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Dutch Aleet-thirteen vessels in the Nieuwe Diep-the sailors have expressly legislated. To it is confided financial control having refused to fight for the republic. In spite of the failure on over the colonies, responsibility for the public debt, the direction land, the expedition did much to confirm the naval supremacy of the departments of education and agriculture, and the carrying of Great Britain by the entire suppression of the most seaman out of works of general utility. It alone communicates with like of the forces opposed to it.
the home authorities. Its expenses are met by the duties levied AUTHORITIES.--Chevalier, Histoire de la morine française sous on goods and vessels entering and leaving any port of French la première République (Paris, 1886): James's Naval History (London, West Africa. It may make advances to the colonies under its Revolution and the Empire (London, 1892). The French schemes of care, and may, in case of need, demand from them contributions invasion are exhaustively dealt with in Captain E. Desbrière's to the central exchequer. The administration of justice is Projets e tentatives de débarquements aux lles Britanniques (Paris, centralized and uniform for all French West Africa. The court 1900, &c.).
(D. H.) of appeal sits at Dakar. There is also a uniform system of land FRENCH WEST AFRICA (L'Afrique occidentale française), registration adopted in 1906 and based on thai in force in the common designation of the following colonies of France: Australia. Subject to the limitations indicated the five colonies (1) Senegal, (2) Upper Senegal and Niger, (3) Guinea, (4) the enjoy autonomy. The territory of Mauretania is administered Ivory Coast, (5) Dahomey; of the territory of Mauretania, and by a civil commissioner under the direct control of the governorof a large portion of the Sahara. The area is estimated at nearly general. The colony of Senegal is represented in the French 2,000,000 sq. m., of which more than half is Saharan territory, parliament by one deputy. The countries thus grouped under the common designation Since the changes in administration effected in 1895 the comFrench West Africa comprise the greater part of the continent merce of French West Africa has shown a steady growth, the west of the Niger delta (which is British territory) and south of the volume of external trade increasing in the ten years 1895-1904 tropic of Cancer. It embraces the upper and middle course of from £3,151,094 to £6,238,091. In 1907 the value of the trade the Niger, the whole of the basin of the Senegal and the south was £7.097.000; of this 53% was with France. Apart from western part of the Sahara. Ils most northern point on the coast military expenditure, about £600,000 a year, which is borne by is Cape Blanco, and it includes Cape Verde, the most westerly France, French West Africa is self-supporting. The general point of Africa. Along the Guinea coast the French possessions budget for 1906 balanced at £1,356,000. There is a public debt are separated from one another by colonies of Great Britain and of some £11,000,000, mainly incurred for works of general utility. other powers, but in the interior they unite not only with one See SENEGAL, FRENCH GUINEA, IVORY Coast and DAHOMEY. For another but with the hinterlands of Algeria and the French Anglo-French boundaries east of the Niger see SAHARA and Nigeria. Congo.
For the constitutional connexion between the colonies and France
see FRANCE: Colonies. An account of the economic situation of the In physical characteristics French West Africa presents three colonies is given by G. François in Le Gouvernement général de types: (1) a dense forest region succeeding a narrow coast belt l'Afrique occidentale française (Paris, 1908). Consult also the annual greatly broken by lagoons, (a) moderately elevated and fertile Reporl on the Trade, Agriculture, &c. of French West Africa issued by plateaus, generally below 2000 ft., such as the region enclosed Meunier and E. Barralier (6 sheets on the scale 1° 2,000,000) was
A map of French West Africa by A. in the great bend of the Niger; (3) north of the Senegal and Niger, published in Paris, 1903. the desert lands forming part of the Sahara (2.0)
PRENTANI, one of the ancient Samnite tribes whicb formed elevated districts are Futa Jallon, whence rise the Senegal, an independent community on the east coast of Italy They Gambia and Niger, and Gon—both massifs along the south- entered the Roman alliance after their capital, Frentrum, was western edge of the plateau lands, containing heights of 5000 taken by the Romans in 305 or 304 B.C. (Livy ix. 16.45). This to 6000 ft. or more. Among the chief towns are Timbuktu and town either changed its name or perished some time after the Jenné on the Niger, Porto Novo in Dahomey, and St Louis and middle of the 3rd century B.C., when it was issuing coins of its Dakar in Senegal, Dakar being an important naval and com- own with an Oscan legend. The town Larinum, which belonged mercial port. The inhabitants are for the most part typical 10 the same people (Pliny, Nal. Hist. iii. 103), became latinized Negroes, with in Senegal and in the Sahara an admixture of Before 200 B.C., as its coins of that epoch bear a legendBerber and Arab tribes. In the upper Senegal and Futa Jallon LARINOR(VM)—which cannot reasonably be treated as anylarge numbers of the inhabitants are Fula. The total population thing but Latin. Several Oscan inscriptions survive from the of French West Africa is estimated at about 13,000,000. The neighbourhood of Vasto (anc. Hislonium), which was in the European inhabitants number about 12,000.
Frentane area. The French possessions in West Africa have grown by the On the forms of the name, and for further details see R.S.Conway, extension inland of coast colonies, each having an independent | Italic Dialects, p. 206 ff and p. 212: for the coins id. No. 195-196. origin. They were first brought under one general government
FREPPEL, CHARLES ÉMILB (1827-1891), French bishop and in 1895, when they were placed under the supervision of the politician, was born at Oberehnheim (Obernai), Alsace, on the ist governor of Senegal, whose title was altered to meet the new of June 1827. He was ordained priest in 1849 and for a short situation. Between that date and 1905 various changes in the time taught history at the seminary of Strassburg, where he had areas and administrations of the different colonies were made, previously received his clerical training. In 1854 he was apinvolving the disappearance of the protectorates and military pointed professor of theology at the Sorbonne, and became territories known as French Sudan and dependent on Senegal. known as a successful preacher. He went to Rome in 1869, at These were partly absorbed in the coast colonies, whilst the central the instance of Pius IX., 10 assist in the steps preparatory to the portion became the colony of Upper Senegal and Niger. At promulgation of the dogma of papal infallibility. He was conthe same time the central government was freed from the direct secrated bishop of Angers in 1870. During the Franco-German administration of the Senegal and Niger countries. (Decrees of war Freppel organized a body of priests to minister Lo the French Oct. 1902 and Oct. 1904) Over the whole of French West prisoners in Germany, and penned an eloquent protest to the Africa is a governor-general, whose headquarters are at Dakar: emperor William I. against the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine He is assisted by a government council, composed of high In 1880 he was elected deputy for Brest and continued 10 functionaries, including the lieutenant-governors of all colonies represent it until his death. Being the only priest in the Chamber under his control. The central government, like all other French of Deputies since the death of Dupanloup, he became the chief colonial administrations, is responsible, not to the colonists, but parliamentary champion of the Church, and, though no orator, to the home government, and its constitution is alterable at was a frequent speaker On all ecclesiastical affairs Freppel will by presidential decree save in matters on which the chambers voted with the Royalist and Catholic party, yet on questions in
which French colonial prestige was involved, such as the expedi. 1 The organization of the new government was largely the work of E. N. Roume (b 1858), governor-general 1902-1907. an able and tion to Tunis, Tong-King, Madagascar (1881, 1883-85), he
He always remained a energetic official, formerly director of Asian affairs
at the colonial supported the government of the day. ministry.
staunch Royalist and went so far as to oppose Leo XIII's policy
of conciliating the Republic. He died at Angers on the 12th of of South Africa on the 31st of March 1877 He bad been chosen December 1891. Freppel's historical and theological works by Lord Carnarvon in the previous October as the statesman form 30 vols., the best known of which are: Les Pères a postoliques most capable of carrying his scheme of confederation into effect. et leur époque (1859); Les A pologistes chrétiens au ll° siècle and within two years it was hoped that he would be the first (2 vols., 1860); Saint Irénée et l'eloquence chrétienne dans la Gaule governor of the South African Dominion. He went out in Qux deux premiers siècles (1861); Tertullien (2 vols., 1863); harmony with the aims and enthusiasm of his chief,“ hoping lo Saint Cyprien e l'Eglise d'Afrique (1864); Clément d'Alexandrie crown by one great constructive effort (he work of a bright and (1855); Origène (2 vols., 1867).
noble life." In this hope he was disappointed. As he stated There are interesting lives by E. Cornut (Paris, 1893) and F. at the close of his high commissionership, a great mistake seemed Charpentier (Angers, 1904).
to have been made in trying to hasten what could only result FRERE, SIR HENRY BARTLE EDWARD (1815-1884), from natural growth, and the state of South Africa during Frere's British administrator, born at Clydach in Brecknockshire, on tenure of office was inimical to such growth. the 29th of March 1815, was the son of Edward Frere, a member Discord or a policy of blind drifting seemed to be the alternaof an old east county family, and a nephew of John Hookham tives presented to Frere upon his arrival at the Cape. He Frere, of Anti-Jacobin and Aristophones fame. After leaving chose the former as the less dangerous, and the first year of Haileybury, Bartle Frere was appointed a writer in the Bombay his sway was marked by a Kaffir war on the one hand and by a civil service in 1834, and went out to India by way of Egypt, rupture with the Cape (Molteno-Merriman) ministry on the crossing the Red Sea in an open boat from Kosseir to Mokha, other. The Transkei Kafirs were subjugated early in 1878 by and sailing thence to Bombay in an Arab dhow. Having passed General Thesiger (the and Lord Chelmsford) and a small force his examination in the native languages, he was appointed of regular and colonial troops. The constitutional difficulty assistant collector at Poona in 1835. There he did valuable was solved by Frere dismissing his obstructive cabinet and work and was in 1842 chosen as private secretary to Sir George entrusting the formation of a ministry to Mr (afterwards Sir) Arthur, governor of Bombay. Two years later he became Gordon Sprigg Frere emerged successfully from a year of crisis, political resident at the court of the rajah of Satara, where he but the advantage was more than counterbalanced by the did much to benefit the country by the development of its com resignation of Lord Carnarvon early in 1878, at a time when munications. On the rajab's death in 1848 he administered the Frere required the steadiest and most unflinching support. He province both before and after its formal annexation in 1849. had reached the conclusion that there was a widespread insurgent In 1850 he was appointed chief commissioner of Sind, and took spirit pervading the natives, which had its focus and strength ample advantage of the opportunities afforded him of developing in the celibate military organization of Cetywayo and in the the province. He pensioned off the dispossessed amirs, improved prestige which impunity for the outrages he had committed the harbour at Karachi, where he also established municipal had gained for the Zulu king in the native mind. That organizabuildings, a museum and barracks, instituted fairs, multiplied tion and that evil prestige must be put an end to, if possible roads, canals and schools.
by moral pressure, but otherwise by force. Frere reiterated Returning to India in 1857 after a well-earned rest, Frere those views to the colonial office, where they found a general was greeted at Karachi with news of the mutiny. His rule had acceptance. When, however, Frere undertook the responsibility been so successful that he felt he could answer for the internal of forwarding, in December 1878, an ultimatum to Celywayo, peace of his province. He therefore sent his only European the home government abruptly discovered that a nalive war regiment to Multan, thus securing that strong fortress against in South Africa was inopportune and raised difficulties about the rebels, and sent further detachments to aid Sir John Lawrence reinforcements. Having entrusted to Lord Chelmsford the in the Punjab. The 178 British soldiers who remained in Sind enforcement of the British demands, Frere's immediate responsiproved sufficient to extinguish such insignificant outbreaks bility ceased. On the nth of January 1879 the British iroops as occurred. His services were fully recognized by the Indian crossed the Tugela, and fourteen days later the disaster of Isandhl. authorities, and he received the thanks of both houses of wana was reported; and Frere, attacked and censured in the parliament and was made K.C.B. He became a member of the House of Commons, was but feebly defended by the government. viceroy's council in 1859, and was especially serviceable in Lord Beaconsfield, it appears, supported Frere, the majority financial matters. In 1862 he was appointed governor of of the cabinet were inclined to recall him. The result was the Bombay, where he effected great improvements, such as the unsatisfactory compromise by which he was censured and begged demolition of the old ramparts, and the erection of handsome to stay on. Frere wrote an elaborate justification of his conduct, public offices upon a portion of the space, the inauguration of which was adversely commented on by the colonial secretary ihe university buildings and the improvement of the harbour. (Sir Michael Hicks Beach), who “ did not see why Frere should He established the Deccan College at Poona, as well as a college take notice of attacks, and as to the war, all African wars had for instructing natives in civil engineering. The prosperity been unpopular." Frere's rejoinder was that no other sufficient due to the American Civil War-which rendered these develop- answer had been made to bis critics, and that he wished to place ments possible brought in its train a speculative mania, which one on record." Few may now agree with my view as to the led eventually to the disastrous failure of the Bombay Bank necessity of the suppression of the Zulu rebellion. Few, I fear, (1866), an affair in which, from neglecting to exercise such means in this generation. But unless my countrymen are much changed, of control as he possessed, Frere incurred severe and not wholly they will some day do me justice. I shall not leave a name to be undeserved censure. In 1867 he returned to England, was made permanently dishonoured." G.C.S.I., and received honorary degrees from Oxford and Cam The Zulu trouble and the disaffection that was brewing in bridge; he was also appointed a member of the Indian council. the Transvaal reacted upon each other in the most disastrous
In 1872 he was sent by the foreign office to Zanzibar to manner. Frere had borne no part in the actual annexation of Degotiate a treaty with the sultan, Seyyid Burghash, for the the Transvaal, which was announced by Sir Theophilus Shepstone suppression of the slave traffic. In 1875 he accompanied the a few days after the high commissioner's arrival at Cape Town. prince of Wales to Egypt and India. The tour was beyond The delay in giving the country a constitution afforded a pretext expectation successful, and to Frere, from Queen Victoria for agitation to the malcontent Boers, a rapidly increasing downwards, came acknowledgments of the service he had minority, while the reverse at Isandhlwana had lowered British rendered in piloting the expedition. He was asked by Lord prestige. Owing to the Kaffir and Zulu wars Sir Bartle had Beaconsfield to choose between being made a baronet or G.C.B. hitherto been unable to give his undivided attention to the state He chose the former, but the queen bestowed both bonours of things in the Transvaal. In April 1879 he was at last able to upon him. But the greatest service that Frere undertook on visit that province, and the conviction was forced upon him behalf of his country was to be attempted not in Asia, but in that the government had been unsatisfactory in many ways. Africa. Sir Bartle landed at Cape Town as high commissioner | The country was very unsettled. A large camp, numbering
4000 disaffected Boers, had been formed near Pretoria, and responsible and difficult one. When Napoleon began to advance they were terrorizing the country. Frere visited them unarmed on Madrid it became a matter of supreme importance to decide and practically alone. Even yet all might have been well, for whether Sir John Moore, who was then in the north of Spain, he won the Boers' respect and liking. On the condition that the should endeavour to anticipate the occupation of the capital or Boers dispersed, Frere undertook to present their complaints merely make good his retreat, and if he did retreat whether he to the British government, and to urge the fulfilment of the should do so by Portgual or by Galicia. Frere was strongly of promises that had been made to them. They parted with mutual opinion that the bolder was the better course, and he urged his good feeling, and the Boers did eventually disperse on the very views on Sir John Moore with an urgent and fearless persistency day upon which Frere received the telegram announcing the that on one occasion at least overstepped the limits of his government's censure. He returned to Cape Town, and his commission. After the disastrous retreat to Corunna, the public journey back was in the nature of a triumph. But bad news accused Frere of having by his advice endangered the British awaited him at Government House on the ist of June 1879 the army, and though no direct censure was passed upon his conducy prince imperial had met his death in Zululand--and a few hours by the government, he was recalled, and the marquess of later Frere heard that the government of the Transvaal and Wellesley was appointed in his place. Natal, together with the high commissionership in the eastern Thus ended Frere's public life. He afterwards refused to underpart of South Africa, had been transferred from him to Sit take an embassy to St Petersburg, and twice declined the honour Garnet Wolseley.
of a peerage. In 1816 he married Elizabeth Jemima, dowager When Gladstone's ministry came into office in the spring of countess of Erroll, and in 1820, on account of her failing health, 1880, Lord Kimberley had no intention of recalling Frere. In he went with her to the Mediterranean. There he finally settled June, however, a section of the Liberal party memorialized in Malta, and though he afterwards visited England more than Gladstone to remove him, and the prime minister weakly com-once, the rest of his life was for the most part spent in the island plied (1st August 1880). Upon his return Frere replied to the of his choice. In quiet retirement be devoted himself to litera. charges relating to his conduct respecting Afghanistan as well as ture, studied his favourite Greek authors, and taught bimself South Africa, previously preferred in Gladstone's Midlothian Hebrew and Maltese. His hospitality was well known to many speeches, and was preparing a fuller vindication when he died an English guest, and his charities and courtesies endeared him at Wimbledon from the effect of a severe chill on the 29th of May to his Maltese neighbours. He died at the Pietà Valetta on 1884. He was buried in St Paul's, and in 1888 a statue of Frere the 7th of January 1846. Frere's literary reputation now rests upon the Thames embankment was unveiled by the prince of entirely upon his spirited verse translations of Aristophanes, Wales. Frere edited the works of his uncle, Hookham Frere, which remain in many ways unrivalled. The principles according and the popular story-book, Old Deccon Days, written by his to which he conducted his task were elucidated in an article on daughter, Mary Frere. He was three times president of the Mitchell's Aristophanes, which he contributed to The Quarterly Royal Asiatic Society.
Review, vol. xxi. The translations of The Acharnians, The His Life and Correspondence, by John Martineau, was published Knights, The Birds, and The Frogs were privately printed, and in 1895. For the South African anti-confederation view, see P A. were first brought into general notice by Sir G. Cornewall Lewis Molteno's Life and Times of Sir John Charles Molleno (2 vols., London in the Classical Museum for 1847. They were followed some 1900). See also SOUTH AFRICA: History.
time after by Theognis Restilulus, or the personal history of the FRERE, JOHN HOOKHAM (1769-1846), English diplomatist poel Theognis, reduced from an analysis of his existing fragments
. and author, was born in London on the 21st of May 1769. His In 1817 he published a mock-heroic Arthurian poem entitled father, John Frere, a gentleman of a good Suffolk family, had been Prospectus and Specim of an intended National Work, by educated at Caius College, Cambridge, and would have been William and Robert Whistlecraft
, of Slowmarket in Suffolk, senior wrangler in 1763 but for the redoubtable competition of Harness and Collar Makers, intended lo com prise the most interestPaley; his mother, daughter of John Hookbam, a rich London ing particulars relaling to King Arthur and his Round Table. merchant, was a lady of no small culture, accustomed to amuse William Tennant in Ansler Fair had used the ottavo rima as a her leisure with verse-writing. His father's sister Eleanor, who vehicle for semi-burlesque poetry five years earlier, but Frere's married Sir Jobn Fenn (1739-1794), the learned editor of the experiment is interesting because Byron borrowed from it the Paslon Lellers, wrote various educational works for children measure that he brought to perfection in Don Juan. under the pseudonyms“ Mrs Lovechild "and" Mrs Teachwell."
Frere's complete works were published in 1871, with a memoir Young Frere was sent to Eton in 1785, and there began an by his nephews, W. E. and Sir Bartle Frere, and reached a second intimacy with Canning which greatly affected his after life, edition in 1874. Compare also Gabrielle Festing, J. H. Frere and his From Eton he went to his father's college at Cambridge, and
Friends (1899). graduated B.A. in 1792 and M.A. in 1795. He entered public PRÈRE, PIERRË EDOUARD (1819–1886), French painter, service in the foreign office under Lord Grenville, and sat from studied under Delaroche, entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1796 to 1802 as member of parliament for the close borough of 1836 and exhibited first at the Salon in 1843. The marked West Looe in Cornwall.
sentimental tendency of his art makes us wonder at Ruskin's From his boyhood he had been a warm admirer of Pitt, and enthusiastic eulogy which finds in Frère's work “the depth of along with Canning he entered heart and soul into the defence Wordsworth, the grace of Reynolds, and the holiness of Angelico." of his government, and contributed freely to the pages of the What we can admire in his work is his accomplished craftsmanAnti-Jacobin, edited by Gifford. He contributed, in collabora, ship and the intimacy and tender homeliness of his conception. tion with Canning, “The Loves of the Triangles," a clever Among his chief works are the iwo paintings, “ Going to School" parody of Darwin's “ Loves of the Plants," " The Needy Knife and “Coming from School," " The Little Glutton" (his first Grinder" and "The Rovers." On Canning's removal to the exhibited picture) and “ L'Exercice" (Mr Astor's collection) board of trade in 1799 he succeeded him as under-secretary of A journey to Egypt in 1860 resulted in a small series of Orientalist state; in October 1800 he was appointed envoy extraordinary subjects, but the majority of Frère's paintings deal with the life and plenipotentiary to Lisbon; and in September 1802 he was of the kitchen, the workshop, the dwellings of the humble, and transferred to Madrid, where he remained for two years. He was mainly with the pleasures and little troubles of the young, recalled on account of a personal disagreement he had with the which the artist brings before us with humour and sympathy. duke of Alcudia, but the ministry showed its approval of his He was one of the most popular painters of domestic genre in action by a pension of £1700 a year. He was made a member of the middle of the 19th century, the privy council in 1805; in 1807 he was appointed pleni
FRÈRE-ORBAN, HUBERT JOSEPH WALTHER (1812-1896), potentiary at Berlin, but the mission was abandoned, and Frere Belgian statesman, was born at Liége on the 24th of Aprü 1812. was again sont to Spain in 1808 as plenipotentiary to the Central His family name was Frère, to which on his marriage he added Junta. The condition of Spain rendered his position a very his wife's aame of Orban. After studying law in Paris, be