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especially as afterwards developed in the apocalyptic Paroles | each, as it was produced or published (Cromwell, Hernani. d'un croyant (1839) are to be discerned many of the tendencies Morion de l'Orme, Le Roi s'amuse, Lucrèce Borgia, Marie Tudor, of the Romantic school, particularly its bardy and picturesque Ruy Blas and Les Burgraves), was a literary event, and excited choice of language, and the disdain of established and accepted the most violent discussion—the author's usual plan being to methods which it professed. The signs of the revolution itself prefix a prose preface of a very militant character to his work. were, as was natural, first given in periodical literature. The A still more melodramatic variety of drame was that chiefly feudalist affectations of Chateaubriand and the legitimists represented by Alexandre Dumas (1802–1870), whose Henri III excited a sort of aesthetic affection for Gothicism, and Walter and Antony, to which may be added later La Tour de Nesle Scott became one of the most favourite authors in France. and Mademoiselle de Belleisle, were almost as much rallying Soon was started the periodical La Muse française, in which the points for the early Romantics as the dramas of Hugo, despite names of Hugo, Vigny, Deschamps and Madame de Girardin their inferior literary value. At the same time Alexandre Soumet appear. Almost all the writers in this periodical were eager (1788-1845), in Norma, Une Fête de Néron, &c., and Casimir royalists, and for some time the battle was still fought on poli- Delavigne in Marino Faliero, Louis XI, &c., maintained a tical grounds. There could, however, be no special connexion somewhat closer adherence to the older models. The classical between classical drama and liberalism; and the liberal journal, or semi-classical reaction of the last years of Louis Philippe was the Globe, with no less a person than Sainte-Beuve among its represented in tragedy by Ponsárd (Lucrèce, Agnes de Meranie, contributors, declared definite war against classicism in the Charlotte Corday, Ulysse, and several comedies), and on the comic drama. The chief “classical " organs were the Constitutionnel, side, to a certain extent, by Emile Augier (1820-1889) in the Journal des débals, and after a time and not exclusively, L'Aventurière, Le Gendre de M. Poirier, Le Fils de Giboyer, &c. the Revue des deux mondes. Soon the question became purely During almost the whole period Eugène Scribe (1791-1861) literary, and the Romantic school proper was born in the famous poured forth innumerable comedies of the vaudeville order, cénacle or clique in which Hugo was chief poet, Sainte-Beuve which, without possessing much literary value, attained immense chief critic, and Gautier, Gérard de Nerval, the brothers Emile popularity. For the last half-century the realist development (1791-1871) and Antony (1800-1869), Deschamps, Petrus Borel of Romanticism has had the upper hand in dramatic composition, (1809-1859) and others were officers. Alfred de Vigny and its principal representatives being on the one side Victorien Alfred de Musset stand somewhat apart, and so does Charles Sardou (1831-1909), who in Nos Intimes, La Famille Benoiton, Nodier (1780-1844), a versatile and voluminous writer, the very Rabagas, Doro, &c., chiefly devoted himself to the satirical variety and number of whose works have somewhat prevented treatment of manners, and Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-1895), the individual excellence of any of them from having justice author in 1852 of the famous Dame aux camélios, who in such done to it. The objects of the school, which was at first violently pieces as Les Idées de Madame Aubray and L'Étrangère rather opposed, so much so that certain academicians actually petitioned busied himself with morals and “problems," while his Dame the king to forbid the admission of any Romantic piece at the aux comélias (1852) is sometimes ranked as the first of such things Théâtre Français, were, briefly stated, the burning of everything in “modern” style. Certain isolated authors also deserve which had been adored, and the adoring of everything which notice, such as Joseph Autran (1813–1877), a poet and acadehad been burnt. They would have no unities, no arbitrary mician having some resemblance to Lamartine, whose Fille selection of subjects, no restraints on variety of versification, no d'Æschyle created for him a dramatic reputation which he did academically limited vocabulary, no considerations of artificial, not attempt to follow up, and Gabriel Legouvé (b. 1807), whose beauty, and, above all, no periphrastic expression. The mot Adrienne Lecouvreur was assisted to popularity by the admirable propre, the calling of a spade a spade, was the great commande talent of Rachel. A special variety of drama of the first literary ment of Romanticism; but it must be allowed that what was importance has also been cultivated in this century under the taken away in periphrase was made up in adjectives. Musset, title of scènes or proverbes, slight dramatic sketches in which the who was very much of a free-lance in the contest, maintained dialogue and style are of even more importance than the action. indeed that the differentia of the Romantic was the copious use The best of all of these are those of Alfred de Musset (1810-1857), of this part of speech. All sorts of epithets were invented to whose Il faut qu'une porte soit ouverte ou fermée, On ne bodine distinguish the two parties, of which flamboyant and grisâtre pas avec l'amour, &c., are models of grace and wit. Among his are perhaps the most accurate and expressive pair-the former followers may be mentioned especially Octave Feuillet (1821– serving to denote the gorgeous tints and bold attempts of the 1890). Few social dramas of the kind in modern times have new school, the latter the grey colour and monotonous outlines attained a greater success than Le Monde l'on s'ennuie (1868) of the old. The representation of Hernani in 1830 was the cul- of Edouard Pailleron (1834–1899). (See also DRAMA.) mination of the struggle, and during great part of the reign of In poetry proper, as in drama, Victor Hugo showed the way. Louis Philippe almost all the younger men of letters in France In him all the Romantic characteristics were expressed and were Romantics. The representation of the Lucrèce of François embodied-disregard of arbitrary critical rules, free Ponsard (1814–1867) in 1846 is often quoted as the herald or sign choice of subject, variety and vigour of metre, splendour

Hugo. of a classical reaction. But this was only apparent, and signified, and sonorousness of diction, abundant " local colour," if it signified anything, merely that the more juvenile excesses and that irrepressible individualism which is one of the chief, of the Romantics were out of date. All the greatest men of though not perhaps the chief, of the symptoms. If the careful letters of France since 1830 have been on the innovating side, attention to form which is also characteristic of the movement is and all without exception, whether intentionally or not, have had less apparent in him than in some of his followers, it is not their work coloured by the results of the movement, and of those because it is absent, but because the enthusiastic conviction which have succeeded it as developments rather than reactions. with which he attacked every subject somewhat diverts attention

Drama and Poetry since 1830. - Although the immediate from it. As with the merits so with the defects. A deficient subject on which the battles of Classics and Romantics arose sense of the ludicrous which characterized many of the Romantics was dramatic poetry, the dramatic results of the movement was strongly apparent in their leader, as was also an equally have not been those of greatest value or most permanent char representative grandiosity, and a fondness for the introduction acter. The principal effect in the long run has been the intro of foreign and unfamiliar words, especially proper names, duction of a species of play called drame, as opposed to regular which occasionally produces an effect of burlesque. Victor comedy and tragedy, admitting of much freer treatment than Hugo's earliest poetical works, his chiefly royalist and political either of these two as previously understood in French, and Odes, were cast in the older and accepted forms, but already lending itself in some measure to the lengthy and disjointed displayed astonishing poetical qualities. But it was in the action, the multiplicity of personages, and the absence of stock Ballades (for instance, the splendid Pas d'armes du roi Jean, characters which characterized the English stage in its palmy written in verses of three syllables) and the Orientales ( of which days. AV Victor Hugo's dramatic works-are of this class, and may be taken for a sample the sixth section of Novarin, a perfect

Victor

Musset,

torrent of outlandish terms poured forth in the most admirable while his style has an exquisite but unaffected strangeness verse, or Les Djinns, where some of the stanzas have lines of hardly inferior to Gautier's. This peculiar and somewhat two syllables each) that the grand provocation was thrown quintessenced style is also remarkable in the Gaspard de la nuit to the believers in alexandrines, careful caesuras and strictly of Louis Bertrand (1807-1841), a work of rhythmical prose separated couplets. Les Feuilles d'automne, Les Chants du almost unique in its character. One famous sonnet preserves crépuscule, Les Voix intérieures, Les Rayons et les ombres, the the name of Félix Arvers (1806-1850). The two Deschamps productions of the next twenty years, were quieter in style and were chiefly remarkable as translators. The next generation tone, but no less full of poetical spirit. The Revolution of 1848, produced three remarkable poets, to whom may perhaps be the establishment of the empire and the poet's exile brought added a fourth. Théodore de Banville (1823-1891), adopting about a fresh determination of his genius to lyrical subjects. the principles of Gautier, and combining with them a considerable Les Chatiments and Lo Légende des sièces, the one political, the satiric faculty, composed a large amount of verse, faultless in other historical, reach perhaps the high-water mark of French form, delicate and exquisite in shades and colours, but so entirely verse; and they were followed by the philosophical Contempla: neutral in moral and political tone that it has found fewer tions, the lighter Chansons des rues et des bois, the Année admirers than it deserved. Charles Marie René Leconte de Lisle terrible, the second Légende des siècles, and the later work to be (1818–1894), carrying out the principle of ransacking foreign found noticed sub nom. We have been thus particular here literature for subjects, went to Celtic, classical or even Oriental because the literary productiveness of Victor Hugo himself has sources for his inspiration, and despite a science in verse not much been the measure and sample of the whole literary productiveness inferior to Banville's, and a far wider range and choice of of France on the poetical side. At five-and-twenty he was subject, diffused an air of erudition, not to say pedantry, over acknowledged as a master, at seventy-five he was a master still. his work which disgusted some readers, and a pessimism which His poetical influence has been represented in three different displeased others, but bas left poetry only inferior to that of schools, from which very few of the poetical writers of the the greatest of his countrymen. Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), century can be excluded. These few we may notice first. Alfred by his choice of unpopular subjects and the terrible truth of his

de Musset, a writer of great genius, felt part of the analysis, revolted not a few of those who, in the words of an

Romantic inspiration very strongly, but was on the English critic, cannot take pleasure in the representation if they whole unfortunately influenced by Byron, and partly out of do not take pleasure in the thing represented, and who thus wilfulness, partly from a natural want of persevering industry miss his extraordinary command of the poetical appeal in and vigour, allowed himself to be careless and even slovenly sound, in imagery and in suggestion generally. Thus, by a in composition. Notwithstanding this, many of his lyrics are strange coincidence, each of the three representatives of the among the finest poems in the language, and his verse, careless second Romantic generation was for a time disappointed of as it is, has extraordinary natural grace. Auguste Barbier his due fame. A fourth poet of this time, Joséphin Soulary (1805–1882) whose lambes shows an extraordinary command of (1815-1891), produced sonnets of rare beauty and excellence. nervous and masculine versification, also comes in here; and the A fifth, Louis Bouilhet (1822-1869), an intimate friend of FlauBreton poet, Auguste Brizeux (1803-1858), much admired by bert, pushed even farther the fancy for strange subjects, but some, together with Hégésippe Moreau, an unequal writer showed powers in Meænis and other things. In 1866 a collection possessing some talent, Pierre Dupont (1821-1870), one of much of poems, entitled after an old French fashion Le Parnasse greater gifts, and Gustave Nadaud (1820-1893), a follower of contemporain, appeared. It included contributions by many Béranger, also deserve mention. Of the school of Lamartine of the poets just mentioned, but the mass of the contributors rather than of Hugo are Alfred de Vigny (1799–1865) and were hitherto unknown to fame. A similar collection appeared Victor de Laprade (1812–1887), the former a writer of little in 1869, and was interrupted by the German war, but continued bulk and somewhat over-fastidious, but possessing one of the after it, and a third in 1876. most correct and elegant styles to be found in French, with a The first Parnasse had been projected by MM. Xavier de curious restrained passion and a complicated originality, the Ricard (b. 1843) and Catulle Mendès (1841-1909) as a sort of mani. latter a meditative and philosophical poet, like Vigny an admir- festo of a school of young poets: but its contents were largely able writer, but somewhat deficient in pith and substance, as coloured by the inclusion among them of work by representatives well as in warmth and colour. Madame Ackermann (1813-1890) of older generations-Gautier, Laprade, Leconte de Lisle, is the chief philosophical poetess of France, and this style has Banville, Baudelaire and others. The continuation, however, recently been very popular; but for actual poetical powers, of the title in the later issues, rather than anything else, led to Marceline Desbordes-Valmore (1786-1859) perhaps excelled her, the formation and promulgation of the idea of a “Parnassien ” though in a looser and more sentimental fashion. The poetical or an "Impassible” school which was supposed to adopt as its schools which more directly derive from the Romantic movement watchword the motto of “ Art for Art's sake,” to pay especial as represented by Hugo are three in number, corresponding in attention to form, and also to aim at a certain objectivity. As point of time with the first outburst of the movement, with the a matter of fact the greater poets and the greater poems of the period of reaction already alluded to, and with the closing years Parnasse admit of no such restrictive labelling, which can only of the second empire. Of the first by far the most distinguished be regarded as mischievous, though (or very mainly because) member was Théophile Gautier (1811-1872), the most perfect it has been continued. Another school, arising mainly in the Gautier. poet in point of form that France has produced. When later 'eighties and calling itself that of “Symbolism," has been

quite a boy he devoted himself to the study of 16th. supposed to indicate a reaction against Parnassianism and even century masters, and though he acknowledged the supremacy against the main or Hugonic Romantic tradition generally; of Hugo, his own talent was of an individual order, and developed with a throwing back to Lamartine and perhaps Chénier. This itself more or less independently. Alberlus alone of his poems idea of successive schools (“ Decadents," Naturists," "Simhas much of the extravagant and grotesque character which plists,” &c.) has even been reduced to such an absurdum as distinguished early romantic literature. The Comédie de la the statement that “ France sees a new school of poetry every mort, the Poésies diverses, and still more the Emaux et camées, fifteen years." Those who have studied literature sufficiently display a distinctly classical tendency-classical, that is to say, widely, and from a sufficient elevation, know that these systenot in the party and perverted sense, but in its true acceptation. matisings are always more or less delusive. Parnassianism, The tendency to the fantastic and horrible may be taken as best symbolism. and the other things are merely phases of the shown by Petrus Borel (1809-1859), a writer of singular power Romantic movement itself—as may be proved to demonstration elmost entirely wasted. Gerard Labrunie or de Nerval (1808- by the simple process of taking, say, Hugo and Verlaine on the 1855) adopted a manner also fantastic but more idealistic than one hand, Delille or Escouchard Lebrun on the other, and comBorel's, and distinguished himself by his Oriental travels and paring the two first mentioned with each other and with the studies, and by his attention to popular ballads and traditions, older poet. The differences in the first case will be found to be

66

differences at most of individuality: in the other of kind. We M. Maurice Bouchor (b. 1864), who started his serious and shall not, therefore, further refer to these dubious classifications: respectable work with Les Symboles in 1888; while M. Henri de but specify briefly the most remarkable poets whom they concern, Regnier, born in the same year, has received very high praise and all the older of whom, it may be observed, were represented for work from Lendemains in 1886 and other volumes up to in the Parnasse itself. Of these the most remarkable were Sully Les Jeux rustiques et divins (1897) and Les Médailles d'argile Prudhomme (1839-1907), Francois Coppée (1842-1908) and Paul (1900). The truth, however, perbaps is that this extraordinary Verlaine (1844-1896). The first (Stances el poèmes, 1865, Vaines abundance of verse (for we have not mentioned a quarter of the Tendresses, 1875, Bonheur, 1888, &c.) is a philosophical and names which present themselves, or a twentieth part of those rather pessimistic poet who has very strongly rallied the suffrages who figure in M. Mendès's catalogue for the last half-century) of the rather large present public who care for the embodiment reminds the literary historian somewhat too much of similar of these tendencies in verse; the second (La Grève des forgerons, phenomena in other times. There is undoubtedly a great diffu1869, Les Humbles, 1872, Contes et ders, 1881-1887, &c.) a sion of poetical dexterity, and not perhaps a small one of poetical dealer with more generally popular subjects in a more sentimental spirit, but it requires the settling, clarifying and distinguishing manner; and the third (Sagesse, 1881, Parallèlement, 1889, effects of time to separate the poet from the minor poet. Still Poèmes saturniens, including early work, 1867–1890), by far the more perhaps must we look to time to decide whether the vers most original and remarkable poet of the three, starting with libre as it is called--that is to say, the verse freed from the minute Baudelaire and pushing farther the fancy for forbidden subjects, traditions of the elder prosody, admitting hiatus, neglecting to but treating both these and others with wonderful command of a greater or less extent caesura, and sometimes relying upon mere sound and image-suggestion. Verlaine in fact (he was actually rhythm to the neglect of strict metre altogether-can hold its well acquainted with English) endeavoured, and to a small ground. It has as yet been practised by no poet at all approachextent succeeded in the endeavour, to communicate to French | ing the first class, except Verlaine, and not by him in its extremer the vague suggestion of visual and audible appeal which has forms. And the whole history of prosody and poetry teaches us characterized English poetry from Blake through Coleridge. that though similar changes often come in as it were unperceived, Others of the original Parnassiens who deserve mention are they scarcely ever take root in the language unless a great poet Albert Glatigny (1839–1873), a Bohemian poet of great talent adopts them. Or rather it should perhaps be said that when who died young; Stéphane Mallarmé (1842–1898), afterwards they are going to take root in the language a great poet always chief of the Symbolists, also a true poet in his way, but somewhat does adopt them before very long. barren, and the victim of pose and trick; José Maria de Heredia Prose Fiction since 1830.-Even more remarkable, because (1842-1905), a very exquisite practitioner of the sonnet but with more absolutely novel, was the outburst of prose fiction which perhaps more art than matter in him; Henri Cazalis (1840-1909), followed 1830. Madame de Lafayette, Le Sage, Marivaux, who long afterwards, under his name of Jean Lahor; appeared Voltaire, the Abbé Prévost, Diderot, J. J. Rousseau, Bernardin as a Symbolist pessimist; A. Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, another de Saint-Pierre and Fiévée had all of them produced work eccentric but with a spark of genius; Emmanuel des Essarts; excellent in its way, and comprising in a more or less rudimentary Auguste de Châtillon (1810-1882); Léon Dierx (b. 1838) who, condition most varieties of the novel. But none of them had, after producing even less than Mallarmé, succeeded him as in the French phrase, made a school, and at no time had prose Symbolist chief; Jean Aicard (b. 1848), a southern bard of merit; fiction been composed in any considerable quantities. The inand lastly Catulle Mendès himself, who has been a brilliant mense influence which Walter Scott exercised was perhaps the writer in verse and prose ever since, and whose Mouvement direct cause of the attention paid to prose fiction; the facility, poétique françois de 1867 & 1900 (1903), an official report largely too, with which all the fancies, tastes and beliefs of the amplified so that it is in fact a history and dictionary of French time could be embodied in such work may have had conpoetry during the century, forms an almost unique work of siderable importance. But it is difficult on any theory of cause reference on the subject. Among the later recruits the most and effect to account for the appearance in less than ten years of specially noticeable was Armand Silvestre (1837-1901), whose such a group of novelists as Hugo, Gautier, Dumas, Mérimée, verse (La Chanson des heures, 1878, Ailes d'or, 1880, La Chanson Balzac, George Sand, Jules Sandeau and Charles de Bernard, des éloiles, 1885), of an ethereal beauty, was contrasted with names to which might be added others scarcely inferior. There is prose admirably written and sometimes most amusing, but hardly anything else resembling it in literature, except the great “ Pantagruelist,” and more, in manners and morals. This cluster of English dramatists in the beginning of the 17th century, declension from poetry to prose fiction was also noticeable in and of English poets at the beginning of the 19th; and it is Guy de Maupassant, André Theuriet, Anatole France and even remarkable that the excellence of the first group was maintained Alphonse Daudet.

by a fresh generation-Murger, About, Feuillet, Flaubert, Yet another flight of poets may be grouped as those specially Erckmann-Chatrian, Droz, Daudet, Cherbuliez and Gaboriau, representing the last quarter of the century and (whether Par- forming a company of diodochi not far inferior to their prenassian, Symbolist or what not) the latest development of French decessors, and being themselves not unworthily succeeded almost poetry. Verlaine and Mallarmé already mentioned were in a up to the present day. The romance-writing of France during manner the leaders of these. Perhaps something of the influence the period has taken two different directions--the first that of of Whitman may be detected in the irregular verses of Gustave the novel of incident, the second that of analysis and character. Kahn (b. 1859), Francis Viélé Griffin, actually an American by The first, now mainly deserted, was that which, as was natural birth (b. 1864), Stuart Merrill, of like origin, and Paul Fort when Scott was the model, was formerly most trodden; the (b. 1872). But the whole tendency of the period has been to second required the genius of George Sand and of Balzac and the relax the stringency of French prosody. Albert Samain (1850- more problematical talent of Beyle to attract students to it. 1900), a musical versifier enough; Jean Moréas (1856–1910) who The novels of Victor Hugo are novels of incident, with a strong began with a volume called Les Syrles in 1884); Laurent Tailhade infusion of purpose, and considerable but rather ideal character (b. 1854) and others are more or less Symbolist, and contributed drawing. They are in fact lengthy prose drames rather than to the Symbolist periodical (one of many such since the beginning romances proper, and they have found no imitators. They of the Romantic movement which would almost require an display, however, the powers of the paster at their fullest. article to themselves), the Mercure de France. An older man On the other hand, Alexandre Dumas originally comthan many of these, M. Jean Richepin (b. 1849), made for posed his novels in close imitation of Scott, and they a time considerable noise with poetical work of a colour older are much less dramatic than narrative in character, so that they even than bis age, and harking back somewhat to the Jeune lend themselves to almost indefinite continuation, and there is France and “Bousingot” type of early Romanticism-Lo often no particular reason why they should terminate even at Chanson des gueux, Les Blasphèmes, &c. Other writers of note the end of the score or so of volumes to which they sometimes are M. Paul Déroulède (b. 1846), a violently nationalist poet; I actually extend. Of this purely narrative kind, which hardly

Dumas.

Balzac the younger

even attempts anything but the boldest character drawing, I mentioned Henry Murger (1822-1861), the painter of what is the best of them, such as Les Trois Mousquetaires, Vingt ans called Bohemian life, that is to say, the struggles, difficulties and après, La Reine Margot, are probably the best specimens extant. amusements of students, youthful artists, and men of letters. Dumas possesses, almost alone among novelists, the secret of In this peculiar style, which may perhaps be regarded as an writing interminable dialogue without being tedious, and of irregular descendant of the picaroon romance, Murger has no telling the story by it. Of something the same kind, but of a far rival; and he is also, though on no extensive scale, a poet of great lower stamp, are the novels of Eugène Sue (1804-1857). Dumas pathos. But with these exceptions, the influences of the two and Sue were accompanied and followed by a vast crowd of com- writers we have mentioned, sometimes combined, more often panions, independent or imitative. Alfred de Vigny had already separate, may be traced throughout the whole of later novel attempted the historical novel in Cinq-Mars. Henri de La Touche literaturę. George Sand began with books strongly tinged with (1785-1851) (Fragoletto), an excellent critic who formed George the spirit of revolt against moral and social arrangements, Sand, but a mediocre novelist, may be mentioned: and perhaps and she sometimes diverged into very curious paths of pseudoalso Roger de Beauvoir, whose real name was Eugène Auguste philosophy, such as was popular in the second quarter of the Roger de Bully (1806–1866) (Le Chronique de Saint Georges), century. At times, too, as in Lucresia Floriani and some other and Frédéric Soulie. (Les Mémoires du diable) (1800-1847), works, she did not hesitate to draw largely on her own personal Paul Féval (La Fée des grèves) (1817-1877) and Amédée Achard adventures and experiences. But latterly she devoted herself (Belle-Rose) (1814–1875) are of the same school, and some of the rather to sketches of country life and manners, and to novels attempts of Jules Janin (1804-1874), more celebrated as a critic, involving bold if not very careful sketches of character and more may also be connected with it. By degrees, however, the taste or less dramatic situations. She was one of the most fertile for the novel of incident, at least of an historical kind, died out of novelists, continuing to the end of her long life to pour forth till it was revived in another form, and with an admixture of fiction at the rate of many volumes a year. Of her different domestic interest, by MM, Erckmann-Chatrian. The last and styles may be mentioned as fairly characteristic, Lelia, Lucrezia one of the most splendid instances of the old style was Le Capin Floriani, Consuelo, La Mare cu dicble, La Petite Fadette, François taine Fracasse, which Théophile Gautier began early and finished le champi, Mademoiselle de la Quintinie. Considering the shorter late as a kind of tour de force. The last-named writer in his earlier length of his life the productiveness of Balzac was days had modified the incident novel in many short tales, a kind almost more astonishing, especially if we consider that of writing for which French has always been famous, and in some of his early work was never reprinted, and that which Gautier's sketches are masterpieces. His only other long he left great stores of fragments and unfinished sketches. He is, novel, Mademoiselle de Maupin, belongs rather to the class of moreover, the most remarkable example in literature of untiring analysis. With Gautier, as a writer whose literary characteristics work and determination to achieve success despite the greatest even excel his purely tale-telling powers, may be classed Prosper discouragements. His early work was worse than unsuccessful, Mérimée (1803-1870), one of the most exquisite 19th-century it was positively bad. After more than a score of unsuccessful masters of the language. Already, however, in 1830 the tide attempts, Les Chouans at last made its mark, and for twenty was setting strongly in favour of novels of contemporary life years from that time the astonishing productions composing the and manners. These were of course susceptible of extremely so-called Comédie humaine werc poured forth successively. various treatment. For many years Paul de Kock (1793–1871), The sub-titles which Balzac imposed upon the different batches, a writer who did not trouble himself about Classics or Romantics Scènes de la vie parisienne, de la vie de province, de la vie or any such matter, continued the tradition of Marivaux, intime, &c., show, like the general title, a deliberate intention Crébillon fils, and Pigault Lebrun (1753–1835) in a series of not on the author's part to cover the whole ground of human, at very moral or polished but lively and amusing sketches of life, least of French life. Such an attempt could not succeed wholly; principally of the bourgeois type. Later Charles de Bernard yet the amount of success attained is astonishing. Balzac has, (1804-1850) (Gerfaul) with infinitely greater wit, elegance, however, with some justice been accused of creating the world propriety and literary skill, did the same thing for the higher which he described, and his personages, wonderful as is the classes of French society. But the two great masters of the accuracy and force with which many of the characteristics of novel of character and manners as opposed to that of history humanity are exemplified in them, are somehow not altogether and incident are Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) and Aurore human. Since these two great novelists, many others have Dudevant, commonly called George Sand (1804-1876). Their arisen, partly to tread in their steps, partly to strike out indeinfluence affected the entire body of novelists who succeeded pendent paths. Octave Feuillet (1821–1890), beginning his them, with very few exceptions. At the head of these exceptions career by apprenticeship to Alexandre Dumas and the historical may be placed Jules Sandeau (1811-1883), who, after writing novel, soon found his way in a very different style of composition, a certain number of novels in a less individual style, at last made the roman intime of fashionable life, in which, not withstanding for himself a special subject in a certain kind of domestic novel, some grave defects, he attained much popularity and showed where the passions set in motion are less boisterous than those remarkable skill in keeping abreast of his time. The so-called usually preferred by the French novelist, and reliance is mainly realist side of Balzac was developed (but, as he himself acknowplaced on minute character drawing and shades of colour sober ledged, with a double dose of intermixed if somewhat transin hue but very carefully adjusted (Catherine, Mademoiselle de formed Romanticism) by Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880), who Penarvan, Mademoiselle de la Séiglière). In the same class of showed culture, scholarship and a literary power over the language the more quiet and purely domestic novelists may be placed inferior to that of no writer of the century. No novelist of his X. B. Saintine (1798-1865) (Picciola), Madame C. Reybaud generation has attained a higher literary rank than Flaubert. (1802–1871) (Clémentine, Le Cadel de Colobrières), J. T. de Saint- Madame Bovary and L’Éducation sentimentale are studies of conGermain (Pour en épingle, La Feuille de coudrier), Madame Craven temporary life; in Salammbô and La Tentation de Saint Antoine (1808–1891) (Récit d'une sæur, Fleurange). Henri Beyle (1798- erudition and antiquarian knowledge furnish the subjects for 1865), who wrote under the nom de plume of Stendhal and belongs the display of the highest literary skill. Of about the same date to an older generation than most of these, also stands by himself. Edmond About (1828–1885), before hc abandoned novel-writing, His chief book in the line of fiction is La Chartreuse de Parmé, an devoted himself chiefly to sketches of abundant but not always exceedingly powerful novel of the analytical kind, and he also refined wit (L'Homme d l'oreille cassée

, Le Nez d'un notaire), composed a considerable number of critical and miscellaneous and sometimes to foreign scenes (Tolla, Le Roi des montagnes). works. Of little influence at first (though he had great power Champfleury (Henri Husson, 1829–1889), a prolific critic, over Mérimée) and never master of a perfect style, he has exer- deserves notice for stories of the extravaganza kind. During the cised ever increasing authority as a master of pessimist analysis. whole of the Second Empire one of the most popular writers was Indeed much of his work was never published till towards the Ernest Feydeau (1821–1873), a writer of great ability, but morbid close of the century. Last among the independents must be l and affected in the choice and treatment of his subjects (Fanny,

Sylvie, Catherine d'Overmeire). Emile Gaboriau (1833-1873), quality they carried, and the elder of them after his brother's taking up that side of Balzac's talent which devoted itself to death continued to carry, into novel-writing (Rcnée Mauperin, inextricable mysteries, criminal trials, and the like, produced Germinie Lacerleux, Chérie, &c.) with the addition of an extraM. Le Coq, Le Crime d'Orcival, La Dégringolude, &c.; and ordinary care for peculiar and, as they called it, “personal” Adolphe Belot (b. 1829) for a time endeavoured to out-diction. On the other hand, Alphonse Daudet (who with the Feydeau Feydeau in La Femme de feu and other works. Eugène other three, Flaubert to some extent, and the Russian novelist Fromentin (1820-1876), best known as a painter, wrote a novel, Turgenieff, formed a sort of cénacle or literary club) mixed with Dominique, which was highly appreciated by good judges. some Naturalism a far greater amount of fancy and wit than his

During the last decade of the Second Empire there arose, companions allowed themselves or could perhaps attain; and continuing for varying lengths of time till nearly the end of thc in the Tarlarin series (dealing with the extravagances of his century, another remarkable group of novelists, most of whom fellow-Provençaux) added not a little to the gaiety of Europe. are dealt with under separate headings, but who must receive His other novels (Fromont jeune el Risler aine, Jack, Le Nabab, combined treatment here; with the warning that even more &c.), also very popular, have been variously judged, there danger than in the case of the poets is incurred by classing being something strangely like plagiarism in some of them, and them in “schools." Undoubtedly, however, the “Naturalist" in others, in fact in most, an excessive usc of that privilege of tendency, starting from Balzac and continued through Flaubert, the novelist which consists in introducing real persons under but taking quite a new direction under some of those to be more or less disguise. It should be observed in speaking of this mentioned, is in a manner dominant. Flaubert himself and group that the Goncourts, or rather the survivor of them, left an Feuillet (an exact observer of manners but an anti-Naturalist) elaborate Journal disfigured by spite and bad taste, but of much have already been mentioned. Victor Cherbulicz (1829-1899), importance for the appreciation of the personal side of French a constant writer in the Revue des deux mondes on politics and literature during the last half of the century. other subjects, also accomplished a long series of novels from In 1880 Zola, who had by this time formed a regular school of Le Comle Kostia (1863) onwards, of which the most remarkable disciples, issued with certain of them a collection of short stories, are that just named, Le Roman d'une honnête femme (1866), Les Soirécs de Médan, which contains one of his own best things, and Meta Holdenis (1873). With something of Balzac and L'Atlaque du moulin, and also the capital story, Boule de suif, more of Feuillet, Cherbuliez mixed with his observation of by Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893), who in the same year society a dose of sentimental and popular romance which offended published poems, Des vers, of very remarkable if not strictly the younger critics of his day, but he had solid merits. Gustave poetical quality, Maupassant developed during his short Droz (b. 1832) devoted himself chiefly to short stories sufficiently literary career perhaps the greatest powers shown by any French "free" in subject (Monsieur, madame et bébé, Entre nous, &c.) novelist since Flaubert (his sponsor in both senses) in a series but full of fancy, excellently written, and of a delicate wit in one of longer novels (Une Vie, Bel Ami, Pierre el Jean, Fort comme sense if not in all. André Theuriet (1833-1907) began with poetry la mort) and shorter stories (Monsieur Parent, Les Seurs but diverged to novels, in which the scenery of France and Rondoli, Le Horla), but they were distorted by the Naturalist especially of its great forests is used with much skill; Le Fils pessimism and grime, and perhaps also by the brain-disease Mougars (1879) may be mentioned out of many as a specimen. of which their author died. M. J. K. Huysmans (b. 1848), also Léon Cladel (1835-1892), whose most remarkable work was a contributor to Les Soirées de Médan, who had begun a little Les Va-nu-pieds (1874), had, as this title of itself shows, Naturalist earlier with Marthe (1876) and other books, gave his most leanings; but with a quaint Romantic tendency in prose and characteristic work in 1884 with Au rebours and in 1891 with

La-bas, stories of exaggerated and "satanic” pose, decorated The Naturalists proper chiefly developed or seemed to develop with perhaps the extremest achievements of the school in mere one side of Balzac, but almost entirely abandoned his Romantic ugliness and nastiness. Afterwards, by an obvious reaction, element. They aimed first at exact and almost photographic he returned to Catholicism. Of about the same date as these delineation of the accidents of modern life, and secondly at two are two other novelists of note, Julien Viaud (“Pierre Loti,” still more uncompromising non-suppression of the essential b. 1850), a naval officer who embodied his experiences of foreign features and functions of that life which are usually suppressed. service with a faint dose of story and character interest, and a This school may be represented in chief by four novelists (really far larger one of elaborate description, in a series of books three, as two of them were brothers who wrote together till the (Aziyadé, Le Mariage de Loti, Madame Chrysanthème, &c.), and rather early death of one of them), Emile Zola (1840-1903), M. Paul Bourget (b. 1852), an important critic as well as novelist Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897), and Edmond (1822–1897) and who deflccted the Naturalist current into a “psychological”. Jules (1830-1870) de Goncourt. The first, of Italian extraction channel, connecting itself higher with Stendhal, and composed and Marseillais birth, began by work of undecided kinds and in its books very popular in their way“Cruelle Enigme (1885), was always a critic as well as a novelist. Of this first stage Le Disciple, Terre promise, Cosmopolis. As a contrast or compleContes d Ninon (1864) and Thérèse Raquin (1867) deserve to be ment to Bourget's "psychological” novel may be taken the specified. But after 1870 Zola entered upon a huge scheme “ethical" novel of Edouard Rod (1857-1909)-La Vie privée (suggested no doubt by the Comédie humaine) of tracing the de Michel Tessier (1893), Le Sens de la vie, Les Trois Caurs. fortunes in every branch, legitimate and illegitimate, and in Contemporary with these as a novelist though a much older man; every rank of society of a family, Les Rougon-Macquart, and and occupied at different times of his life with verse and with carried it out in a full score of novels during more than as many criticism, came Anatole France (b. 1844), who in Le Crime de years. He followed this with a shorter series on places, Paris, Silvestre Bonnard, Le Rôtisserie de la reine Pédauque, Le Lys Rome, Lourdes, and lastly by another of strangely apocalyptic rouge, and others, has made a kind of novel as different from tone, Fécondilé, Travail, Vérité, the last a story of the Dreyfus the ordinary styles as Pierre Loti's, but of far higher appeal case, retrospective and, as it proved, prophetic. The extreme in its wit, its subtle fancy, and its perfect French. Ferdinand repulsiveness of much of his work, and the overdone detail of Fabre (1830–1898) and René Bazin (b. 1853) represent the union, almost the whole of it, caused great prejudice against him, and not too common in the French novel, of orthodoxy in morals and will probably always prevent his being ranked among the greatest religion with literary ability. Further must be mentioned Paul novelists; but his power is indubitable, and in passages, if not Hervieu (b. 1857), a dramatist rather than a novelist; the in whole books, does itself justice.

brothers Margueritte (Paul, b. 1860, Victor, b. 1866), especially MM. de Goncourt, besides their work in Naturalist (they strong in short stories and passages; another pair of brothers would have preferred to call it "Impressionist”) fiction, devoted of Belgian origin writing under the name of “J. H. Rosny"themselves especially to study and collection in the fine arts, Zolaists partly converted not to religion but to science and a and produced many volumes on the historical side of these, sort of non-Christian virtue; the ingenious and amusing, if not volumes distinguished by accurate and careful research. This exactly moral, brilliancy of Marcel Prévost (b. 1862); the

verse.

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