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contorted but rather attractive style and the perverse sentiment | already alluded to, which he contributed to the Globe. But it of Maurice Barrès (b. 1862); and, above all, the audacious and was not till later that his style of criticism became fully developed inimitable dialogue pieces of “Gyp” (Madame de Martel, b. and accentuated. During the first decade of Louis Philippe's 1850), worthy of the best times of French literature for gaiety, reign his critical papers, united under the title of Critiques el satire, acuteness and style, and perhaps likely, with the work portraits littéraires, show a gradual advance. During the next of Maupassant, Pierre Loti and Anatole France, to represent the ten years he was mainly occupied with his studies of the writers capital achievement of their particular generation to posterity. of the Port Royal school. But it was during the last twenty

Periodical Literature since 1830. Criticism.-One of the causes years of his life, when the famous Causeries du lundi appeared which led to this extensive composition of novels was the great weekly in the columns of the Constitutionnel and the Monileur, spread of periodical literature in France, and the custom of that his most remarkable productions came out. Sainte-Beuve's including in almost all periodicals, daily, weekly or monthly, style of criticism (which is the key to so much of French literature a feuilleton or instalment of fiction of the contributors of these of the last half-century that it is necessary to dwell on it at some periodicals who were strictly journalists and almost political length), excellent and valuable as it is, lent itself to two corrupjournalists only, the most remarkable after Carrel were his tions. There is, in the first place, in making the careful investigaopponent in the fatal duel,-Émile de Girardin, Lucien A. tions into the character and circumstances of each writer which Prévost-Paradol (1829–1870), Jean Hippolyte Cartier, called it demands, a danger of paying too much attention to the man de Villemessant (1812–1879), and, above all, Louis Veuillot and too little to his work, and of substituting for a critical study (1815-1883), the most violent and unscrupulous but by no means a mere collection of personal anecdotes and traits, especially if the least gisted of his class. The same spread of periodical the author dealt with belongs to a foreign country or a past age. literature, together with the increasing interest in the literature | The other danger is that of connecting the genius and character of the past, led also to a very great development of criticism. of particular authors too much with their conditions and circumAlmost all French authors of any eminence during nearly the stances, so as to regard them as merely so many products of the last century have devoted themselves more or less to criticism age. These faults, and especially the latter, have been very of literature, of the theatre, or of art. And sometimes, as in the noticeable in many of Sainte-Beuve's successors, particularly in, case of Janin and Gautier, the comparatively lucrative nature of perhaps, Hippolyte Taine, who, however, besides his work on journalism, and the smaller demands which it made for labour and English literature, did much of importance on French, and has intellectual concentration, have diverted to feuilleton-writing been regarded as the first critic who did thorough honour 10 abilities which might perhaps have been better employed. Balzac in his own country. A large number of other critics At the same time it must be remembered that from this devotion during the period deserve notice because, though acting more. of men of the best talents to critical work has arisen an immense or less on the newer system of criticism, they have manifested elevation of the standard of such work. Before the romantic considerable originality in its application. As far as mercly movement in France Diderot in that country, Lessing and some critical faculty goes, and still more in the power of giving literary of his successors in Germany, Hazlitt, Coleridge and Lamb in expression to criticism, Théophile Gautier yields to no one. England, had been admirable critics and reviewers. But the His Les Grolesques, an early work dealing with Villon, the earlier theory of criticism, though these men's principles and practice “ Théophile" de Viau, and other enfants terribles of French had set it aside, still remained more or less what it had been for literature, has served as a model to many subsequent writers, centuries. The critic was merely the administrator of certain such as Charles Monsclet (1825-1888), and Charles Asselineau hard and fast rules. There were certain recognized kinds of (1820-1874), the affectionate historian, in his Bibliographic literary composition; every new book was bound to class itself romantique (1872-1874), of the less famous promoters of the under one or other of these. There were certain recognized rules Romantic movement. On the other hand, Gautier's picture for each class; and the goodness or badness of a book consisted criticisms, and his short reviews of books, obituary notices, simply in its obedience or disobedience to these rules. Even the and other things of the kind contributed to daily papers, are in kinds of admissible subjects and the modes of admissible treat-point of style among the finest of all such fugitive compositions. ment were strictly noted and numbered. This was especially the Jules Janin (1804-1874), chiefly a theatrical critic, excelled in case in France and with regard to French belles-lettres, so that, as light and easy journalism, but his work has neither weight of we have scen, certain classes of composition had been reduced to substance nor careful elaboration of manner sufficient to give it unimportant variations of a registered pattem. The Romantic permanent value. This sort of light critical comment has become protest against this absurdity was specially loud and completely almost a speciality of the French press, and among its numerous victorious. It is said that a publisher advised the youthful practitioners the names of Armand de Pontmartin (1811-1890) Lamartine to try "to be like somebody else" if he wished to an imitator and assailant of Sainte-Beuve), Arsène Houssaye, succeed. The Romantic standard of success was, on the contrary, Pierangelo Fiorentino (1806-1864), may be mentioned. Edmond to be as individual as possible. Victor Hugo himself composed Scherer (1815-1889) and Paul de Saint-Victor (1827-1881) a good deal of criticism, and in the preface to his Orientales he represent different sides of Sainte-Beuve's style in literary states the critical principles of the new school clearly. The critic, criticism, Scherer combining with it a martinet and somewhat he says, has nothing to do with the subject chosen, the colours prudish precision, while Saint-Victor, with great powers of employed, the materials used. Is the work, judged by itself and appreciation, is the most flowery and “prose-poetical "of French with regard only to the ideal which the worker had in his mind, critics. In theatrical censure Francisque Sarcey (1827-1899), good or bad? It will be seen that as a legitimate corollary of an acute but somewhat severe and limited judge, succeeded to this theorem the critic becomes even more of an interpreter than the good-natured sovereignty of Janin. The criticism of the of a judge. He can no longer satisfy himself or his readers by Revue des deux mondes has played a sufficiently important part comparing the work before him with some abstract and accepted in French literature to deserve separate notice in passing. standard, and marking off its shortcomings. He has to recon- Founded in 1829, the Revue, after some vicissitudes, soon attained, struct, more or less conjecturally, the special ideal at which each under the direction of the Swiss Buloz, the character of being of his authors aimed, and to do this he has to study their idiosyn- one of the first of European critical periodicals. Its style of crasies with the utmost care, and set them before his readers criticism has, on the whole, inclined rather to the classical sidein as full and attractive a fashion as he can manage. The first that is, to classicism as modified by, and possible after, the writer who thoroughly grasped this necessity and successfully Romantic movement. Besides some of the authors already

dealt with it was Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve named, its principal critical contributors were Gustave Planche (1804-1869), who has indeed identified his name with (1808-1857), an acute but somewhat truculent critic, Saint

the method of criticism just described. Sainte-Beuve's René Taillandier (1817-1879), and Emile Montégut (1825-1805', first remarkable work (his poems and novels we may leave out a man of letters whom greater leisure would have made greater, of consideration) was the sketch of 16th-century literature | but who actually combined much and varied critical power with


an agreeable style. Lastly we must notice the important section his death the first critic of France and a worthy successor of of professorial or university critics, whose critical work has taken her best. the form either of regular treatises or of courses of republished Of others older and younger must be mentioned Paul Stapfer lectures, books somewhat academic and rhetorical in character, (b. 1840), professor of literature, and the author of divers excellent but often representing an amount of influence which has served works from Shakespeare el l'antiquité to volumes of the first value largely to stir up attention to literature. The most prominent on Montaigne and Rabelais; Paul Bourget and Edouard Rod, name among these is that of Abel Villemain (1790-1867), who already noticed; Augustin Filon (b. 1841), author of much good was one of the earliest critics of the literature of his own country work on English literature and an excellent book on Mérimée; to obtain a hearing out of it. Désiré Nisard (1806–1888) was Alexandre Beljame (1843-1906), another eminent student of perhaps more fortunate in his dealings with Latin than with English literature, in which subject J. A. Jusserand (b. 1855), French, and in his History of the latter literature represents Legouis, K. A. J. Angellier (b. 1848), and others have recently too much the classical tradition, but he had dignity, erudition distinguished themselves; Gustave Larroumet, especially an and an excellent style. Alexandre Vinet (1797-1847), a Swiss authority on Marivaux; Eugène Lintilhac (b. 1854); Georges criticof considerable eminence, Saint-Marc-Girardin (1801-1873), Pellissier; Gustave Lansoni, author of a compact history of whose Cours de littérature dramatique is his chicf work, and French literature in French; Marcel Schwob, who had done Eugène Géruzez (1799-1865), the author not only of an extremely excellent work on Villon and other subjects before his early useful and well-written handbook to French literature before the death; René Doumic, a frequent writer in the Revue des deux Revolution, but also of other works dealing with separate portions mondes, who collected four volumes of Études sur la littérature of the subject, must also be mentioned. One remarkable critic, française between 1895 and 1900; and the Vicomte Melchior de Ernest Hello (1818-1885), attracted during his life little attention Vogüé (b. 1848), whose interests have been more politicala even in France, and hardly any out of it, his work being strongly philosophical than strictly literary, but who has done much to tinctured with the unpopular flavour and colour of uncom. familiarize the French public with that Russian literature to promising “clericalism," and his extremely bad health keeping which Mérimée had been the first to introduce them. But the him out of the ordinary fraternitics of literary society. It was, body of recent critical literature in France is perhaps larger however, as full of idiosyncrasy as of partisanship, and is exceed-in actual proportion and of greater value when considered in ingly interesting to those who regard criticism as mainly valuable relation to other kinds of literature than has been the case at because it gives different aspects of the same thing.

any previous period. Perhaps in no branch of belles-lettres did the last quarter of the History since 1830.-The remarkable development of historical century maintain the level at which predecessors had arrived studies which we have noticed as taking place under the Restorabetter than in criticism; though whether this fact is connected tion was accelerated and intensified in the reigns of Charles X. with something of decadence in the creative branches, is a question and Louis Philippe. Both the scope and the method of the which may be better posed than resolved here. A remarkable historian underwent a sensible alteration. For something like writer whose talent, approaching genius, was spoilt by eccen- 150 years historians had been divided into two classes, those who tricity and pose, and who belonged to a more modern generation, produced elegant literary works pleasant to read, and those who Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly (1808-1889), poet, novelist and critic, produced works of laborious erudition, but not even intended for produced much of his last critical work, and corrected more, in general perusal. The Vertots and Voltaires were on one side, these later days. Not only did the critical work in various ways the Mabillons and Tillemonts on another. Now, although the of Renan, Taine, Scherer, Sarcey and others continue during duty of a French historian to produce works of literary merit parts of it, but a new generation, hardly in this case inferior to was not forgotten, it was recognized as part of that duty to the old, appeared. The three chiefs of this were the already consult original documents and impart original observation. At mentioned Anatole France,Emile Faguet(b. 1847), and Ferdinand the same time, to the merely political events which had formerly Brunetière (1849-1906), to whom some would add Jules Lemaitre been recognized as forming the historian's province were added (b. 1853). The last, however, though a brilliant writer, was but the social and literary phenomena which had long been more or an" interim " critic, beginning with poetry and other matters, less neglected. Old chronicles and histories were re-read and and after a time turning to yet others, while, brilliant as he was, re-edited; innumerable monographs on special subjects and his criticism was often ill-informed. So too Anatole France, periods were produced, and these latter were of immense service after compiling four volumes of La Vie littéraire in his own to romance writers at the time of the popularity of the historical inimitable style and with singular felicity of appreciation, also novel. Not a few of the works, for instance, which were signed turned away. The phenomenon in both cases may be associated, by Alexandre Dumas consist mainly of extracts or condensations though it must not be too intimately connected in the relation from old chronicles, or modern monographs, ingeniously united of cause and effect, with the fact that both were champions by dialogue and varnished with a little description. History, and practitioners of " impressionist criticism"-of the doctrine however, had not to wait for this second-hand popularity, and (unquestionably sound if not exaggerated) that the first duty of its cultivators had fully sufficient literary talent to maintain its the critic is to reproduce the effect produced on his own mind dignity. Sismondi, whom we have already noticed, continued by the author. Brunetière and Faguet, on the other hand, are during this period his great Histoire des Français, and produced partisans of the older academic style of criticism by kind and on his even better-known Histoire des républiques italiennes au principle. Faguet, besides regular volumes on each of the four moyen dge. The brothers Thierry devoted themselves to early great centuries of French literature, bas produced much other French history, Amédée Thierry (1797-1873) producing a Histoire work-all of it somewhat “classical " in tendency and frequently des Gaulois and other works concerning the Roman period, and exhibiting something of a want of comprehension of the Romantic Augustin Thierry (1795-1856) the well-known history of the side. Brunetière was still more prolific on the same side but with Norman Conquest, the equally attractive Récits des temps still greater effort after system and “science.” In the books Merovingiens and other excellent works. Philippe de Ségur definitely called L'Evolution des genres, in his Manuel of French (1780-1873) gave a history of the Russian campaign of Napoleon, literature, and in a large number of other volumes of collected and some other works chiefly dealing with Russian bistory. essays he enforced with great learning and power of argument, The voluminous Histoire de France of Henri Martin (1810-1883) if with a somewhat narrow purview and with some prejudice is perhaps the best and most impartial work dealing in detail against writers whom he disliked, a new form of the old doctrine with the whole subject. A. G. P. Brugière, baron de Baranie that the “ kind " not the individual author or book ought to be (1782-1866), after beginning with literary criticism, turned to the main subject of the critic's attention. He did not escape history, and in his Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne produced a the consequential danger of taking authors and books not as work of capital importance. As was to be expected, many of the they are but as in relation to the kinds which they in fact con- most brilliant results of this devotion to historical subjects stitute and to his general views. But he was undoubtedly at I consisted of works dealing with the French Revolution. No

series of historical events has ever perhaps received treatment | all countries of Europe, takes pre-eminence among French at the same time from so many different points of view, and by writers even in the estimation of critics who are not enamoured writers of such varied literary excellence, among whom it must, of his substance and tone. But, under the influence of Taine to however, be said that the purely royalist side is hardly at all some extent and of a general European tendency still more, represented. 'One of the earliest of these histories is that of France during this period attained or recovered a considerable François Mignet (1796–1884), a sober and judicious historian of place for what is called "scientific ” history—the history which the older school, also well known for his Histoire de Marie Slaart. while, in some cases, though not in all, not neglecting the developAbout the same time was begun the brilliant is not extremely ment of style attaches itself particularly lo "the document,” trustworthy work of Adolphe Thiers (1797-1877) on the Revolu- on the one hand, and to philosophical arrangement on the other. tion, which established the literary reputation of the future The chief representative of the school was probably Albert Sorel president of the French republic, and was at a later period com. (1842-1906), whose various handlings of the Revolutionary period pleted by the Histoire du consulal et de l'empire. The downfall (including an excursion into partly literary criticism in the shape of the July monarchy and the early years of the empire witnessed of an admirable monograph on Madame de Staël) have established the publication of several works of the first importance on this themselves once for all." In a wider sweep Ernest Lavisse (b. subject. Barante contributed histories of the Convention and 1842), who has dealt mainly with the 18th century, may hold the Directory, but the three books of greatest note were those a similar position. Of others, older and younger, the duc de of Lamartine, Jules Michelet (1798-1874), and Louis Blanc Broglie (1821–1901), who devoted himself also to the 18th century (1811-1882). Lamartine's Histoire des Girondins is written and especially to its secret diplomacy; Gaston Boissier (b. 1823), from the constitutional-republican point of view, and is sometimes a classical scholar rather than an historian proper, and one of the considered to have had much influence in producing the events latest masters of the older French academic style; Thureauof 1848. It is, perhaps, rather the work of an orator and poet Dangin (b. 1837), a student of mid 19th-century history; Henri than of an historian. The work of Michelet is of a more original Houssaye (b. 1848), one of the Napoleonic period; Gabriel character. Besides his history of the Revolution, Michelet wrote Hanotaux (b. 1853), an historian of Richelieu and other subjects, an extended history of France, and a very large number of smaller and a practical an, may be mentioned. A large accession works on historical, political and social subjects. His imaginative has also been made to the publication of older memoirs—that powers are of the highest order, and his style stands alone in important branch of French literature from almost the whole of French' for its strangely broken and picturesque character, its its existence since the invention of prose. turbid abundance of striking images, and its somewhat sombre Summary and Conclusion.-We have in these last pages given magnificence, qualities which, as may easily be supposed, found such an outline of the 19th-century literature of France as seemed full occupation in a history of the Revolution. The work of convenient for the completion of what has gone before. It has Louis Blanc was that of a sincere but ardent republican, and is been already remarked that the nearer approach is made to our useful from this point of view, but possesses no extraordinary own time the less is it possible to give exhaustive accounts of literary merit. The principal contributions to the history of the the individual cultivators of the different branches of literature. Revolution of the third quarter of the century were those of It may be added, perhaps, that such exhaustiveness becomes, Quinet, Lanfrey and Taine. Edgar Quinet (1803–1875), like as we advance, less and less necessary, as well as less and less Louis Blanc a devotee of the republic and an exile for its sake, possible. The individual poet of to-day may and does produce brought to this one of his latest works a mind and pen long work that is in itself of greater literary value than that of the trained to literary and historical studies; but La Révolution is individual trouvère. As a matter of literary history his connot considered his best work. P. Lanfrey devoted himself with tribution is less remarkable because of the examples he has extraordinary patience and acuteness to the destruction of the before him and the circumstances which he has around him. Napoleonic legend, and the setting of the character of Napoleon I. Yet we have endeavoured to draw such a sketch of French in a new, authentic and very far from favourable light. And literature from the Chanson de Roland onwards that no important Taine, after distinguishing himself, as we have mentioned, development and hardly any important partaker in such developin literary criticism (Histoire de la liltérature anglaise), and attain- ment should be left out. A few lines may, perhaps, be now ing less success in philosophy (De l'intelligence), turned in profitably given to summing up the aspects of the whole, Les Origines de la France moderne to an elaborate discussion of remembering always that, as in no case is generalization easier the Revolution, its causes, character and consequences, which than in the case of the literary aspects and tendencies of periods excited some commotion among the more ardent devotees of the and nations, so in no case is it apt to be more delusive unless principles of '89. To return from this group, we must notice corrected and supported by ample information of fact and detail. J. F. Michaud (1767-1839), the historian of the crusades, At the close of the 11th century and at the beginning of the and François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (1787–1874), who, like 12th we find the vulgar tongue in France not merely in fully bis rival Thiers, devoted himself much to historical study. His otganized use for literary purposes, but already employed in earliest works were literary and linguistic, but he soon turned most of the forms of poetical writing. An immense outburst of to political history, and for the last half-century of his long life epic and narrative verse has taken place, and lyrical poe'ry, his contributions to historical literature were almost incessant not limited as in the case of the epics to the north of France, but and of the most various character. The most important are extending from Roussillon to the Pas de Calais, completes this. the histories Des Origines du gouvernement représentatif

, De la The rath century adds to these earliest forms the important révolution d'Angleterre, De la civilisation en France, and latterly development of the mystery, extends the subjects and varies a Histoire de France, which he was writing at the time of bis the manner of epic verse, and begins the compositions of literary death. Among minor historians of the earlier century may prose with the chronicles of St Denis and of Villehardouin, and be mentioned Prosper Duvergier de Hauranne (1798-1881) the prose romances of the Arthurian cycle. All this literaure (Goudernement parlementaire en France), J. J. Ampère (1800-1864) is so far connected purely with the knightly and priestly orders, (Histoire romaine d Rome), Auguste Arthur Beugnot (1797- though it is largely composed and still more largely dealt in by 1865) (Destruction du paganisme d'occident), J. O. B. de Cléron, classes of men, trouvères and jongleurs, who are not necessarily comte d'Haussonville (La Réunion de la Lorraine a la France), either knights or priests, and in the case of the jongleurs are Achille Tendelle de Vaulabelle (1799–1870) (Les Deux Restaura- certainly neither. With a possible ancestry of Romance and tions). In the last quarter of the century, under the department Teutonic cantilenae, Breton lois, and vernacular legends, the of history, the most remarkable names were still those of Taine new literature has a certain pattern and model in Latin and for and Renan, the former being distinguished for thought and the most part ecclesiastical compositions. It has the sacred books matter, the latter for style. Indeed it may be here proper to and the legends of the saints for examples of narrative, the remark that Renan, in the kind of elaborated semi-poetic style rhythm of the hymns for a guide to metre, and the ceremonies of which has most characterized the prose of the 19th century in the church for a stimulant to dramatic performance. By degrees

also, in this 12th century, forms of literature which busy them- | drama of Euripides, ot rather of Seneca, with or without its selves with the unprivileged classes begin to be born. The chorus, and for a certain weakened echo of those choruses, fabliau takes every phase of life for its subject; the folk-song under the name of lyrics. No French verse of the first merit acquires elegance and does not lose raciness and truth. In the other than dramatic is written for two whole centuries. The next century, the 13th, medieval literature in France arrives at drama soon comes to its acme, and during the succeeding time its prime--a prime which lasts until the first quarter of the 14th. usually maintains itself at a fairly high level until the death of The earlyepics lose something of their

savage charms, the polished Voltaire. But prose lends itself to almost everything that is literature of Provence quickly perishes. But in the provinces required of it, and becomes constantly a more and more perfect which speak the more prevailing tongué nothing is wanting to instrument. To the highest efforts of pathos and sublimity literary development. The language itself has shaken off all its vocabulary and its arrangement likewise are still unsuited, its youthful incapacities, and, though not yet well adapted though the great preachers of the 17th century do their utmost for the requirements of modern life and study, is in every way with it. But for clear exposition, smooth and agreeable narrative, equal to the demands made upon it by its own time. The sententious and pointed brevity, witty repartee, it soon proves dramatic germ contained in the fabliau and quickened by the itself to have no superior and scarcely an equal in Europe. mystery produces the profane drama: Ambitious works of merit In these directions practitioners of the highest skill apply it in the most various kinds are published; Ancassin et Nicolette during the 17th century, while during the 18th its powers are stands side by side with the Vie de Saint Louis, the Jeu de la shown to the utmost of their variety by Voltaire, and receive feuillie with Le Miracle de Théophile, the Roman de la rose a new development at the hands of Rousseau. Yet, on the whole, with the Roman du Renart. The earliest notes of ballads and it loses during this century. It becomes more and more unfit rondeau are heard; endeavours are made with zeal, and not for any but trivial uses, and at last it is employed for those uses always without understanding, to naturalize the wisdom of the only. Then occurs the Revolution, repeating the mighty stir ancients in France, and in the graceful tongue that France in men's minds which the Renaissance had given, but at first possesses. Romance in prose and verse, drama, history, songs, experiencing more difficulty in breaking up the ground and once satire, oratory and even erudition, are all represented and more rendering it fertile. The faulty and incomplete genius represented worthily. Meanwhile all nations of western Europe of Chateaubriand and Madame de Staël gives the first evidence have come to France for their literary models and subjects, of a new growth, and after many years the Romantic movement and the greatest writers in English, German; Italian, content completes the work. Whether the force of that movement is themselves with adaptations of Chrétien de Troyes, of Benoit now, after three-quarters of a century, spent or not, its results de Sainte More, and of a hundred other known and unknown remain. The poetical power of French has been once more trouvères and fabulists. But this age does not last long. The triumphantly proved, and its productiveness in all branches of language has been put to all the uses of which it is as yet capable; literature has been renewed, while in that of prosc fiction there has those uses in their sameness begin to pall upon reader and hearer; been almost created a new class of composition. In the process and the enormous evils of the civil and religious state reflect them of reform, however, not a little of the finish of French prose selves inevitably in literature. The old forms die out or are style has been lost, and the language itself has been affected in prolonged only in half-lifeless travesties. The brilliant colouring something the same way as it was affected by the less judicious of Froissart, and the graceful science of ballade and rondeau innovations of the Ronsardists. The pedantry of the Pléiade writers like Lescurel and Deschamps, alone maintain the literary led to the preposterous compounds of Du Bartas; the passion reputation of the time. Towards the end of the 14th century of the Romantics for foreign tongues and for the mol propre the translators and political writers import mang terms of art, has loaded French with foreign terms on the one hand and with and strain the language to uses for which it is as yet unhandy, argot on the other, while it is questionable whether the vers libre though at the beginning of the next age Charles d'Orléans by is really suited to the French genius: There is, therefore, room his natural grace and the virtue of the forms he used emerges for new Malherbes and Balzacs, if the days for Balzacs and Malfrom the mass of writers. Throughout the 15th century the herbes had not to all appearance passed. Should they be once process of enriching or at least increasing the vocabulary goes on, more forthcoming, they have the failure as well as the success but as yet no organizing hand appears to direct the process. of their predecessors to guide them. Villon stands alone in merit as in peculiarity. But in this time Finally, we may sum up even this summary. For volume dramatic literature and the literature of the floating popular and merit taken together the product of these eight centuries of broadsheet acquire an immense extension-all or almost all the literature excels that of any European nation, though for invigour of spirit being concentrated in the rough farce and rougher dividual works of the supremest excellence they may perhaps be lampoon, while all the literary skill is engrossed by insipid asked in vain. No French writer is lifted by the suffrages of rhétoriqueurs and pedants. Then comes the grand upheaval other nations-the only criterion when sufficient time has elapsed of the Renaissance and the Reformation. An immense influx -to the level of Homer, of Shakespeare, or of Dante, who reign of science, of thought to make the science living, of new terms alone. Of those of the authors of France who are indeed of the to express the thought, takes place, and a band of literary thirty but attain not to the first three Rabelais and Molière workers appear of power enough to master and get into shape alone unite the general suffrage, and this fact roughly but surely the turbid mass. Rabelais, Amyot, Calvin and. Herberay points to the real excellence of the literature which these men are fashion French prose; Marot, Ronsard and Regnier refashion chosen to represent. It is great in all ways, but it is greatest on French verse. The Pléiade introduces the drama as it is to be the lighter side. The house of mirth is more suited to it than the and the language that is to help the drama to express itself. house of mourning. To the latter, indeed, the language of the Montaigne for the first time throws invention and originality unknown marvel who told Roland's death, of him who gave into some other form than verse or than prose fiction. But by the utterance to Camilla's wrath and despair, and of Victor Hugo, end of the century the tide has receded. The work of arrange- who sings how the mountain wind makes mad the lover who canment has been but half done, and there are no master spirits not forget, has amply made good its title of entrance. But for left to complete it. At this period Malberbe and Balzac make one Frenchman who can write admirably in this strain there are their appearance. Unable to deal with the whole problem, they a hundred who can tell the most admirable story, formulate the determine to deal with part of it, and to reject a portion of the most pregnant reflection, point the acutest jest. There is thus riches of which they feel themselves unfit to be stewards. Balzac no really great epic in French, few great tragedies, and those and his successors make of French prose an instrument faultless imperfect and in a faulty kind, little prose like Milton's or like and admirable in precision, unequalled for the work for which Jeremy Taylor's, little verse (though more than is generally it is fit, but unfit for certain portions of the work which it was thought) like Shelley's or like Spenser's. But there are the most once able to perform. Malherbe, seconded by Boileau, makes delightful short tales, both in prosc and in verse, that the world & French verse an instrument suited only for the purposes of the has ever seen, the most polished jewelry of reflection that has

ever been wrought, songs of incomparable grace, comedies that grain is to rub in fine plaster of Paris (wet), wiping off before it must make men laugh as long as they are laughing animals, and sets.” After this is dry it should be oiled with linseed oil and above all such a body of parrative fiction, old and new, prose and thoroughly wiped off. The wood is then ready for the polish, verse, as no other nation can show for art and for originality, for which is put on with a rubber made of wadding covered with grace of workmanship in him who fashions, and for certainty of linen rag and well wetted with polish. The polishing process has delight to him who reads.

to be repeated gradually, and after the work has hardened, BIBLIOGRAPHY.-The most elaborate book on French literature the surface is smootbed down with fine glass-paper, a few drops as a whole is that edited by Petit de Julleville, and composed of of linseed oil being added until the surface is sufficiently smooth, chapters by different authors, Histoire de la langue el de la littérature françaises (8 vols., Paris, 1896-1899). Unfortunately these chapters, After a day or two the surface can be cleared by using a fresh some of which are of the highest excellence, are of very unequal rubber with a double layer of linen, removing the top layer when value: they require connexions which are not supplied, and there it is getting hard and finishing off with the bottom layer. is throughout a neglect of minor authors. The bibliographical in. FRENCH REVOLUTION, THE. Among the many revolutions dications are, however, most valuable. For a survey in a single volume Lanson's Histoire has superseded the older but admirable which from time to time have given a new direction to the manuals of Demogeot and Géruzez, which, however, are still worth political development of nations the French Revolution stands consulting.. Brunetière's Manuel (translated into English) is very out as at once the most dramatic in its incidents and the most la langue française depuis le seizième siècle of Godefroy

supplies.copious implied in the name by which it is known; for France has ex

momentous in its results. This exceptional character is, indeed, English there is an extensive History by H. van Laun (3 vols., 1874, perienced many revolutions both before and since that of 1789, &c.); a Short History by Saintsbury (1882; 6th ed. continued to but the name "French Revolution," or simply "the Revolution," the end of the century, 1901); and a History by Professor Dowden without qualification, is applied to this one alone. The causes (1895).

To pass to special periods—the fountain-head of the literature which led to it: the gradual decay of the institutions which of the middle ages is the ponderous Histoire littéraire already re

France had inherited from the feudal system, the decline of the ferred to, which, notwithstanding that it extended to 27 quarto centralized monarchy, and the immediate financial pecessities volumes in 1906, and had occupied, with interruptions, 150 years in that compelled the assembling of the long neglected states. publication, had only reached the 14th century. Many of the monographs which it contains are the best authorities on their general in 1789, are dealt with in the article on FRANCE: History, subjects, such as that of P. Paris on the early

chansonniers, of V. The successive constitutions, and the other legal changes which Leclerc on the fabliaux, and of Littré on the romans d'aventures, resulted from it, are also discussed in their general relation to For the history of literature before the with century, the period the growth of the modern French polity in the article FRANCE mainly Latin, J. J. Ampère's Histoire littéraire de la France avont (Law and Institutions). The present article deals with the authority. Léon Gautier's Epopées françaises (5 vols., 1878-1897) progress of the Revolution itself from the convocation of the contains almost everything known concerning the chansons de geste. states-general to the coup d'état of the 18th Brumaire which P. Paris's Romans de la table ronde was long the main authority for placed Napoleon Bonaparte in power. this subject, but very much has been written recently in France The elections to the states-general of 1789 were held in unand elsewhere. The most important of the French contributions, especially those by Gaston Paris (whose Histoire poélique de Charle- favourable circumstances. The failure of the harvest of 1788 magne has been reprinted since his death), will be found in the and a severe winter had caused widespread distress.

Openlog periodical Romania, which for more than thirty years has been the The government was weak and despised, and its agents chiel receptacle of studies on old French literature. On the cycle were afraid or unwilling to quell outbreaks of disorder. of Reynard the standard work is Rothe, Les Romans de Renart. All parts of the lighter literature of old France are excellently At the same time the longing for radical reform and treated by Lenient, Le Satire au moyen âge. The early theatre has the belief that it would be easy were almost universal. The been frequently treated by the brothers Parfaict (Histoire du théâtre cohiers or written instructions given to the deputies covered français), by Fabre (Les Clercs de la Bazoche), by Leroy (Elude sur well-nigh every subject of political, social or economic interest, les mystères), by Aubertin (Histoire de la longue el de la littérature and demanded an amazing number of changes. Amid this comfrançaise au moyen âge). This latter book will be found a useful summary of the whole medieval period. The historical, dramatic motion the king and his ministers remained passive. They did and oratorical sections are especially full. On a smaller scale but not even determine the question whether the estates should act of unsurpassed authority is G. Paris's Littérature du moyen âge as separate bodies or deliberate collectively. On the 5th of May translated into English. On the 16th century an excellent handbook is that by Darmesteder the states-general were

opened by Louis in the Salle des Menus and Hatzfeld; and the recent Literature of the French Renaissance Plaisirs at Versailles. Barentin, the keeper of the seals, informed of A. Tilley (2 vols., 1904) is of high value. Sainte-Beuve's Tableau them that they were free to determine whether they would vote has been more than once referred to. Ebert (Entwicklungsgeschichte by orders or vote by head. Necker, as director-general of the der französischen Tragödie vornehmlich im 10ten Jahrhundert) is finances, set forth the condition of the treasury and proposed the chief authority for dramatic matters. Essays and volumes on periods and sub-periods since 1600 are innumerable; but those who some small reforms. The Tiers Etat (Third Estate) was disdesire thorough acquaintance with the literature of these three satisfied that the question of joint or separate deliberation should hundred years should read as widely as possible in all the critical have been left open. It was aware that some of the nobles work of Sainte-Beuve, of Scherer, of Faguet and Brunetière-which and many of the inferior clergy agreed with it as to the need above. The series of volumes entitled Les grands écrivains français, for comprehensive reform. Joint deliberation would ensure a now pretty extensive, is generally very good, and Catulle Mendès's majority to the reformers and therefore the abolition of privileges invaluable book on 19th-century poetry has been cited above. As and the extinction of feudal rights of property. Separate de a companion to the study of poetry E. Crepet's Poètes français liberation would enable the majority among the nobles and the and all the best critics of the day, cannot be surpassed, but to it superior clergy to limit reform. Hence it became the first.object may be added the later Anthologie des poètes français du XIX: of the Tiers État to effect the amalgamation of the three estates. siècle (1877-1879).

(G. Sa.) The conflict between those who desired and those who resisted FRENCH POLISH, a liquid for polishing wood, made by amalgamation took the form of a conflict over the verification dissolving shellac in methylated spirit. There are four different of the powers of the deputies. The Tiers État insisted

Conflict tints, brown, white, garnet and red, but the first named is that that the deputies of all three estates should have their between most extensively used. All the tints are made in the same powers verified in common as the first step towards the Three manner, with the exception of the red, which is a mixture of the making them all members of one House. It resolved

Estates. brown polish and methylated spirit with either Saunders wood to hold its meetings in the Salle des Menus Plaisirs, whereas the or Bismarck brown, according to the strength of colour required. nobles and the clergy met in smaller apartments set aside for their Some woods, and especially mahogany, need to be stained before exclusive use. It refrained from taking any step which might they are polished. To stain mahogany mix some bichromate have implied that it was an organized assembly, and persevered of potash in hot water according to the depth of colour required. in regarding itself as a mere crowd of individual members After staining the wood the most approved method of filling the lincapable of transacting business. Meanwhile the clergy and

of the States. deoeral,

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