract downwards."

in 1885 the Tembi source was visited by Captain Brouct, a French * The hydrography of northern central Africa as now known officer. Indeed the additions to the knowledge of the Niger largely explains the medieval belief in a connexion between the during the last two decades of the 19th century were largely western rivers and the Egyptian Nile. Leaving out of account the the work of French officers engaged in the extension of French knowledge of that stream, which was supposed by Schweinfurth to influence throughout the western Sudan. From 1880 onwards form part of the Chad system), there is an almost continuous water. Colonel (afterward General) Gallieni took a leading part in the way from the mouth of the Senegal to that of the Nile. The upper operations on the upper river, where in 1883 a small gunboat, the waters of the Bakoy branch of the Senegal and those of the navigable, Niger, was launched for the protection of the newly established through the Benue, Lake Tuburi and the Logone with the Shari: French posts. In 1885 a voyage was made by Captain Delanneau the easternmost affluents of the Shari and the most western tribu : In 1816 James McQueen correctly divined that there was a taries of the Bahr el Ghazel aftiuent of the Nile are within 20 m. great west-flowing tributary (the Benue) to the Niger, and that after of one another. With but three short porterages a boat could be its confluence the river ran south

to the Atlantic. See his view of navigated the whole of this distance. Moreover, from the confluence Northern Central Africa (1821) and Geographical Survey of Africa of the Ghazel the Nile is navigable (at high water) the entire distance (1840). to the Mediterranean. (See also Suare.)

* See Ephémérides géographiques, vol. xii. (Weimar, Aug. 1803).

past the ruins of Sansandig, as far as Diafarabe. In 1887 the AUTHORITIES.-Mungo Park, Travels in the Interior Districts of gunboat made a 'more extended voyage, reaching the port of Africa, in the Years 1795, 1796 and 1797 (London, 1799). A Timbuktu, and correcting the mapping of the river down to that geographical appendix by Major James Rennell summarizes the

information then available about the Niger. R. and J..Lander, point. In 1894–1895 attention was directed to the middle and Journal of an Expedition to explore the Course and Termination of lower Niger, to which several expeditions started from the coast the Niger . . . (3 vols. London, 1833); H. Barth, Travels and of Guinea. A still more important expedition was that of

Discoveries in North and Central Africa :, vols. iv. and v. (London, Lieutenant Hourst, who, starting from Timbuktu in January 1857-1858); Gen. Ji S. Gallieni, Mission d'exploration du Haul 1896, navigated the Niger from that point to its mouth, executing Timbouklou; Voyage d'une cannonière française (Paris, 1891); a careful survey of the river and the various obstructions to M. Hourst, Sur le Niger el au pays des Touaregs (Paris, 1898), English navigation. voyage made in 1897 by Lieutenant de Chevigné Wigera (London, 1898). The political references in this book are

Exploration of the showed that at low water the section between Timbuktu and marked by jealous hostility to the British Col. J. K. Trotter, The Ansongo presents great difficulties, but the voyage from Niger Sources (London, 1897); Sir H. H. Johnston, The Niger Timbuktu to Say was again successfully accomplished in 1899 Delta," Proc. R.G.S. (December 1888); Sir F. Lugard, “ An Exby Captain Granderye. In 1901 Captain E. Lenfant ascended pedition to Borgu on the Niger,". Geo. Inl. (September 1895); E. the river with a flotilla from its mouth to Say, and he demon-chiefly a demonstration that the Bussa rapids are not an absolute

Lenfant, Le Niger; voie ouverte à notre empire africain (Paris, 1903), strated the “ normal practicability" of the route, despite the bar to navigation. Bussa rapids. The delta of the Niger has been partially surveyed The foregoing books deal almost entirely with the Niger. For the since it became British territory by various ship captains, Benue see, besides Barth's Travels, A. F. Mockler Ferryman, Up the officials of the Royal Niger Company and others, including Sir and Benue Rivers ... (London, 1892); L. Mizon, Itinéraire de la Harry Johnston, sometime British consul for the Oil Rivers. source de la Benóué au confluent des rivières Kader et Mambéré

In addition to the main stream, the Niger basin was made and other papers in the Bull. Soc. Géog. Paris for 1895 and 1896; known by exploration during the last quarter of the 19th century E. Lenfant, La Grande Route du Chad (Paris, 1905); Col. L.

Jackson and the early years of the 20th. The journeys of the German traveller G. A. Krause (north from the Gold Coast, 1886–1887) (July 1905); P. A. Talbot,“ Survey Work by the Alexander Gosling and the French Captain Binger (Senegal to Ivory Coast, 1887- Expedition: Northern Nigeria 1904-1905, idem (February 1906); 1889) first defined its southern limits by revealing the unexpected Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, vol. i. (London, 1907). northward extension of the basins of the Guinea coast streams, struction in Nigeria (1905) and further Correspondence, &c. (1909);

The British Blue Books, Correspondence relating to Railway Conespecially the Volta and Komoe, a fact which explained the contain information about the navigability of the lower Niger and absence of important tributaries within the Niger bend. This of the Kaduna. The best maps are those published by the French was crossed for the first time, in its fullest extent, by Colonel P.L. and British War Offices; an Atlas du cours du Niger de Tombouctou Monteil (French) in 1895-1891. At the eastern end of the basin aux rapides de Boussa in 50 sheets on the scale

of 1 : 50,000, by Licut.

Hourst and others, was published in Paris in 1899. (F.R.C.) much light has been thrown on the system of the Benue. In 1851 Barth crossed the Benue at its junction with the Faro, but the NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the region of its sources was first explored by Flegel (1882-1884), lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and who traversed the whole southern basin of the river and reached Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e. the Hausa States) Ngaundere. Other German travellers added to the knowledge and the greater part of Bornu. It embraces most of the territory of the southern tributaries, the Tarabba, Donga and others, in the square formed by the meridians of 3° and 14° E. and the which in the rains bring down a large body of water from the parallels of 4° and 14° N., and has an area of about 338,000 sq. m. highlands of southern Adamawa. British travellers who have The protectorate is bounded W., N.and N.E. by French possessions done work in the same region are Sir W. Wallace, L. H. Moseley, (Dahomey, Upper Senegal and Niger colony, and Chad territory), W. P. Hewby, P. A. Talbot and Captain Claud Alexander. S.E. by the German colony of Camercon and S. by the Atlantic. The last-named two were members of an expedition lcd by Physical Fcatures. The country is divisible, .broadly, into Lieut. Boyd-Alexander, who himself crossed Africa from the three zones running parallel with the coast: (1) the delta, (2) Niger to the Nile. Messrs Talbot and Claud Alexander surveyed forest region, giving place to (3) the plateau region. The coast the country between Ibi on the Benue and Lake Chad, mapping line, some 500 m. in length, extends along the Gulf of Guinea (1904) a considerable part of the Gongola. In 1854 the Benue from 2° 46' 55" E. to 8° 45' E. ending at the Rio del Rey, the point itself was ascended 400 m. by the “ Pleiad ” expedition, and in where the great bend eastwards of the contincnt ceases and the 1889 to 131° E., and the Kebbi to Bifara by Major (afterwards land turns south. The Niger (q.o.), which enters the protectorate Sir Claude) Macdonald, further progress towards the Tuburi at its NOW.corner and flows thence S.E. to the Atlantic, receives, marsh being prevented by the shallowness of the water. The 250 m. from the sea, the Benue, which, rising in the mountains of upper basin of the Benue was also traversed by the French Adamawa south of Lake Chad, flows west across the plateau. expeditions of Mizon (1892) and Maistre (1892–1893), the latter Into the huge delta of the Niger several other rivers (the “Oil passing to the south of the Tuburi marsh without definitely Rivers ") empty themselves; the chief being, on the west, settling the hydrographical question connected with it. This the Benin (9.v.), and on the cast the Brass. East of the Niger was accomplished by Captain Lenfant in 1903. He ascended the delta is that formed by the Imo or Opobo, Bonny and other Kebbi and discovered the Lata Fall, continuing up the river to its streams, and still farther east is the Calabar estuary, mainly point of issue from Tuburi. Crossing the marshes he found and formed by the Cross river (q.v.). West of the Niger delta are navigated the narrow river leading to the Logone, Save for the several independent streams discharging into lagoons, which porterage round the Lata Fall the whole journey from the mouth here line the coast. The most westerly of these streams, the of the Niger to Lake Chad was made by water. The Benue in Ogun, enters the Lagos lagoon, which is connected by navigable the neighbourhood of Yola was mapped in 1903-1904 by an waterways with the Niger (see Lagos). Anglo-German boundary commission.

The delta region is swampy, and forms, for a distance of from From 1904 onwards the French undertook works on the Niger 40 to 70 m. inland, a network of interlacing creeks and broad between Bamako-whence there is railway communication with sluggish channels fringed with monotonous mangrove forests. the Senegal--and Ansongo with a view to deepening the channel The main rivers are navigable for ocean-going steamers for a and removing obstructions to navigation. In 1910 the British distance of from 15 to 40 m. from their mouths. Beyond the began dredging with the object of obtaining from the mouth of delta firm ground takes the place of mud and the mangroves the river to Baro a minimum depth of 6 ft. of water.

disappear. The land rises gradually at first, becoming, however,

in many districts very hilly, and is covered with dense forests. 1 Captain Claud Alexander died of fever in northern Nigeria on The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than the 30th of November 1904. His brother, Lieut. Boyd Alexander, in a subsequent expedition across Africa was murdered in Wadai on 250 ft. above the sea. North of this point are hills forming the 2nd of April 1910.

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protectorate and is part of the great plateau of North Africa. 1 through a valley not more than 500 ft. above the sea. The This plateau, broken only by the valleys of the rivers, does north-eastern part of the country drains to Lake Chad by the not attain an elevation approaching that of the plateaus of the Waube or Yo, an intermittent stream, which in its lower course southern half of the continent, the culminating point (apart from forms the Anglo-French boundary. The western portion of particular mountain districts), situated in about 10° N., reaching Lake Chad (9.0.) belongs to the protectorate, which contains a height of 3000 ft. only. The valleys of the Niger and Benue, no other large lake. The water parting between the Chad and especially the latter, are very much lower, the town of Yola Niger systems runs N.W. and S.E. from about Katsena in on the Benue, some 400 m. inland, lying at an altitude of little 13° N. to the Bauchi hills. Of the tributarics of the Benue over 600 ft. The surface is generally undulating, with isolated the most important is the Gougola. During the dry season most " table mountains”. of granite and sandstone often rising of the small rivers cease running and the water in the larger abruptly from the plain. It is clothed largely with thin forest, streams is low. The great rise of the Niger within the probut becomes more open to the north until, near the French tectorate takes place in August and September and there is a frontier, the arid steppes bordering the Sahara are reached. second rise about the beginning of the ycar. Much of the country north of Zaria (11° N.) is covered with heavy loose sand. The most mountainous districts are northern From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benuc

Geology.-The fundamental formation consists of crystalline rocks. Bauchi (a little north of 10°), where heights of 6000 to 7000 st. and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying un. occur; parts of Muri, along the north bank of the Benue; disturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin. and the southern border of the Benue basin, where the hills Limestones, with fossils indicating a Tertiary age, have been found

near Sokoto. Superficial deposits occupy the coast belt. Recent (consisting of ironstone, quartz and granite) appear rich in alluvium and a thick deposit of black earth border the upper reaches minerals. The mountainous area covers some 50,000 sq. m. of the Benue and cover wide areas around Lake Chad. On the east the plateau sinks to the plains of Bornu (q.v.), which Climate.-The country lies wholly within the tropics. The extend to Lake Chad. Tributaries of the Niger traverse the climate of the coast-lands is moist and hot, and extremely unhealthy, western portion of the country, the most noteworthy being delta regions varies between 100 and 140 or more inches: the mean

malarial sever being prevalent and deadly. The annual rainfall in the the Gulbin Kebbi or Sokoto river and the Kaduna, which flows temperature is over 80° F. The heat does not vary greatly, rarely

sinking below 70°, and not often exceeding_100° in the shade. The Trial by ordeal and domestic slavery are still among the recog. direction of the prevailing wind is S.W. Though unfavourable for nized institutions, the permanent residence of white men, the interior is much less deadly than the coast-lands. The northern part is a land of tornadoes.

In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more At the close of the dry season (end of February) cyclones from the mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great N.E., usually accompanied by rain and thunder, burst over the land. extent driven out by the northern races of the continent. The They increase in frequency until they merge in the heavy rains which last from July to October. Then the "hamattan, " or hot, dry most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa wind from the Sahara, begins and brings with it clouds of impalpable (9.v.),

among whom the superior classes adopted Mahommedanism dust. At this period the nights are cold, and in the north January in the 13th and 14th centuries. While the lower classes remained and February are cold even in the day-time, while frosts are ex: pagan, a fairly civilized system of administration, with an perienced in the neighbourhood of Lake Chad. The temperature in efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the the coast, but the range is far greater, varying from a shade minimum Hausa territories. The Hausa are keen traders and make ex. of 59° to a sbade maximum of 107°.1 Tire rainfall is much scantier cellent soldiers. on the plateaus than in the maritime regions, averaging in Northern Nigeria about 50 .in. a year. There is evidence of the

increasing were conquered by another dominant Mahommedan race, the

At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa territories desiccation is partly attributable to the unrestricted felling of wood Fula (9.0.), who form a separate caste of cattle-rearers. Arab practised for many centuries by the inhabitants. Along the northern merchants are settled in some of the larger Hausa towns. border of the protectorate this has resulted in the encroachment of In general the people living in the river valleys have been the Saharan desert over once fertile districts.

The natives of the northern regions do not suffer to any extent unaffected by Moslem propaganda either in blood or religion. from fever unless they move to a part of the country some distance Thus along the banks of the Niger, Benue and other streams, from their home. Leprosy is common, especially in the inland towns; the inhabitants are negro and pagans, and generally of a purely while ophthalmia is prevalent in the north, especially among the savage though often rather fine type. Of these the Munshi, poorer classes, who are compelled to expose themselves to the blinding dust from the deserts and the excessive glare of the sun

who inhabit the district nearest the junction of the Benue with reflected from the burning sand.

the Niger, were long noted for their intractability and hostility Fauna and Flora.--The animals of Nigeria include the elephant, to strangers, whom they attacked with poisoned arrows. The lion, leopard, giraffe, hyena, West-African buffalo, many kinds of Yoraghums, their neighbours, were cannibals. Nearer Yola the forests, and snakes are common. The camel is found in the live the Battas, who also had a bad reputation. These tribes, northern regions bordering the Sahara. In the rivers are rhinoceros, under British influence, are turning to trade and agricultural hippopotamus and crocodile. The manatus is also found. The birds pursuits. In the central hilly region of Kachia are other pagan include the ostrich, marabout, vultures, kites, hawks, ground horn-tribes. They wear no clothes and their bodies are covered with bill, great bustard, guinea fowl, partridge, lesser bustard, quail

, hair. South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell snipe, duck, widgeon, teal, geese of various kinds, paraquets, doves, blue, bronze and green pigeons, and many others.' Domestic animals the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes. In include the horse and donkey in the plateaus, but baggage animals the districts of Illorin and Borgu, west of the Niger, the inhabit. are rare in the coast-lands, where the tsetse fly is found. Mosquitoes ants are also negroes and pagan, but of a more advanced are also abundant throughout the delta. Herds of cattle and flocks type than the tribes of the river valleys. To attempt any of sheep and goats are numerous throughout the country.

The mangrove is the characteristic tree of the swamps. North complete list of the tribes inhabiting Northern Nigeria would of the swamps the oil palm (Elaeis guincensis) Aourishes abundantly be vain. In the one province of Bauchi as many as sixty native It is common as far as about 7° N. Rubber vines, mahogany,cbony languages are spoken. and many valuable timber trees are found in the forest zone. Other trees, found chiefly on the plateaus, are the baobab, the shea-butter

In Bornu (9.8.) the population consists of (1) Berberi or tree, the locust tree, gambier, palms, including the date and dum Kanuri, the ruling race, containing a mixture of Berber and palm (Hyphaene), the tamarind, and, in the arid regions, the acacia negro blood, with many lesser indigenous tribes; (2) so-called and mimosa.

Arabs, and (3) Fula. The country to the back of Lagos is largely Inhabitants.--The population of Nigeria is estimated at inhabited by Yorubas (9.v.), and the people of Borgu according 15,000,000. The Europeans (mostly British) number about a

to some native traditions claim to have had a Coptic origin. thousand, and are civil servants, soldiers, traders or missionaries. The chief ports are Lagos (q.v.), capital of Southern Nigeria,

Towns.-A large proportion of the population dwells in towns. In the delta district and the forest zone the inhabitants are with a population of about 50,000; Calabar (2.9.), pop. about 15.000, typical negroes. Besides the people of Benin, the coast tribes known as Old Calabar and Duke Town, on the Calabar river; Opobo, include the Jekri, living on the lower part of the Benin river Bonny Town and Brass Town, all on the rivers of the same naine. and akin to the Yoruba, the Ijos, living in the delta cast of the places are east of the Nun or main mouth of the Niger, where, on main mouth of the Niger, and the Ibos, occupying a wide tract the western bank, is Akassa. Here are important enginecring works of country just above the delta and extending for 100 m. east and a slip for repairing ships. Further west at the Forcados mouth from the Niger to the Cross river. South of the Ibos live the of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port Aros, a tribe of relatively great intelligence, who dominated mouth of the Benin river, and Bende, about 50 m. N.W. of Calabar,

of entry for the river. Benin (9.v.), about 60 m. inland from the many of the surrounding tribes and possessed an oracle or ju-ju were noted ju-ju towns and have large populations. Wari and of reputed great power. On the middle Cross river live the Sapele are towns in the Benin district. Owo, some 50 m. N. of Benin Akuna-kunas, an agricultural race, and in the Calabar region city, is an important trade centre for the Yoruba country, in which are the Efiks, Ibibios and Kwas. All these tribes are fetish

are the large cities of Abeokuta, Ibadan and Illorin, all separately

noticed. On the Niger at the head of the delta are Asaba (west worshippers; though Christian and Moslem missionaries have bank) and Onitsha (east bank): Iddah (Ida), in the palm-oil zone: made numerous converts. The Efiks, a coast tribe which has Lokoja on the west bank opposite the confluence with the Benue, come much into contact with white men, have adopted several and ihe headquarters of the protectorate's military force; Baro, European customs, and educated Enks are employed in

on the east bank, 70 m, above Lokoja, the river terminus of the

Northern Nigeria railway: Egga, Mureji (at the Kaduna confluence), government service. The great secret society called Egbo (9.v.) Jebba and Bussa (9.0.). The administrative headquarters of Northern is an Efik institution. Each tribe has a different ju-ju, and Nigeria are at Zungeru, on the Kaduna river, in 6o og' 40" E., each speaks a separate language or dialect, the most widely 9° 48' 32" N. diffused tongues being the Ibo and Efik, which have been

Apart from the sea and river ports and the towns in Yorubaland,

the chief centres of population are in the open plains east of the reduced to writing. In general little clothing is worn, but none Niger. They are the capitals of various states founded by the of the tribes go absolutely nude. In colour the majority are Hausa. Of these cities the most important is Kano (9.8.), the great dark chocolate, others are coal-black (a tint much admired by emporium of trade for the central Sudan, where Tuareg and Arab the natives themselves) or dark yellow-brown. Cannibalism, the lar southern regions. It is situated in 120" N. and 8° 32' E,

from the north meet merchants from the Niger, Lake Chảd and human sacrifices and other revolting practices common to the Some 220 m. W.N.W. of Kano is Sokoto, on a tributary of the Niger tribes, are being gradually stamped out under British control. of the same name. Sokoto is the religious and political centre of the

Fula. Next in importance among the Hausa towns are Bauchi (or * Returns at Zungeru for 1903.

Yakoba), pop. over 50,000, 140 m. S.E. of Kano; Zaria (g.v.), pop.

about 60,000, 82 m. S.S.W. of Kano; Katsena (9.0.), 84 m. N.W. 150,000 to 70,000 tons are shipped yeady, with an average value of of Kano; Hadeija, near the N. eastern frontier; Gando, 60 m. S.W.500.000 a year. The principal imports are cotton goods (nearly ali of Sokoto; Bida (9.v.), 25 m. N.W. of Egga on the Niger; and Yola from the United Kingdom), and in the southern region spirits-gin (9.9.) on the Benue near the German frontier. Jegga, 85 m. S.W. of and geneva-almost wholly from Holland and Germany, salt, rice Sokoto, is an important entrepôt for trade from the hinterland of and other provisions, tobacco, hardware, cutlery and building the Guinea coast and the

Hausa states. The chief towns of Bornu material, &c., mostly from the United Kingdom. The value of the are Kuka (2.v.) on Lake Chad, and Maidugari, some 70 m. S.W. of trade (imports and exports) of Southern Nigeria (exclusive of Lagos) that lake. Most of these towns are capitals of provinces and resi- increased from £1,566,000 in 1894–1895 to £3.464.000 in 1905. In dences of native princes subordinate to the British administration. 1906 the total trade, inclusive of Lagos, was valued at £6,299,000 They are ncarly all surrounded by strong mud walls and outer dry imports, £3,148,000; exports: 43.151,000. moats. Their interior is divided into a serics of compounds, each In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation entered through a flat-roofed audience chamber. Inside are the the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose bechive-shaped huts of the household. The gateways are strongly caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried fortified. In addition to the towns mentioned there are many others to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European containing populations of from 10,000 to 20,000, the bulk of the goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the inhabitants of the Hausa countries being town dwellers.

principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast. There was Communications.—The rivers are the great highways of com also a very considerable caravan trade in native goods which the munication, but, in consequence of the lowness of the water between industrious Hausa population carried for great distances through the October and May, navigation is then only possible for shallow draught western and central states of the Sudan. The principal articles of stern-whcel steamers and launches. From the Forcados mouth of this trade are salt, kola nuts, ivory, leather, sodium carbonates and the Niger steamers can ascend the main stream as far as Jebba, spices. The centre of the cloth manulacture is Kano. The cloth is a distance of 530 m. and, at some risk, to Fort Goldie, 30 m. farther made of the cotton grown in the country, woven on small handup at the foot of the Bussa rapids. Steamers can also ascend the looms and dyed cither with indigo or with a magenta dye obtained Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the from the bark of a tree. If the Hausa history, which exists in written Niger at Lokoja. It is also possible by this route to proceed by !orm, be correct, the manufacture of this cloth has been carried on small boat via the Shari system to Lake Chad. The Kaduna from in Kano since the 9th century. Kano and the district around it its confluence with the Niger can be ascended by steamer 50 m. to clothes hall the population of the Sudan. The kola nut, chewed by Barijuko, which is 22 m. by rail from Zungeru. The Gongola is almost every native of the country, is brought from west of the navigable at high water for 130 m. from its junction with the Benue. Niger, traders from Ashanti, Accra and Yorubaland frequenting the

In the delta region every place of importance is casily reached by markets of Jegga. Salt and potash" are imported from Absen river steamers, and there is a regular service between Forcados and in the Sahara; and ivory, ostrich feathers and leather goods are Lagos by the lagoons. The Cross river is navigable 240 m. up to and exported to Tripoli. The principal exports to Great Britain have beyond the frontier of Cameroon.

come hitherto from the forest regions, and are of the same class A 3 ft. 6 in. gauge railway from the port of Lagos to Ibadan was as the forest products of the south. Rubber constitutes at present completed in 1900, the distance by rail being 123 m. Only about half the most important export. The cultivation of cotton is however that distance intervenes between Ibadan and the sea. This line was, | indigenous to the country. Inquiries made under the auspices of during 1906-1910, extended via Oshogbo, Illorin and Jebba to the British Cotton Growing Association have led to the conclusion Zungeru, whence it is continued to She, 40 m. E. of Zungeru and that Northern Nigeria offers the most promising field contained about 450 m. from Lagos, where a junction is cffected with the Baro-within the empire for the growth of cotton required to render Kano line. A small light surface line 22 m. long, 2 st. 6 in. gauge was Lancashire looms independent of foreign supplies. Steps have been built(1901–1902)in Northern Nigeria between Barijuko on theKaduna taken to stimulate the native industry, and it is hoped that cotton and the capital, Zungeru, and proved most successful and lucrative. In may take the place in Northern Nigeria which palm oil and kernels 1907 the construction was begun of a 3 st. 6 in. railway from Baro on occupy in the coast zone. Any great expansion in the cotton trade the Niger via Bida and Zaria to Kano- a distance of about 400 m. is however dependent on the development of cheap and efficient

Good roads connect some of the great Hausa cities, and Kano and means of transport--hence the importance, commercially, of the Kuka are starting points for caravans across the Sahara to the Baro-Kano railway, with its base on the navigable Niger. With Mediterranean. There are also old established caravan routes from the increase of transport facilities it is probable that the trade with Kano to Ashanti and neighbouring countries.

the Mediterranean coasts will also be diverted to the south, and profit. Regular communication is maintained with Europe by steamers able minor branches of trade would be formed in leather, ostrich running between Liverpool and Forcados, Bonny and Calabar, the feathers, gums, fibres, &c. The imports from Great Britain,

which steamers calling at other West African ports en roule. The time come via Forcados, are mostly cotion goods, provisions and hard occupied between Liverpool and Forcados is about seventeen days. ware. The importation of spirits is prohibited north of 7 N. Other steamers ply between the ports named (and others in the pro Currency and Banking - The legal currency, and that in general tectorate) and London and Hamburg. There is telegraphic com use, is British sterling. There is a subsidiary coinage (introduced in munication between Brass and Bonny and Europe by submarine 1908) consisting of a nickel penny and a nickel tenth of a penny cable, and land lines from Calabar to Lagos and from Lagos to Jebba, (the last-named

was first coined in aluminium, but this metal proved Lokoja,

Zungeru, Kano, &c., a connexion being also effected with the unsuitable and was withdrawn). Cowries (1000 = 3d.) are still telegraph system of French West Africa.

occasionally employed, and on the coast, accounts are sometimes kept Agriculture:--The natives of the coast region cultivate yams and in gallons of palm oil. Banking is in the hands of the Bank of other food plants, but in that district agriculture proper scarcely British West Africa and the Bank of Nigeria. There is also a exists, the fruit of the oil-palm supplying an easy means of obtaining, government savings bank. almost everything that the natives require. In the plains of the north, inhabited by Hausa and by agricultural pagan tribes, and in

History. the fertile river valleys, agriculture is regularly carried on. Rice and wheat are cultivated in many parts, though the staple food is guinea

Of the early history of the races inhabiting the coast lands corn. Sweet potatoes, ground nuts, yams, onions and other

vege- little is known. The Beni appear to have been the most powerful and bananas abound in certain areas. The shea-butter tree supplies in the 15th century, and the kings of Benin in the 17th century tables are largely grown. of fruits, dates, pomegranates, citrons race at the time of the discovery of the coast by the Portuguese an excellent oil for lamps, and also for cooking, though it is only used ruled a large part of the south-western portion of the existing cotton and indigo, which are universally grown. Tobacco and kola British protectorate (sec BENIN). The Benin influence does nuts are also grown."

not seem to have reached east of the Forcados mouth of the Mineral Products.-Tin ore of excellent quality is found in the Niger. In the greater part of the delta region each town owned province of Bauchi, alkali salts are abundant in Kano province, a different chief and there was no one dominant tribe. Among provinces, kaolin (china clay) and limestone in the west central these people, who occupied a low position even among the de regions. Silver and lead have been found in the Benue area. generate coast negroes, and who were constantly raided by the

*Trade. --Throughout Nigeria local trade is active and has shown more virile tribes of the interior, trading stations were established rapid increase under British rule

. Its further development will be by the Portuguese, and later on by other Europeans, British place. Export trade in the delta and forest regions is almost entirely traders appearing as early as the 17th century. There was no confined to "jungle produce," the most important articles being assertion of political rights by the white men, who were largely palm oil and palm kernel. Rubber, ebony and other timber, cocoa and gum copal, come next in importance. Cotton is also grown for their ships or the “ factorics" established on the various rivers

at the mercy of the natives, and who rarely ventured far from 12.000,000 gallons, and is worth over £600,000. Of palm kernels and estuaries, T See Colonial Office Reports, Northern Nigeria Mineral Survey

By the end of the 18th century British enterprise had almost 1906-1907: Southern Nigeria Mineral Survey 1905-1907 (Miscella- entirely displaced that of other nations on the Niger coast. acoas, Nos. 59, 67, 68).

But the principal trade of all Europeans was still in slaves.

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