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and was one of the promoters of the first universal exhibition | emperors sections passed to the count palatine of the Rhine, of industrial products. From 1804 to 1806 he was president the archbishop of Mainz, the bishops of Worms and Spires of the Senate, and in that capacity the duty devolved upon and other clerical and lay nobles; and the name Franconia, him of soliciting Napoleon to assume the title of emperor In or Francia orientalis as it was then called, was confined to the 1808 he received the dignity of count. Retiring from public eastern portion of the duchy. Clerical authority was becoming life in 1814, he occupied himself chiefly in the study of agriculture, predominant in this region. A series of charters dating from until his death on the roth of January 1828.
822 to 1025 had granted considerable powers to the bishops of François de Neufchâteau had very multifarious accomplish- Würzburg, who, by the time of the emperor Henry II., possessed ments, and interested himself in a great variety of subjects, but judicial authority over the whole of eastern Franconia. The his fame rests chiefly on what he did as a statesman for the duchy was nominally retained by the emperors in their own encouragement and development of the industries of France. hands until 1115, when the emperor Henry V., wishing to curb His maturer poetical productions did not fulfil the promise of the episcopal influence in this neighbourhood, appointed his those of his early years, for though some of his verses have a nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen as duke of Franconia. Conrad's superficialelegance, his poetry generally lacks force and originality. son Frederick took the title of duke of Rothenburg instead of He had considerable qualifications as a grammarian and critic, duke of Franconia, but in 1196, on the death of Conrad of as is witnessed by his editions of the Provinciales and Pensées Hohenstaufen, son of the emperor Frederick I., the title fell of Pascal (Paris, 1822 and 1826) and Gil Blas (Paris, 1820) His into disuse. Meanwhile the bishop of Würzburg had regained principal poetical works are Poésies diverses (1765), Ode sur les his former power in the duchy, and this was confirmed in 1168 parlements (1771); Nouveaux Contes mordur (1781); Les Vosges by the emperor Frederick I. (1796); Fables et conles (1814), and Les Tropes, ou les figures de The title remained in abeyance until the early years of the mols (1817). He was also the author of a large number of 15th century, when it was assumed by John II., bishop of Würz. works on agriculture
burg, and retained by his successors until the bishopric was See Recueil des lettres, circulaires, discours et autres actes publics secularized in 1802. The greater part of the lands were united émanés du Çle François pendant ses deux exercices du ministère de with Bavaria, and the name Franconia again fell into abeyance l'intérieur (Paris, An. vii.-viii, 2 vols.); Natuce biographique sur M It was revived in 1837, when Louis I., king of Bavaria, gave to le comte François de Neufchâteau (1828). by A F de Sillery; H. Bonnelier, Mémoires sur François de Neufchâteau (Paris, 1829). three northern portions of his kingdom the names of Upper, 1: Lamoureux, Notice historique et lilléraire sur la vie et les écrits de Middle and Lower Franconia. In 1633 Bernhard, duke of SaxeFrançois de Neufchâteau (Paris, 1843), E Meaume, Étude historique Weimar, hoping to create a principality for himself out of the d biographique sur les Lorrains révolutionnaires Palissot, Grégoire, ecclesiastical lands, had taken the title of duke of Franconia, François de Neufchateau (Nancy, 1882); Ch Simian, Fronçois de but his hopes were destroyed by his defeat at Nördlingen in 1634. Neufchâteau et les expositions (Paris, 1889)
When Germany was divided into circles by the emperor MaxiFRANCONIA (Ger Franken), the name of one of the stem- milian I. in 1500, the name Franconia was given to that circle duchies of medieval Germany It stretched along the valley of which included the eastern part of the old duchy. The lands the Main from the Rhine to Bohemia, and was bounded on the formerly comprised in the duchy of Franconia are now divided north by Saxony and Thuringia, and on the south by Swabia between the kingdoms of Bavaria and Württemberg, the grande and Bavaria. It also included a district around Mainz, Spires duchies of Baden and Hesse, and the Prussian province of and Worms, on the left bank of the Rhine The word Franconia, Hesse-Nassau. first used in a Latin charter of 1053, was applied like the words Şee J G ab Eckhart, Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis el France, Francia and Franken, to a portion of the land occupied episcopalus, Wirceburgensis (Würzburg, 1729); F Stein, Geschichte
Frankens (Schweinfurt, 1885-1886); T. Henner, Die hersogliche by the Franks.
Gewalt der Beschöfe von Würzburg (Würzburg, 1874) About the close of the sth century this territory was conquered FRANCS - ARCHERS. The institution of the francs-archers by Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, was afterwards incorporated was the first attempt at the formation of regular infantry in with the kingdom of Austrasia, and at a later period came under France. They were created by the ordinance of Montils-les-Tours the rule of Charlemagne. After the treaty of Verdun in 843 on the 28th of August 1448, which prescribed that in each parish it became the centre of the East Frankish or German kingdom, an archer should be chosen from among the most apt in the use and in theory remained so for a long period, and was for a time of arms; this archer to be exempt from the taille and certain the most important of the duchies which arose on the ruins of the obligations, to practise shooting with the bow on Sundays and Carolingian empire. The land was divided into counties, or feast-days, and to hold himself ready to march fully equipped gauen, which were ruled by counts, prominent among whom at the first signal. Under Charles VII. the francs-archers dis. were members of the families of Conradine and Babenberg. by tinguished themselves in numerous battles with the English, whose feuds it was frequently devastated. Conrad, a member and assisted the king to drive them from France. During the of the former family, who took the title of " duke in Franconia"
succeeding reigns the institution languished, and finally dis. about the year 900, was chosen German king in 911 as the appeared in the middle of the 16th century The francs-archers representative of the foremost of the German races. Conrad
were also called francs-taupins. handed over the chief authority in Franconia to his brother See Daniel, Histoire de la milice française (1721); and E. Boutaric, Eberhard, who remained on good terms with Conrad's successor Institutions militaires de la France avani les armées permanentes (1863) Henry I the Fowler, but rose against the succeeding king, Otto FRANCS - TIREURS ("Free-Shooters "), irregular troops, the Great, and was killed in battle in 939, when his territories almost exclusively infantry, employed by the French in the war of were divided. The influence of Franconia began to decline 1870-1871 They were originally rifle clubs or unofficial military under the kings of the Saxon house It lacked political unity, societies formed in the cast of France at the time of the Luxemhad no opportunities for extension, and soon became divided burg crisis of 1867. The members were chiefly concerned with into Rhenish Franconia (Francia rhenensis, Ger Rheinfranken) the practice of rifle-shooting, and were expected in war to act and Eastern Franconia (Francia orientalis, Ger Ostfranken). as light troops. As under the then system of conscription the The most influential family in Rhenish Franconia was that of greater part of the nation's military energy was allowed to run the Salians, the head of which early in the roth century was to waste, the francs-tireurs were not only popular, but efficient Conrad the Red, duke of Lorraine, and son-in-law of Otto tb vorkers in their sphere of action. As they wore no unisorms, Great. This Conrad, his son Otto and his grandson Conrad were armed with the best existing rifles and elected their own are sometimes called dukes of Franconia, and in 1024 his great officers, the government made repeated attempts to bring the grandson Conrad, also duke of Franconia, was elected German societies, which were at once a valuable asset to the armed king as Conrad II and founded the line of Franconian or Salian strength of France and a possible menace to internal order, emperors. Rhenish Franconia gradually became a land of under military discipline This was strenuously resisted by the tree towns and lesser nobles, and under the earlicr Franconian l societies, to their sorrow as it turned out, for the Germans treated
captured francs-tireurs as irresponsible non-combatants found | But“ they which hold in frank-almoign are bound of right before with arms in their hands and usually exacted the death penalty. God to make orisons, prayers, masses and other divine services In July 1870, at the outbreak of the war, the societies were brought for the souls of their grantor or feofsor, and for the souls of their under the control of the minister of war and organized for field heirs which are dead, and for the prosperity and good life and service, but it was not until the 4th of November-by which good health of their heirs which are alive. And therefore they time the levée en masse was in force—that they were placed under shall do no fealty to their lord, because that this divine service the orders of the generals in the field. After that they were is better for them before God than any doing of fealty” (Liit sometimes organized in large bodies and incorporated in the mass s. 135). It was the tenure by which the greater number of the of the armies, but more usually they continued to work in small monasteries and religious houses held their lands, it was ox. bands, blowing up culverts on the invaders' lines of communica- pressly exempted from the statute 12 Car.II. C 24 (1660), by which tion, cutting off small reconnoitring parties, surprising small the other ancient tenures were abolished, and it is the tenure by posts, &c. It is now acknowledged, even by the Germans, that which the parochial clergy and many ecclesiastical and eleemosy. though the francs-tireurs did relatively little active mischief, nary foundations hold their lands at the present day. As a form they paralysed large detachments of the enemy, contested every of donation, however, it came to an end by the passing of the step of his advance (as in the Loire campaign), and prevented statute Quia Emplores, for by that statute no new tenure of him from gaining information, and that their soldierly qualities frank-almoign could be created, except by the crown. inproved with experience Their most celebrated feats were the See Pollock and Maitland, History of English Low, where the history blowing up of the Moselle railway bridge at Fontenoy on the 22nd of frank-almoign is given at length. of January 1871 (see Les Chasseurs des Vosges by Lieut.-Colonel PRANKEL, ZECHARIAS (1801-1875), Jewish theologian, one Si Etienne, Toul, 1906), and the heroic defence of Châteaudun of the founders of the Breslau school of “historical Judaism." by Lipowski's Paris corps and the francs-tireurs of Cannes and This school attempts to harmonize critical treatment of the docuNantes (October 18, 1870) It cannot be denied that the original ments of religion with fidelity to traditional beliefs and observ. members of the rifle clubs were joined by many bad characters, ances. For a time at least, the compromise succeeded in staying but the patriotism of the majority was unquestionable, for little the disintegrating effects of the liberal movement in Judaism. mercy was shown by the Germans to those francs-tireurs who fell Frankel was the author of several valuable works, among them into their hands. The severity of the German reprisals is itself | Septuagint Sludies, an Introduction lo the Mishnah (1859), and the best testimony to the fear and anxiety inspired by the presence a similar work on the Palestinian Talmud (1870) He also edited of active bands of francs-lireurs on the flanks and in rear of the the Monatsschrift, devoted to Jewish learning on modern lines. invaders.
But his chief claim to fame rests on his headship of the Breslau PRANEKER, a town in the province of Friesland, Holland, Seminary This was founded in 1854 for the training of rabbis 5 m E. of Harlingen on the railway and canal to Leeuwarden who should combine their rabbinic studies with secular courses Pop. (1900) 7187 It was at onc rime a favourite residence of the at the university The whole character of the rabbinate has been Frisian nobility, many of whom had their castles here, and it modified under the influence of this, the first seminary of the possessed a celebrated university, sounded by the Frisian estates kind.
(I A.) in 1585. This was suppressed by Napoleon I. in 1811, and the FRANKENBERG, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an kingdom of Saxony, on the Zschopau, 7 m N E. of Chemnitz, athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a on the railway Niederwiesa-Rosswein. Pop. (1905) 13;303. The physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected. principal buildings are the large Evangelical parish church, Franeker also possesses a town hall (1591), which contains a restored in 1874–1875, and the town-hall. Its industries include planetarium, made by one Eise Eisinga in 1774-1881. The extensive woollen, cotton and silk weaving, dyeing, the manufine observatory was founded about 1780. The church of St facture of brushes, furniture and cigars, iron-founding and Martin (1420) contains several fine tombs of the 15th-17th machine building. It is well provided with schools, including centuries. The industries of the town include silk-weaving, one of weaving. woollen-spinning, shipbuilding and pottery-making. It is also FRANKENHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the principality a considerable market for agricultural produce.
of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, on an artificial arm of the Wipper, PRANK, JAKOB (1726-1791), a Jewish theologian, who a tributary of the Saale, 36 m N.N.E of Gotha. Pop. (1905) founded in Poland, in the middle of the 18th century, a sect6534, It consists of an old and a new town, the latter mostly which emanated from Judaism but ended by merging with rebuilt since a destructive fire in 1833, and has an old château Christianity. The sect was the outcome of the Messianic of the princes of Schwarzburg, three Protestant churches, a mysticism of Sabbetai Zebi. It was an antinomian movement seminary for teachers, a hospital and a modern town-hall. in which the authority of the Jewish law was held to be super. Its industries include the manufacture of sugar, cigars and seded by personal freedom. The Jewish authorities, alarmed buttons, and there are brino springs, with baths, in the vicinity. at the moral laxity wbich resulted from the emotional rites of At Frankenhausen a battle was fought on the 15th of May 1525, the Frankists, did their utmost to suppress the sect. But the in which the insurgent peasants under Thomas Münzer were latter, posing as an anti-Talmudic protest in behalf of a spiritual defeated by the allied princes Saxony and Hesse religion, won a certain amount of public sympathy. There was, FRANKENSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province however, no deep sincerity in the tenets of the Frankists, for of Silesia, on the Pausebach, 35 m. S. by W of Breslau Pop. though in 1759 they were baptized en masse, amid much pomp, (1905) 7890. It is still surrounded by its medieval walls, has two the Church soon became convinced that Frank was not a genuine Evangelical and three Roman Catholic churches, among the convert. He was imprisoned on a charge of heresy, but on his latter the parish church with a curious overhanging tower, and release in 1763 the empress Maria Theresa patronized him, a monastery The industries include the manufacture of regarding him as a propagandist of Christianity among the Jews. artificial manures, bricks, beer and straw hats. There are also He thenceforth lived in state as baron of Offenbach, and on his mills for grinding the magnesite found in the neighbourhood. death (1791) his daughter Eva succeeded him as head of the sect. FRANKENTHAL, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian The Frankists gradually merged in the general Christian body, the Palatinate, on the Isenach, connected with the Rhine by a movement leaving no permanent trace in the synagogue. (I A.) canal 3 m. in length, 6 m. N W from Mannheim, and on the
FRANK-ALMOIGN (libera eleemosyna, free alms), in the English railways Neunkirchen-Worms and Frankenthal-Grosskarlbach. law of real property, a species of spiritual tenure, whereby a Pop (1905) 18,191. It has two Evangelical and a Roman religious corporation, aggregate or sole, holds lands of the donor Catholic church, a fine medieval town-hall
, two interesting old to them and their successors for ever. It was a tenure dating gates, remains of its former environing walls, several public from Saxon times, held not on the ordinary feudal conditions, monuments, including one to the veterans of the Napoleonic but discharged of all services except the trinoda necessitas wars, and a museum. Its industries include the manufacture
of machinery, casks, 'corks, soap, dolls and furniture, iron-dome 205 ft. above the terrace line, supported by 24 other founding and bell-founding the famous " Kaiserglocke” of columns. The Capitol was built in 1905-1907 at a cost of more the Cologne cathedral was cast here. Frankenthal was formerly than $2,000,000; in it are housed the state library and the famous for its porcelain factory, established here in 1755 by Paul library of the Kentucky State Historical Society. At Frankfort, Anton Hannong of Strassburg, who sold it in 1762 to the elector also, are the state arsenal, the state penitentiary and the state palatine Charles Theodore. Its fame is mainly due to the home for feeble-minded children, and just outside the city modellers Konrad Link (1732-1802) and Johann Peter Melchior limits is the state coloured normal school. The old capitol (first (d, 1796) (who worked at Frankenthal between 1779 and 1793). occupied in 1829) is still standing. In Franklin cemetery rest The best products of this factory are figures and groups repre- the remains of Daniel Boone and of Theodore O'Hara (1820senting contemporary life, or allegorical subjects in the rococo 1867), a lawyer, soldier, journalist and poet, who served in the taste of the period, and they are surpassed only by those of the U.S. army in 1846-1848 during the Mexican War, took part in more famous factory at Meissen. In 1795 the factory was sold filibustering expeditions to Cuba, served in the Confederate army, to Peter von Reccum, who removed it to Grüinstadt.
and is best known as the author of " The Bivouac of the Dead," Frankenthal (Franconodal) is mentioned as a village in the a poem written for the burial in Frankfort of some soldiers 8th century. A house of Augustinian canons established here who had lost their lives at Buena Vista. Here also are the in 1119 by Erkenbert, chamberlain of Worms, was suppressed graves of Richard M. Johnson, vice-president of the United in 1562 by the elector palatine Frederick III., who gave its States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T. Hart (1810-1877). possessions to Protestant refugees from the Netherlands. In The city has a considerable trade with the surrounding country, 1577 this colony received town rights from the elector John in which large quantities of tobacco and hemp are produced; Casimir, whose successor fortified the place. From 1623 until its manufactures include lumber, brooms, chairs, shoes, hemp 1652, save for two years, it was occupied by the Spaniards, and twine, canned vegetables and glass bottles. The total value of in 1688-1689 it was stormed and burned by the French, the the city's factory product in 1905 was $1,747,338, being 31.6% fortifications being razed. In 1697 it was reconstituted as a town, more than in 1900. Frankfort (said to have been named after and under the elector Charles Theodore it became the capital Stephen Frank, one of an early pioneer party ambushed here by of the Palatinate. From 1798 to 1814 it was incorporated in the Indians) was founded in 1786 by General James Wilkinson, then French department of Mont Tonnerre.
deeply interested in trade with the Spanish at New Orleans, and See Wille, Sladt u. Festung Frankenthal während des dreissig, in the midst of his Spanish intrigues. In 1792 the city was made jährigen Krieges (Heidelberg, 1877): Hildenbrand, Gesch. der Stadt the capital of the state. In 1862, during the famous campaign in Frankenthal (1893). For the porcelain see Heuser, Frankenthaler Kentucky of General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) and General Gruppen und Figuren (Spires, 1899). FRANKENWALD, a mountainous district of Germany, by Bragg, who, just before being forced out by Buell, took part in
D. C. Buell (Federal), Frankfort was occupied for a short time forming the geological connexion between the Fichtelgebirge the inauguration of Richard J. Hawes, chosen governor by the and the Thuringian Forest. It is a broad well-wooded plateau, Confederates of the state. Hawes, however, never discharged running for about 30 m. in a north-westerly direction, descending the duties of his office. During the bitter contest for the governorgently on the north and eastern sides towards the Saale, but more precipitously to the Bavarian plain in the west, and attaining its ship in 1900 between William Goebel (Democrat) and William S. highest elevation in the Kieferle near Steinheid (2900 ft.); Along was assassinated at Frankfort. (See also KENTUCKY.) Frankfort
Taylor (Republican), each of whom claimed the election, Goebel the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe received a city charter in 1839. respectively. The principal tributaries of the Main from the of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, prin
FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN (Ger. Frankfurt am Main), a city Frankenwald are the Rodach and Hasslach, and of the Saale, cipally on the right bank of the Main, 24 m. above its confluence the Selbitz.
See H. Schmid, Führer durch den Frankenwald (Bamberg, 1894): with the Rhine at Mainz, and 16 m. N. from Darmstadt. Always Meyer, Thüringen und der Frankenwald (15th cd.Leipzig, 1900),
a place of great trading importance, long the place of election and Gumbel, Geognostische Beschreibung des Fichtelgebirges mil dem for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, Frankenwald (Gotha, 1879).
Bremen and Lübeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it FRANKFORT, a city and the county-seat of Clinton county, still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres Indiana, U.S.A., 40 m. N.W. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1890) of the German empire. Its situation in the broad and fertile 5919; (1900) 7100 (144 foreign-born); (1910) 8634. Frankfort valley of the Main, the northern horizon formed by the soft is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Lake Erie outlines of the Taunus range, is one of great natural beauty, & Western, the Vandalia, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western the surrounding country being richly clad with orchard and railways, and by the Indianapolis & North-Western Traction forest. Interurban railway (electric). The city is a division point on Frankfort is one of the most interesting, as it is also one of the Toledo, St Louis & Western railway, which has large shops the wealthiest, of German cities. Apart from its commercial here. Frankfort is a trade centre for an agricultural and lumber- importance, its position, close to the fashionable watering-places ing region; among its manufactures are handles, agricultural of Homburg,, Nauheim and Wiesbaden, has rendered it “cosimplements and foundry products. The first settlement in the mopolitan” in the best sense of the term. The various stages in neighbourhood was made in 1826; in 1830 the town was founded, the development of the city are clearly indicated in its general and in 1875 it was chartered as a city. The city limits were plan and the surviving names of many of its streets. The line considerably extended immediately after 1900.
of the original 12th century walls and moat is marked by the FRANKFORT, the capital city of Kentucky, U.S.A., and the streets of which the names end in-graben, from the Hirschgraben county-seat of Franklin county, 'on the Kentucky river, about on the W. to the Wollgraben on the E. The space enclosed by 55 m. E. of Louisville. Pop. (1890) 7892; (1900) 9487, of whom these and by the river on the S. is known as the “old town" 3316 were negroes; (1910 census) 10,465. The city is served (Altstadt). The so-called " new town" (Neustadt), added in 1333, by the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Louisville & Nashville, and the extends to the Anlegen, the beautiful gardens and promenades Frankfort & Cincinnati railways, by the Central Kentucky laid out (1806-1812) on the site of the 17th century fortifications, Traction Co. (electric), and by steamboat lines to Cincinnati, of which they faithíully preserve the general ground plan. Of Louisville and other river ports. It is built among picturesque the medieval fortifications the picturesque Eschenheimer Tor, a hills on both sides of the river, and is in the midst of the famous round tower 155 ft. high, dating from 1400 to 1428, the RentenKentucky" blue grass region" and of a rich lumber-producing turm (1456) on the Main and the Kuhhirtenturm (c. 1490) in region. The most prominent building is the Capitol, about 400 ft. Sachsenhausen, are the sole remains. Since the demolition of long and 185 ft. wide, built of granite and white limestone in the the fortifications the city has greatly expanded. Sachsenhausen Italian Ronaissance style, with 70 large Ionic columns, and al on the south bank of the river, formerly the seat of a commandery
of the Teutonic Order (by treaty with Austria in 1842 all pro- | Bockenheimer Landstrasse, was completed and consecrated perty and rights of the order in Frankfort territory were sold in 1906. to the city, except the church and house), is now a quarter of Of the five synagogues, the chief (or Hauptsynagoge), lying the city. In other directions also the expansion has been rapid; | in the Börnestrasse, is an attractive building of red sandstone the village of Bornheim was incorporated in Frankfort in 1877, in the Moorish-Byzantine style. the former Hessian town of Bockenheim in 1895, and the suburbs Public Buildings. Of the secular buildings in Frankfort, the of Niederrad, Oberrad and Seckbach in 1900.
Römer, for almost five hundred years the Rathaus (town hall) The main development of the city has been to the north of the of the city, is of prime historical interest. It lies on the Römerriver, which is crossed by numerous bridges and flanked by fine berg, a square flanked by curious medieval houses. It is first quays and promenades. The Altstadt, though several broad mentioned in 1322, was bought with the adjacent hostelry in sireets have been opened through it, still preserves many of its 1405 by the city and rearranged as a town hall, and has since, narrow alleys and other medieval features. The Judengasse from time to time, been enlarged by the purchase of adjoining (Ghetto), down to 1806 the sole Jews' quarter, has been pulled patrician houses, forming a complex of buildings of various down, with the exception of the ancestral house of the Rothschild styles and dates surmounted by a clock tower. The façade was family-No. 148-which has been restored and retains its rebuilt (1896-1898) in late Gothic style. It was here, in the ancient façade. As the Altstadt is mainly occupied by artisans Wahlzimmer (or election-chamber) that the electors or their and petty tradesmen, so the Neustadt is the principal business plenipotentiaries chose the German kings, and here in the quarter of the city, containing the chief public buildings and the Kaisersaal (emperors' hall) that the coronation festival was held, principal hotels. The main arteries of the city are the Zeil, a at which the new king or emperor dined with the electors after broad street running from the Friedberger Anlage to the Ross- having shown himself from the balcony to the people. The markt and thence continued, by the Kaiserstrasse, through the Kaisersaal retained its antique appearance until 1843, when, fine new quarter built after 1872, to the magnificent principal as also again in 1904, it was restored and redecorated; it is now railway station; and the Steinweg and Goethestrasse, which furnished with a series of modern paintings representing the lead by the Bockenheimer Tor to the Bockenheimer Landstrasse, German kings and Roman emperors from Charlemagne to a broad boulevard intersecting the fashionable residential suburb Francis II., in all fifty-two, and a statue of the first German to the N.W.
emperor, William I. New municipal buildings adjoining the Churches.---The principal ecclesiastical building in Frankfort" Römer" on the north side were erected in 1900-1903 in German is the cathedral (Dom). Built of red sandstone, with a massive Renaissance style, with a handsome tower 2 20 ft. high; beneath tower terminating in a richly ornamented cupola and 300 ft. in it is a public wine cellar, and on the first storey a grand municipal height, it is the most conspicuousobject in thecity. This building, hall. The palace of the princes of Thurn and Taxis in the in which the Roman emperors were formerly elected and, since Eschenheimer Gasse was built (1732-1741) from the designs of 1562, crowned, was founded in 852 by King Louis the German, and Robert de Cotte, chief architect to Louis XIV. of France. From was later known as the Salvator Kirche. After its reconstruction 1806 to 1810 it was the residence of Karl von Dalberg, prince(1235-1239), it was dedicated to St Bartholomew. From this primate of the Confederation of the Rhine, with whose dominions period date the nave and the side aisles; the choir was completed Frankfort had been incorporated by Napoleon. From 1816 to in 1315-1338 and the long transepts in 1346-1354. The cloisters 1866 it was the seat of the German federal diet. It is now were rebuilt in 1348-1447, and the electoral chapel, on the south annexed to the principal post office (built 1892-1894), which lies of the choir, was completed in 1355. The tower was begun in close to it on the Zeil. The Saalhof, built on the site of the palace 1415, but remained unfinished. On the 15th of August 1867 erected by Louis the Pious in 822, overlooking the Main, has the tower and roof were destroyed by fire and considerable a chapel of the 12th century, the substructure dating from damage was done to the rest of the edifice. The restoration Carolingian times. This is the oldest building in Frankfort. was immediately taken in hand, and the whole work was finished The facade of the Saalhof in the Saalgasse dates from 1604, the in 1881, including the completion of the tower, according to the southern wing with the two gables from 1715 to 1717. Of numerplans of the 15th century architect, Hans von Ingelheim. In ous other medieval buildings may be mentioned the Leinwandhaus the interior is the tomb of the German king Günther of Schwarz- (linendrapers' hall), a 15th century building reconstructed in burg, who died in Frankfort in 1349, and that of Rudolph, the 1892 as a municipal museum. In the Grosser Hirschgraben is last knight of Sachsenhausen, who died in 1371. Among the the Goethehaus, à 16th century building which came into the other Roman Catholic churches are the Leonhardskirche, the possession of the Goethe family in 1733. Here Goethe lived Liebfrauenkirche (church of Our Lady) and the Deutschordens from his birth in 1749 until 1775. In 1863 the house was acquired kirche (14th century) in Sachsenhausen. The Leonhardskirche by the Freies deutsche Hochstist and was opened to the public. It (restored in 1882) was begun in 1219, it is said on the site of the has been restored, from Goethe's account of it in Dichtung und palace of Charlemagne. It was originally a thrce-aisled basilica, Wahrheit, as nearly as possible to its condition in the poet's day, but is now a five-aisled Hallenkirche; the choir was added in and is now connected with a Goethemuseum (1897), with archives 1314. It has two Romanesque towers. The Liebfrauenkirche and a library of 25,000 volumes representative of the Goethe is first mentioned in 1314 as a collegiate church; the nave was period of German literature. consecrated in 1340. The choir was added in 1506-1509 and the Literary and Scientific Institutions.-Few cities of the same whole church thoroughly restored in the second half of the 18th size as Frankfort are so richly endowed with litcrary, scientific century, when the tower was built (1770). Of the Protestant and artistic institutions, or possess so many handsome buildings churches the oldest is the Nikolaikirche, which dates from the appropriated to their service. The opera-bouse, erected near the 13th century; the fine cast-iron spire erected in 1843 had to be Bockenheimer Tor in 1873–1880, is a magnificent edifice in the taken down in 1901. The Paulskirche, the principal Evangelical style of the Italian Renaissance and ranks among the finest (Lutheran) church, built between 1786 and 1833, is a red sand- theatres in Europe. There are also a theatre (Schauspielhaus) stone edifice of do architectural pretensions, but interesting in modern Renaissance style (1899-1902), devoted especially as the seat of the national parliament of 1848-1849. The to drama, a splendid concert hall (Saalbau), opened in 1861, Katharinenkirche, built 1678–1681 on the site of an older build- and numerous minor places of theatrical entertainment. The ing, is famous in Frankfort history as the place where the first public picture gallery in the Saalhof possesses works by Hans Protestant sermon was preached in 1522. Among the more Holbein, Grünewald, Van Dyck, Teniers, Van der Neer, Hans noteworthy of the newer Protestant churches are the Peterskirche von Kulmbach, Lucas Cranach and other masters. The Städel (1892–1895) in the North German Renaissance style, with a Art Institute (Städelsches Kunstinstitut) in Sachsenhausen, tower 256 st. high, standing north from the Zeil, the Christus-founded by the banker J. F. Städel in 1816, contains a picture kirche (1883) and the Lutherkirche (1889-1893). An English gallery and a cabinet of engravings extremely rich in works of durch, in Early English Gothic style, situated adjacent to the German art. The municipal library, with 300,000 volumes,
boasts among its rarer treasures a Gutenberg Bible printed at a banking centre it has counterbalanced the loss in increased Mainz between 1450 and 1455, another on parchment dated industrial development. The suburbs of Sachsenhausen and 1462, the Institutiones Justiniani (Mainz, 1468), the Theucrdank, Bockenheim have particularly developed considerable industrial with woodcuts by Hans Schäufelein, and numerous valuable activity, especially in publishing and printing, brewing and the autographs. It also contains a fine collection of coins. The manufacture of quinine. Other sources of employment are the Bethmann Museum owes its celebrity principally to Dannecker's cutting of hair for making hats, the production of fancy goods, “ Ariadne,” but it also possesses the original plaster model of type, machinery, soap and perfumery, ready-made clothing, Thorwaldsen's “Entrance of Alexander the Great into Babylon.” chemicals, electro-technical apparatus, jewelry and metal wares. There may also be mentioned the Industrial Art Exhibition of Market gardening is extensively carried on in the neighbourhood the Polytechnic Association and iwo conservatories of music. and cider largely manufactured. There are two great fairs held Among the scientific institutions the first place belongs to the in the town,--the Ostermesse, or spring fair, and the Herbstmesse, Senckenberg'sches naturhistorische Museum, containing valuable or autumn fair. The former, which was the original nucleus collections of birds and shells. Next must be mentioned the of all the commercial prosperity of the city, begins on the second Kunstgewerbe (museum of arts and crafts) and the Musical Wednesday before Easter; and the latter on the second WednesMuseum, with valuable MSS. and portraits. Besides the day before the Sth of September. They last three weeks, and the municipal library (Stadtbibliothek) mentioned above there are last day save one, called the Nickelcheslag, is distinguished by three others of importance, the Rothschild, the Senckenberg the influx of people from the neighbouring country. The trade in and the Jewish library (with a well-appointed reading-room). leather is of great and growing importance. A horse fair has
There are numerous high-grade schools, musical and other learned been held twice a year since 1862 under the patronage of the societies and excellent hospitals. The last include the large agricultural society; and the wool_markct was reinstituted municipal infirmary and the Senckenberg'sches Stift, a hospital in 1872 by the German Trade Society (Deutscher Handelsverein) and almshouses founded by a doctor, Johann C. Senckenberg Frankfort has long been famous as one of the principal banking (d. 1772). The Royal Insiitute for experimental therapeutics centres of Europe, and is now only second to Berlin, in this (Königl. Institut für experimentelle Therapie), moved to Frankfort respect, among German cities, and it is remarkable for the large in 1899, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially business that is done in government stock. In the 17th century concerned with the study of bacteriology and serums.
the town was the seat of a great book-trade; but it has long Bridges.--Seven bridges (of which ewo are railway) cross the been distanced in this department by Leipzig. The Frankfurter Main. The most interesting of these is the Alte Mainbrücke, Journal was founded in 1615, the Postzeilung in 1616, the Neue a red sandstone structure of fourteen arches, 815 ft. long, dating Frankfurler Zeitung in 1859, and the Frankfurter Presse in 1866. from the 14th century. On it are a mill, a statue of Charlemagne of memoriál monuments the largest and most elaborate in and an iron crucifix surmounted by a gilded cock. The latter Frankfort is that erected in 1858 in honour of the early German commemorates, according to tradition, the fowl which was the printers. It was modelled by Ed. von der Launitz and executed first living being to cross the bridge and thus fell a prey to the by Herr von Kreis. The statues of Gutenberg, Fust and devil, who in hope of a nobler victim had sold his assistance Schöffer form a group on the top; an ornamented frieze presents to the architect. Antiquaries, however, assert that it probably medallions of a number of famous printers; below these are marks the spot where criminals were in olden times flung into figures representing the towns of Mainz, Strassburg, Venice the river. Other bridges ase the Obermainbrücke of five iron and Frankfort; and on the corners of the pedestal are allegorical arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the statues of theology, poetry, science and industry. The statue Untermainbrücke; the Wilhelmsbrücke, a fine structure, which of Goethe (1844) in the Goetheplatz is by Ludwig von Schwanfrom 1849 to 1890 served as a. railway bridge and was then thaler. The Schiller statue, erected in 1863, is the work of a opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof Frankfort artist, Johann Dielmann. A monument in the and Niederrad (below the city), which carry the railway traffic Bockenheim Anlage, dated 1837, preserves the memory of from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines Guiollett, the burgomaster, to whom the town is mainly indebted converge in a central station of the Prussian state railways. for the beautiful promenades which occupy the site of the old This station, which was built in 1883-1888 and has replaced fortifications; and similar monuments have been reared to the three stations belonging to private companies, which formerly Senckenberg (1863), Schopenhauer, Klemens Brentano the poet stood in juxtaposition on the Anlagen (or promenades) near the and Samuel Thomas Sömmerring (1755-1830), the anatomist and Mainzer Tor, lies some half-mile to the west. The intervening inventor of an electric telegraph. In the Opernplatz is an ground upon which the railway lines and buildings stood was equestrian statue of the emperor Wilhelm I. by Buscher. sold for building sites, the sum obtained being more than sufficient Cemeteries.—The new cemetery (opened in 1828) contains to cover the cost of the majestic central terminus (the third the graves of Arthur Schopenhauer and Feuerbach, of Passavant largest in the world), which, in addition to spacious and handsome the biographer of Raphael, Ballenberger the artist, Hessemer halls for passenger accommodation, has three glass-covered spans the architect, Sömmerring, and Johann Friedrich Böhmer of 180 ft. width each. Yet the exigencies of traffic demand the historian. The Bethmann vault attracts attention by further extensions, and another large station was in 1909 in three bas-reliefs from the chisel of Thorwaldsen; and the process of construction at the east end of the city, devised to Reichenbach mausoleum is a vast pile designed by Hessemer receive the local traffic of lines running eastward, while a through at the command of William II. of Hesse, and adorned with station for the north to south traffic was projected on a site sculptures by Zwerger and von der Lausitz. In the Jewish farther west of the central terminus.
section, which is walled off from the rest of the burying-ground, Frankfort lies at the junction of lines of railway connecting the most remarkable tombs are those of the Rothschild family. it directly with all the important cities of south and central Parks.- In addition to the park in the south-western district, Germany. Here cross and unite the lines from Berlin to Basel, Frankfort possesses two delightful pleasure grounds, which from Cologne to Würzburg and Vienna, from Hamburg and attract large numbers of visitors, the Palmengarten in the Cassel, and from Dresden and Leipzig to France and Switzerland. west and the zoological garden in the east of the city The The river Main has been dredged so as to afford heavy barge former is remarkable for the collection of palms purchased in traffic with the towns of the upper Main and with the Rhine, 1868 from the deposed duke Adolph of Nassau. and cargo boats load and unload alongside its busy quays Government.-The present municipal constitution of the A well-devised system of electric tramways provides for local city dates from 1867 and presents some points of difference communication within the city and with the outlying suburbs. from the ordinary Prussian system. Bismarck was desirous of
Trade, Commerce and Industries --Frankfort has always giving the city, in view of its former freedom, a more liberal been more of a commercial than an industrial town, and though constitution than is usual in ordinary cases. Formerly fifty-four of late years it has somewhat lost its pre-eminent position as I representatives were elected, but provision was made in the