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partial victories, Napoleon let them go, and devoted his whole | Lannes moved away towards Pavia. Melas thought for a moment If he sinned, at any rate be sinned handsomely,

and except that he that fate had delivered his enemy into his hands, and began to went to Milan by Vercelli instead of by Lausanne and Domodossola i collect such troops as were at hand at Turin with a view to cutting (on the safe side of the mountains), his march is logistically beyond off the retreat of the French on Ivrea while Vukassovich held cavil.

them in front. It was only when news came of Moncey's arrival Napoleon's immediate purpose, then, was to reassemble the in Italy and of Vukassovich's fighting retreat on Brescia that the Army of Reserve in a zone of manquvre about Milan. This magnitude and purpose of the French column that had penetrated was carried out in the first days of June. Lannes at Chivasso by Ivrea became evident. Melas promptly decided to give up stood ready to ward off a flank attack until the main army had his western enterprises, and to concentrate at Alessandria, filed past on the Vercelli road, then leaving a small force to com- preparatory to breaking his way through the network of small bine with Turreau (whose column bad not been able to advance columns as the disseminated Army of Reserve still appeared into the plain) in demonstrations towards Turin, he moved off, to be—which threatenedro bar his retreat. But orders circulated still acting as right flank guard to the army, in the direction of so slowly that he had to wait in Turin till the 8th of June for Pavia. The main body meanwhile

, headed by Murat, advanced Elsnitz, whose retreat was, moreover, sharply followed up and on Milan by way of Vercelli and Magenta, forcing the passage of made exceedingly costly by the enterprising Suchet Oti, too, the Ticino on the 31st of May at Turbigo and Buffalora. On the in spite of orders to give up the siege of Genoa at once and to same day the other divisions closed up to the Ticino,' and faithful march with all speed to hold the Alessandria-Piacenza road, to his principles Napoleon had an examination made of the waited two days to secure the prize, and agreed (June 4) to allow little fortress of Novara, intending to occupy it as a place du Masséna's army to go free and to join Suchet And lastly, the moment to help in securing his zone of manquvre. On the morn-cavalry of O'Reilly, sent on ahead from Alessandria to the ing of the 2nd of June Murat occupied Milan, and in the evening Stradella defile, reached that point only to encounter the French. of the same day the headquarters entered the great city, the The barrage was complete, and it remained for Melas to break Austrian detachment under Vukassovich (the flying right wing it with the mass that he was assembling, with all these misfortunes of Melas's general cordon system in Piedmont) retiring to the and delays, about Alessandria His chances of doing so were Adda. Dubesme's corps forced that river at Lodi, and pressed anything but desperate. on with orders to organize Crema and if possible Orzinovi as On the 5th of June Murat, with his own corps and part of temporary fortresses. Lechi's Italians were sent towards Duhesme's, had moved on Piacenza, and stormed the bridge-head Bergamo and Brescia. Lannes meantime had passed Vercelli, there. Duhesme with one of his divisions pushed out on Crema and on the evening of the and his cavalry reached Pavia, where, and Orzinovi and also towards Pizzighetone. Moncey's leading as at Milan, immense stores of food, equipment and warlike regiments approached Milan, and Berthier thereupon sent on stores were seized.

Victor's corps to support Murat and Lannes. Meantime the half Napoleon was now safe in his “natural” position, and barred abandoned line of operations, Ivrea-Vercelli, was briskly attacked one of the two main lines of retreat open to the Austrians. But by the Austrians, who had still detachments on the side of Turin, his ambitions went further, and he intended to cross the Po and to waiting for Elsnitz to rejoin, and the French artillery train was establish himself on the other likewise, thus establishing across once more checked. On the oth Lannes from Pavia, crossing the the plain a complete barrage between Melas and Mantua. Here Po at San Cipriano, encountered and defeated a large force, his end outranged his means, as we shall see. But he gave himself (O'Reilly's column), and barred the Alessandria-Parma main every chance that rapidity could afford him, and the moment that road Opposite Piacenza Murat had to spend the day in gathering some sort of a "zone of manquvre " had been secured between material for his passage, as the pontoon bridge had been cut the Ticino and the Oglio, he pushed on his main body-or rather by the retreating garrison of the bridge-head. On the castern what was left after the protective system had been provided for border of the “zone of manæuvre " Duhesme's various columns --to the Po. He would not wait even for his guns, which had at moved out towards Brescia and Cremona, pushing back Vukassolast emerged from the Bard defile and were ordered to come to vich. Meantime the last divisions of the Army of Reserve (two Milan by a safe and circuitous route along the foot of the Alps of Moncey's excepted) were hurried towards Lannes's point of

At this point the action of the enemy began to make itself passage, as Murai had not yet secured Piacenza. On the 7th, felt. Melas had not gained the successes that he had expected while Duhesme continued to push back Vukassovich.and seized'

in Piedmont and on the Riviera, thanks to Masséna's Cremona, Murat at last captured Piacenza, finding there immense obstinacy and to Suchet's brilliant defence of the Vat. magazines. Meantime the army, division by division, passed These operations had led him very far afield, and the over, slowly owing to a sudden flood, near Belgiojoso, and

protection of his over-long line of communications had Lannes's advanced guard was ordered to open communication caused him to weaken his large army by throwing off many with Murat along the main road Stradella-Piacenza. "Moments detachments to watch the Alpine valleys on his right rear are precious " said the First Consul. He was aware that Elsnitz One of these successfully opposed' Turreau in the valley of the was retreating before Suchet, that Melas had left Turin for Dora Riparia, but another had been severely handled by Lannes Alessandria, and that heavy forces of the enemy were at or east at Chivasso, and a third (Vukassovich) found itself, as we know, of Tortona. He knew, too, that Murat had been engaged with directly in the path of the French as they moved from Ivrea to certain regiments recently before Genoa and (wrongly) assumed Milan, and was driven far to the eastward. He was further O'Reilly's column, beaten by Lannes at San Cipriano, to have handicapped by the necessity of supporting Ott before Genoa come from the same quarter Whether this meant the deliverance and Elsnitz on the Var, and hearing of Lannes's bold advance on or the surrender of Genoa he did not yet know, but it was certain Chivasso and of the presence of a French column with artillery that Masséna's holding action was over, and that Melas was (Turreau) west of Turin, he assumed that the latter represented gathering up his forces to recover his communications. Hence the main body of the Army of Reserve-in so far indeed as he Napoleon's great object was concentration “Twenty thousand believed in the existence of that army at all. Next, when men at Stradella," in his own words, was the goal of his efforis,

"This may be accounted for by the fact that Napoleon's mind and with the accomplishment of this purpose the campaign enters was not yet definitively made up when his advanced guard had already on a new phase begun to climb the St Bernard (12th). Napoleon's instructions for Moncey were written on the 14th. The magazimes, too, had to be

On the 8th of June, Lannes's corps was across, Victor following provided and placed before it was known whether Moreau's detach- as quickly as the flood would allow Murat was at Piacenza, ment would be forthcoming.

but the road between Lannes and Murat was not known to Six guns had by now passed Fort Bard and four of these were with be clear, and the First Consul made the establishment of the Murat and Duhesme, two with Lannes.

It is supposed that the foreign spies at Dijon sent word to their Bonaparte were only conscripts and details. By the time that the various employers that the Army was a bogy. In fact a great part veteran divisions from the west and Paris arrived, either the spies of it never entered Dijon at all, and the troops reviewed there by I had been ejected or their news was sent off too late to be of use

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connexion, and the construction of a third point of passage mid- | except the division of the main body detailed as an

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work. The army now being disseminated between the (which had besides to watch the Austrians in the citadel of Milan) Napoleon's

Alps, the Apennines, the Ticino and the Chiese, it and Chabran's and Lechi's weak commands. On this same day dispost doas.

was of vital importance to connect up the various Bonaparte tells the Minister of War, Carnot, that Moncey has gris was to parts into a well-balanced system. But the Napoleon only brought half the expected reinforcements and that hall of of 1800 solved the problem that lay at the root of his these are unreliable. As to the result of the impending contest strategy, “concentrate, but be vulnerable nowhere," in a way Napoleon counts greatly upon the union of 18,000 men under that compares unfavourably indeed with the methods of the Masséna and Suchet to crush Melas against the "strategic Napoleon of 1806. Dubesme was still absent at Cremona. barrage" of the Army of Reserve, by one or other bank of the Lechi was far away in the Brescia country, Béthencourt de- Po, and he seems equally confident of the result in either case. tained at Arona. Moncey with about 15,000 men had to cover Il Genoa had held out three days more, he says, it would have an area of 40 m. square around Milan, which constituted the been easy to count the number of Melas's men who escaped. original zone of manæuvre, and if Melas chose to break through The exact significance of this last notion is difficult to establish, the flimsy cordon of outposts on this side (the risk of which was and all that could be written about it would be merely conjectural. the motive for detaching Moncey at all) instead of at the Stradella, But it is interesting to note that, without admitting it, Napoleon . it would take Moncey two days to concentrate his force on any felt that his “barrage " might not stand before the flood. The

battlefield within the area named, and even then he would be details of the orders of the oth to the main body (written before outnumbered by two to one. As for the main body at the the news of Montebello arrived at headquarters) tend to the Stradella, irs position was wisely chosen, for the ground was too closest possible concentration of the main body towards cramped for the deployment of the superior force that Melas Casteggio, in view of a decisive battle on the 12th or 13th. might bring up, but the strategy that set before itself as an

But another idea had begun to form itself in his mind. Still object 20,000 men at the decisive point out of 50,000 available, believing that Melas would attack him on the Stradella side, is, to say the least, imperfect. The most serious feature in all this and hastening his preparations to meet this, he began to allow was the injudicious order to Lannes to send forward his advanced for the contingency of Melas giving up or failing in his guard, and to attack whatever enemy he met with on the road to attempt to re-establish his communication with the

Napoleon's Voghera. The First Consul, in fact, calculated that Melas could Mantovese, and retiring on Genoa, which was now not assemble 20,000 men at Alessandria before the 12th of in his hands and could be provisioned and reinforced by sea. June, and he told Lannes that if he met the Austrians towards On the 10th Napoleon ordered reserve ammunition to be sent Voghera, they could not be more than 10,000 strong. A later order betrays some anxiety as to the exactitude of these assumptions, warns Lannes not to let himself be surprised, indicates his line of retreat, and, instead of ordering him to advanceon Voghera, authorizes him to attack any corps that presented itself at Stradella. But all this came too late, Acting on the earlier order Lannes sought the battle of Montebello on the 9th. This

was a very severe running fight, beginning east of

Casteggio and ending at Montebello, in which the 21 French drove the Austrians from several successive positions, and which culminated in a savage fight at close quarters about Montebello itself. The singular feature of the

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Voghera battle is the disproportion between the losses on either side -French, 500 out of 12,000 engaged; Austrians, 2100 killed and wounded and 2100 prisoners out of 14,000. These figures are most conclusive evidence of the intensity of the French Alessandria military spirit in those days. One of the two divisions (Watrin's) was indeed a veteran organization, but the other, Chambarlhac's, was formed of young troops and was the same that, in the march to Dijon, had congratulated itself that only 5% of its men bad deserted. On the other side the soldiers fought for“ the honour of their arms”-not even with the courage of despair, for they were ignorant of the “strategic barrage " set in front of them by Napoleon, and the loss of their communications had not as yet lessened their daily rations by an ounce.

from Pavia, giving Serravalle, which is south of Novi, as its Meanwhile, Napoleon had issued orders for the main body to probable destination. But this was surmise, and of the facts stand fast, and for the detachments to take up their definitive he knew nothing. Would the enemy move east on the Stradella, covering positions. Duhesme's corps was directed, from its north-east on the Ticino or south on Genoa? Such reports as eastern soray, to Piacenza, to join the main body. Moncey was were available indicated no important movements whatever, to provide for the defence of the Ticino line, Lechi to which happened to be true, but could hardly appear so to the form a " Aying camp” in the region of Orzinovi-Brescia and French headquarters. On the uth, though he thereby forfeited Cremona, and another mixed brigade was to control the Austrians the reinforcements coming up from Duhesme's corps at Cremona, in Pizzighetone and in the citadel of Piacenza. On the other Napoleon ordered the main body to advance to the Scrivia. side of the Po, bet ween Piacenza and Montebello, was the main Lapoype's division (the right flank guard), which was observing body (Lannes, Murat and part of Victor's and Duhesme's corps), the Austrian posts towards Casale, was called to the south bank and a flank guard was stationed near Pavia, with orders to keep of the Po, the zone around Milan was stripped so bare of troops on the right of the army as it advanced (this is the first and only that there was no escort for the prisoners taken at Montebello, hint of any intention to go westward) and to fall back fighting while information sent by Chabran (now moving up from Ivrea) should Melas come on by the left bank. One division was to be as to the construction of bridges at Casale (this was a feint made always a day's march behind the army on the right bank, and by Melas on the 10th) passed unheeded. The crisis was at hand, a flotilla was to ascend the Po, to facilitate the speedy reinforce and, clutching at the reports collected by Lapoype as to the ment of the lank guard. Farther to the north was a small quietude of the Austrians toward Valenza and Casale, Bonaparte column on the road Milan-Vercelli. All the protective troops, I and Berthier strained every nerve to bring up more men to ibe

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Voghera side in the hope of preventing the prey from slipping | fought on the famous battlegrounds of 1703 and 1704, and away to Genoa.

memorable for the death of La Tour d'Auvergne, tbe " First On the 13th, consequently, the army (the ordre de bolaille of Grenadier of France” (June 19). Finding himself in danger of which had been considerably modified on the oth) moved to envelopment, Kray now retired, swiftly and skilfully, across the the Scrivia, Lannes halting at Castelnuovo, Desaix (who had front of the advancing French, and reached Ingolstadt in safety. just joined the army from Egypt) at Pontecurone, Victor at Thence he retreated over the Inn, Moreau following him to the Tortona with Murat's cavalry in front towards Alessandria. edge of that river, and an armistice put an end for the moment Lapoype's division, from the left bank of the Po, was marching in to further operations. all haste to join Desaix. Moncey, Duhesme, Lechi and Chabran This not resulting in a treaty of peace, the war was resumed were absent. The latter represented almost exactly half of both in Italy and in Germany. The Army of Reserve and the Berthier's command (30,000 out of 58,000), and even the con- Army of Italy, after being fused into one, under Masséna's centration of 28,000 men on the Scrivia had only been obtained command, were divided again into a fighting army under Brune, by practically giving up the “barrage" on the left bank of the who opposed the Austrians (Bellegarde) on the Mincio, and a Po. Even now the enemy showed nothing but a rearguard, political army under Murat, which re-established French influence and the old questions reappeared in a new and acute form. in the Peninsula. The former, extending on a wide front as Was Melas still in Alessandria? Was he marching on Valenza usual, won a few strategical successes without tactical victory, and Casale to cross the Po? or to Acqui against Suchet, or to the only incidents of which worth recording are the gallant Genoa to base himself on the British feet? As to the first, fight of Dupont's division, which had become isolated during a why had he given up his chances of fighting on one of the few manæuvre, at Pozzolo on the Mincio (December 25) and the cavalry battlegrounds in north Italy—the plain of Marengo - descent of a corps under Macdonald from the Grisons by way of since he could not stay in Alessandria for any indefinite time? | the Splügen, an achievement far surpassing Napoleon's and The second question had been answered in the negative by even Suvárov's exploits, in that it was made after the winter Lapoype, but his latest information was thirty-six hours old. snows had set in. As for the other questions, no answer whatever was forthcoming, In Germany the war for a moment reached the sublime. and the only course open was to post pone decisive measures Kray had been displaced in command by the young archduke and to send forward the cavalry, supported by infantry, to gain John, who ordered the denunciation of the armistice information.

and a general advance. His plan, or that of his On the 13th, therefore, Murat, Lannes and Victor advanced advisers, was to cross the lower Inn, out of reach of into the plain of Marengo, traversed it without difficulty and Moreau's principal mass, and then to swing round the French Marengo.

carrying the villages held by the Austrian rearguard, Rank until a complete chain was drawn across their rear. But

established themselves for the night within a mile of during the development of the manæuvre, Moreau also moved, the fortress. But meanwhile Napoleon, informed we may suppose and by rapid marching made good the time he had lost in conof their progress, had taken a step that was fraught with the centrating his over-dispersed forces. The weather was appalling, gravest consequences. He had, as we know, no intention of snow and rain succeeding one another until the roads were forcing on a decision until his reconnaissance produced the almost impassable. On the 2nd of December the Austrians information on which to base it, and he had therefore kept back were brought to a standstill, but the inherent mobility of the three divisions under Desaix at Pontecurone. But as the day Revolutionary armies enabled them to surmount all difficulties, wore on without incident, he began to fear that the reconnaissance and thanks to the respite afforded him by the archduke's halt, would be profitless, and unwilling to give Melas any further Moreau was able to see clearly into the enemy's plans and start, he sent out these divisions right and left to find and to dispositions. On the 3rd of December, while the Austrians in hold the enemy, whichever way the latter had gone. Al noon many disconnected columns were struggling through the dark Desaix with one division was despatched southward to Rivalta and muddy forest paths about Hohenlinden, Moreau struck to head off Melas from Genoa and at 9 A.M. on the 141h,' Lapoype the decisive blow. While Ney and Grouchy held fast, the head was sent back over the Po to hold the Austrians should they of the Austrian main column at Hohenlinden, Richepanse's be advancing from Valenza towards the Ticino. Thus there corps was directed on its left flank. In the forest Rickepanse remained in hand only 21,000 men when at last, in the forenoon unexpectedly met a subsidiary Austrian column which actually of the 14th the whole of Melas's army, more than 40,000 strong, cut his column in two. But profiting by the momentary con. moved out of Alessandria, not southward nor northward, but fusion he drew off that part of his forces which had passed due west into the plain of Marengo (9.0.). The extraordinary beyond the point of contact and continued his march, striking battle that followed is described elsewhere. The outline of the flank of the archduke's main column, most of which had not it is simple enough. The Austrians advanced slowly and in the succeeded in deployingopposite Ney, at the village of Mattempost. face of the most resolute opposition, until their attack had first the baggage train and then the artillery park fell into his gathered weight, and at last they were carrying all before them, hands, and lastly he reached the rear of the troops engaged when Desaix returned from beyond Rivalta and initiated a opposite Hohenlinden, whereupon the Austrian main body series of counterstrokes. These were brilliantly successful, practically dissolved. The rear of Richepanse's corps, alter and gave the French not only local victory but the supreme disengaging itself from the Austrian column it had met in the self-confidence that, next day, enabled them to extort from earlier part of the day, arrived at Maltempost in time to head off Melas an agreement to evacuate all Lombardy as far as the thousands of sugitives who had escaped from the carnage at Mincio. And though in this way the chief prize, Melas's army, Hohenlinden. The other columns of the unfortunate army escaped after all, Marengo was the birthday of the First were first checked and then driven back by the French divisions Empire.

they met, which, moving more swiftly and fighting better in the One more blow, however, was required before the Second broken ground and the woods, were able to combine two brigades Coalition collapsed, and it was delivered by Moreau. We have against one wherever a fight developed. On this disastrous seen that he had crossed the upper Rhine and defeated Kray day the Austrians lost 20,000 men, 13,000 of them being prisoners, at Stokach. This was followed by other partial victories, and and go guns. Kray then retired to Ulm, where he reassembled his forces, Marengo and Hohenlinden decided the war of the Second hitherto scattered in a long weak line from the Neckar to Schaff. Coalition as Rivoli had decided that of the First, and the Revoluhausen. Moreau continued his advance, extending his forces tionary Wars came to an end with the armistice of Steyer up to and over the Danube below Ulm, and winning several (December 25, 1800) and the treaty of Lunéville (February 9, combats, of which the most important was that of Höchstädt, 1801). But only the first act of the great drama was accom

'On the strength of a report, false as it turned out, that the plished. After a short respite Europe entered upon the Austrian rearguard had broken the bridges of the Bormida. Napoleonic Wars.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.-By far the most important modern works are possessions caused the operations in the Channel to be somewhat A. Chuquet's Guerres de la Révolution (i! monographs forming to-languid. Lord Howe cruised in search of the enemy without publications of the French General Stal. The latter appear first, being able to bring them to action. The severe blockade which as a rule, in the official Revue d'histoire " and are then republished in the later stages of the war kept the British fileet permanently in separate volumes, of which every year adds to the number. V. outside of Brest was not enforced in the earlier stages. Lord Dupuis' L'Armée du nord 1793: Coutanceau's L'Armée du nord Howe preferred to save his fleet from the wear and tear of 1793 en Alsace; and C. de Cugnac's Campagne de l'armée de réserve perpetual cruising by maintaining his headquarters at St Helens, 1800 may be specially named. Among other works of importance and keeping watch on the French ports by frigates. The French the principal are C. von B(inder)-K(rieglstein), Geist und Stoff im thus secured a freedom of movement which in the course of Kriege (Vienna, 1896); E. Gachot's works on Masséna's carcer (containing invaluable evidence though written in a somewhat

1794 enabled them to cover the arrival of a great convoy laden rhetorical style); Ritter von Angeli, Erzherzog Karl (Vienna, 1896); with food from America (see FIRST OF JUNE, BATTLE OF). This F. N. Maude, Evolution of Modern Strategy: G. A. Furse, Marengo great effort was followed by a long period of languor. Its internal and Hohenlinden; C. von Clausewitz, Feldzug 1796 in Italien and defects compelled the French feet in the Channel to play a very Feldsug 1799 (French translations); H. Bonnal, De Rosbach & Ulm; poor part till the last days of 1796. Squadrons were indeed sent Krebs and Moris, Compagnes dans les Alpes (Paris, 189!-1895); Yorck von Wartenburg, Napoleon als Feldherr (English and French

a short way to sea, but their inefficiency was conspicuously translations): F. Bouvier, Bona parte en Italie 1700; Kuhl, Bona- displayed when, on the 17th of June 1795, a much superior parte's erster Feldzug: J. W. Fortescue, Hisl. of the British Army, number of their line of batile ships failed to do any harm to the vol. iv.: G. D. v. Scharnhorst, Ursache des Glücks der Franzosen small force of Cornwallis, and when on the 22nd of the same 1703-1794 (reprinted in A. Weiss's Short German Military Readings: month they fed in disorder before Lord Bridport at the Isle de London, 1892); E. D'Hauterive, L'Armée sous la Révolution; C. Rousset, Les Volontaires; Max Jähns, Das französische Heer;

Groix. Shadwell, Mountain Warfare; works of Colonel Camon (Guerre Operations of a more decisive character had in the meantime Napoléonienne, &c.); Austrian War Office: Krieg gegen die franz. taken place both in the Mediterranean and in the West Indies. Revolution 1792-1797 (Vienna, 1905); Archduke Charles, Grundsätze In April 1793 the first detachment of a British fleet, which was 1799 in Deutschl, und der Schweiz; v. Zeissberg, Erzherzog Kant: finally raised to a strength of 21 sail of the line, under the comthe old history called Victoires et conquêtes des Français (27

volumes, mand of Lord Hood, sailed for the Mediterranean. By August Paris, 1817-1825): M. Hartmann, Anteil der Russen am Feldzug the admiral was oft Toulon, acting in combination with a Spanish 1799 in der Schweiz (Zürich, 1892); Danélewski-Miliutin, Der naval force. France was torn by the contentions of Jacobins Krieg Russlands gegen Frankreich unter Paul 1. (Munich, 1858); and Girondins, and its dissensions led to the surrender of the Mil. Wochenblatt, 1889), and Pirmasens und Kaiserslautern ("- Kriegs great arsenal to the British admiral and his Spanish colleague gesch. Einzelschriften," 1893).

(C.F.A.) Don Juan de Lángara, on the 27th of August. The allies were

joined later by a contingent from Naples. But the military NAYAL OPERATIONS

forces were insufficient to hold the land defences against the The naval side of the wars arising out of the French Revolution army collected to expel them. High ground commanding the was marked by unity, and even by simplicity. France had but anchorage was occupied by the besieging force, and on the 18th one serious enemy, Great Britain, and Great Britain bad but of December 1793 the allies retired. They carried away or one purpose, to beat down France. Other states were drawn destroyed thirty-three French vessels, of which thirteen were of into the strife, but it was as the allies, the enemies and at times the line. But partly through the inefficiency and partly through the victims, of the two dominating powers. The field of battle the ill-will of the Spaniards, who were indisposed to cripple the was the whole expanse of the ocean and the landlocked seas. French, whom they considered as their only possible allies against The weapons, the methods and the results were the same. When Great Britain, the destruction was not so complete as had been a general survey of the whole struggle is taken, its unity is intended. Twenty-five ships, of which eighteen were of the line, manifest. The Revolution produced a profound alteration in the were left to serve as the nucleus of an active flect in later years. government of France, but none in the final purposes of its Fourteen thousand of the inhabitants Aled with the allies to policy. To secure for France its so-called "natural limits "-escape the vengeance of the victorious Jacobins. Their sufferthe Rhine, the Alps, the Pyrenees and the ocean; to protectings, and the ferocious massacre perpetrated on those who both flanks by reducing Holland on the north and Spain on the remained behind by the conquerors, form one of the blackest south to submission; to confirm the mighty power thus con- pages of the French Revolution. The Spanish fleet took no stituted, by the subjugation of Great Britain, were the objects further part in the war. Lord Hood now turned to the occupaof the Republic and of Napoleon, as they had been of Louis XIV. tion of Corsica, where the intervention of the British fleet was The naval war, like the war on land, is here considered in the invited by the patriotic party headed by Pascual Paoli. The first of its two phases-the Revolutionary (1792-99). (For the French ships lefi at Toulon were refitted and came to sea in the Napoleonic phase (1800-15), see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.) spring of 1794, but Admiral Martin who commanded them did

The Revolutionary war began in April 1792. In the September not feel justified in giving battle, and his sorties were mere of that year Admiral Truguet sailed from Toulon to co-operate demonstrations. From the 25th of January 1794 till November with the French troops operating against the Austrians and 1796 the British fleet in the Mediterranean was mainly occupied their allies in northern Italy. In December Latouche Tréville in and about Corsica, securing the island, watching Toulon was sent with another squadron to cow the Bourbon rulers of and co-operating with the allied Austrians and Piedmontese Naples. The extreme feebleness of their opponents alone saved in northern Italy. It did much to hamper the coast wise comthe French from disaster. Mutinies, which began within ten munications of the French. But neither Lord Hood, who went days of the storming of the Bastille (14th of July 1789), bad bome at the end of 1794, nor his indolent successor Hotham, disorganized their navy, and the effects of these disorders was able to deliver an effective blow at the Toulon squadron. continued to be felt so long as the war lasted. In February The second of these officers fought two confused actions with 1793 war broke out with Great Britain and Holland. In March Admiral Martin in the Gulf of Lyons on the 16th of March and Spain was added to the list of the powers against which France the 13th of July 1795, but though three French ships were cut declared war. Her resources at sea were wholly inadequate off and captured, the bafiling winds and the placid disposition to meet the coalition she had provoked. The Convention did of Hotham united to prevent decisive results. A new spirit was indeed order that fifty-two ships of the line should be com- introduced into the command of the British feet when Sir missioned in the Channel, but it was not able in fact to do more John Jervis, afterwards Earl Saint Vincent, succeeded Hotham than send out a few diminutive and ill-appointed squadrons, in November 1795. manned by mutinous crews, which kept close to the coast. The Jervis came to the Mediterranean with a high reputation, British navy was in excellent order, but the many calls made which had been much enhanced by his recent command in the on it for the protection of world-wide commerce and colonial | West Indies. In every war with France it was the natural policy

of the British government to seize on its enemy's colonial | and concentrated on his rear and centre. Eight line of battlepossessions, not only because of their intrinsic value, but because ships and two frigates were taken, but the good gunnery and they were the headquarters of active privateers. The occupation steady resistance of the Dutch made the victory costly. Be. of the little fishing stations of St Pierre and Miquelon (14th May tween these two battles the British fleet was for a time menaced 1793) and of Pondicherry in the East Indies (23rd Aug. 1793) in its very existence by a succession of mutinies, the result of were almost formal measures taken at the beginning of every much neglect of the undoubted grievances of the sailors. The war. But the French West Indian islands possessed intrinsic victory of Camperdown, completing what the victory of Cape strength which rendered their occupation a service of difficulty Saint Vincent had begun,seemed to put Great Britain beyond fear and hazard. In 1793 they were torn by dissensions, the result of invasion. But the government of the Republic was intent of the revolution in the mother country. Tobago was occupied on renewing the attempt. The successes of Napoleon at the head in April, and the French part of the great island of San Domingo of the army of Italy had reduced Austria to sign the peace of was partially thrown into British hands by the Creoles, who | Campo Formio,on the 17th of October 1797, and he was appointed were threatened by their insurgent slaves. During 1794 a commander of the new army of invasion. It was still thought lively series of operations, in which there were some marked necessary to maintain the bulk of the British fleet in European alternations of fortune, took place in and about Martinique and waters, within call in the ocean. The Mediterranean was left Guadaloupe. The British squadron, and the contingent of free to the French, whose squadrons cruised in the Levant, troops it carried, after a first repulse, occupied them both in where the Republic had become possessed of the Ionian Islands March and April

, together with Santa Lucia. A vigorous by the plunder of Venice. The absence of a British force in the counter-attack was carried out by the Terrorist Victor Hugues Mediterranean offered to the government of the French Republic with ability and ferocity. Guadaloupe and Santa Lucia were an alternative to an invasion of Great Britain or Ireland, which recovered in August. Yet on the whole the British government promised to be less hazardous and equally effective. It was was successful in its policy of destroying the French naval power induced largely by the persuasion of Napoleon himself, and the in distant seas. The seaborne commerce of the Republic was wish of the politicians who were very willing to see him enidestroyed.

ployed at a distance. The expedition to Egypt under his comThe naval supremacy of Great Britain was limited, and was mand sailed on the 19th of May 1798, having for its immediate for a time menaced, in consequence of the advance of the French purpose the occupation of the Nile valley, and for its ultimate armies on land. The invasion of Holland in 1794 led to the aim an attack on Great Britain " froñ behind " in India (see downfall of the house of Orange, and the establishment of the NILE, BATTLE OF THE). The British feet re-entered the Batavian Republic. War with Great Britain under French Mediterranean to pursue and bafile Napoleon. The destruction dictation followed in January 1795. In that year a British of the French squadron at the anchorage of Aboukir on the expedition under the command of Admiral Keith Elphinstone ist of August gave it the complete command of the sea. A (afterwards Lord Keith) occupied the Dutch colony at the Cape second invasion of Ireland on a smaller scale was attempted (August-September) and their trading station in Malacca. The and to some extent carried out, while the great attack by Egypt British colonial empire was again extended, and the command was in progress. One French squadron of four frigates carrying of the sea by its fleet confirmed. But the necessity to maintain 1150 soldiers under General Humbert succeeded in sailing from a blockading force in the German Ocean imposed a fresh strain Rochefort on the 6th of August. On the 22nd Humbert was on its naval resources, and the hostility of Holland closed a most landed at Killala Bay, but after making a vigorous raid he was important route to British commerce in Europe. In 1795 compelled to surrender at Ballinamuck on the 8th of September. Spain made peace with France at Basel, and in September 1796 Eight days after his surrender, another French squadron of one re-entered the war as her ally. The Spanish navy was most sail of the line and eight frigates carrying 3000 troops, sailed inefficient, but it required to be watched and therefore increased from Brest under Commodore Bompart to support Humbert. the heavy strain on the British feet. At the same time the rapid It was watched and pursued by frigates, and on the 12th of advance of the French arms in Italy began to close, the ports of October was overtaken and destroyed by a superior British the peninsula to Great Britain. Its ships were for a time with force commanded by Sir John Borlase Warren, near Tory Island. drawn from the Mediterranean. Poor as it was in quality, the From the close of 1798 till the coup d'élol of the 18th Brumaire Spanish flect was numerous. It was able to facilitate the move- (9th November) 1799, which established Napoleon as First ments of French squadrons sent to harass British commerce Consul and master of France, the French navy had only one in the Atlantic, and a concentration of forces became necessary. object-to reinforce and relieve the army cut off in Egypt by the

It wasthe more important because the cherished French scheme battle of the Nile. The relief of the French garrison in Malla for an attack on the heart of the British empire began to take was a subordinate part of the main purpose. But the supremacy shape. While Spain occupied one part of the British fleet to the of the British navy was by this lime so firmly founded that south, and Holland another in the north, a French expedition, neither Egypt nor Malta could be reached except by small ships which was to bave been aided by a Dutch expedition from the which ran the blockade. On the 25th of April, Admiral Bruix Texel, was prepared at Brest. The Dutch were confined to did indeed leave Brest, after baffling the blockading fleet of barbour by the vigilant blockade of Admiral Duncan, afterwards Lord Bridport, which was sent on a wild-goose chase to the south Lord Camperdown. But in December 1796 a French fleet com of Ireland by means of a despatch sent out to be captured and to manded by Admiral Morard de Galle, carying 13,000 troops deceive. Admiral Bruix succeeded in reaching Toulon, and his under General Hoche, was allowed to sail from Brest for Ireland, presence in the Mediterrancan caused some disturbance. But, by the slack management of the blockade under Admiral Colpoys. ihough his ewenty-five sail of the line formed the best-manned Being ill-fitted, ill-manned and exposed to constant bad weather feet which the French had sent to sea during the war, and though the French ships were scattered. Some reached their destination, he escaped being brought to battle, he did not venture lo steer Bantry Bay, only to be driven out again by north-easterly gales. for the eastern Mediterranean. On the 13th of August he was The expedition finally returned after much suffering, and in back at Brest, bringing with him a Spanish squadron carried fragments, lo Brest. Yet the year 1797 was one of extreme off as a hostage for the fidelity of the government at Madrid to trial to Great Britain. The victory of Sir Joho Jervis over the its disastrous alliance with France. On the day on which Bruix Spaniards near Cape Saint Vincent on the 14th of February re-entered Brest, the 13th of August 1799, a combined Russian (see SAINT VINCENT, BATTLE OF) disposed of the Spanish fleet. and British expedition sailed from the Downs to attack the In the autumn of the year the Dutch, having put to sea, were French army of occupation in the Batavian Republic. The desealed at Camperdowo by Admiral Duncan on the 17th of military operations were unsuccessful, and terminated in the October. Admiral Duncan had the more numerous force, withdrawal of the allies. But the naval part was well executed. sixteen ships to biteen, and they were on the average heavier Vice-admiral Mitchell forced the entrance to the Texel, and on Attacking from wodward he broke through the enemy's line' the 30th of August received the surrender of the remainder of the

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