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organization, disuse of the outward ordinances (this point is subject to some slightexception, principally in Ohio), and women's ministry, they do not differ from English Friends. The yearly meetings of Baltimore and Philadelphia have not adopted the pastoral system; the latter contains a very strong conservative element, and, contrary to the practice of London and the other “orthodox” yearly meetings, it officially regards the meetings of “the smaller body” (see above) as meetings of the Society of Friends. In 1992 the “orthodox” yearly meetings in the United States established a “Five Years' Meeting,” a representative body meeting once every five years to consider matters affecting the welfare of all, and to further such philanthropic and religious work as may be undertaken in common, e.g. matters concerning foreign missions, temperance and peace, and the welfare of negroes and Indians. Two yearly meetings remain outside the organization, that of Ohio on ultra-evangelical grounds, while that of Philadelphia has not taken the matter into
consideration. Canada joined at the first, and having withdrawn, *: joined in 1907.
ames Bowden, History of the Society of Friends in America (1850-1854); Allan C., and Richard H. £ The History of Friends in America (4th edition, 1905); Isaac ''': History o # Government in Pennsylvania (1898, 1899); R. P. Hallowell,
he Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (1887), and The Pioncer Quakers (1887).
Organization and Discipline.—The duty of watching over one another for good was insisted on by the early Friends, and has been embodied in a system of discipline. Its objects embrace (a) admonition to those who fail in the payment of their just debts, or otherwise walk contrary to the standard of Quaker ethics, and the exclusion of obstinate or gross offenders from the body, and, as incident to this, the hearing of appeals from individuals or meetings considering themselves aggrieved; (b) the care and maintenance of the poor and provision for the Christian education of their children, for which purpose the Society has established boarding schools in different parts of the country; (c) the amicable settlement of “all differences about outward things,” either by the parties in controversy or by the submission of the dispute to arbitration, and the restraint of all proceedings at law between members except by leave; (d) the “recording” of ministers (see above); (c) the cognizance of all steps preceding marriage according to Quaker forms, (f) the registration of births, deaths and marriages and the admission of members; (g) the issuing of certificates or letters of approval granted to ministers travelling away from their homes, or to members removing from one meeting to another; and (h) the management of the property belonging to the Society. The meetings for business further concern themselves with arrangements for spreading the Quaker doctrine, and for carrying out various religious, philanthropic and social activities not neces
sarily confined to the Society of Friends. - The present organization of the £ church is £
democratic; every person born of Quaker parents is a member, and,
together with those who have been admitted on their own
: request, is entitled to #: in the business assemblies ings.” of any meeting of which he or she is a member. The
Society is organized as a series of subordinated meetings which recall to the mind the Presbyterian model. The “Preparative Meeting", usually consists of a single congregation; next in order comes the "Monthly Meeting,” the executive body, usually embracing several Preparative Meetings called together, as its name indicates, monthly (in some cases less often); then the "Quarterly Meeting,'" embracing several Monthly Meetings; and lastly the “Yearly Meeting,” embracing the whole of Great Britain (but not I'. After several yearly or “general" meetings had been held in different places at irregular intervals as need arose, the first of an uninterrupted series met in 1668. From that date until 1904 it was held in London. In 1905 it met in Leeds, and in 1908 in Birmingham. Its official title is “London Yearly Meeting.” It is the legislative y of Friends in Great Britain. It considers questions of policy;
some of its sittings are conferences for the consideration of rts on religious, philanthropic, educational and social work which is carried on. Its sessions occupy a week in May of each year. Representatives are sent from each inferior to each # meeting, but they have no precedence over others, and all Friends may attend any meeting and take part in any of which they are members. Formerly the system was double, the men and women meeting separately, for their own appointed business, . Of late years the meetings have been, for the most part, held jointly, with equal
liberty for all men and women to state their opinions, and to serve on all committees and other appointments. The mode of conducting these meetings is noteworthy. A secretary or “clerk," as he is called, acts as chairman or president; there are no formal resolutions; and there is no voting or applause. The clerk ascertains what he consi to be the jud of the bly, and records it in a minute, The permanent standing committee of the Society is known as the "Meeting for Sufferings" (established in 1675), which took its rise in the days when the persecution of many Friends demanded the Christian care and material help of those who were able to give it. It is composed of representatives (men and women) sent by the quarterly meetings, and of all recorded Ministers and Elders. Its work is not confined to the interests of Friends; it is sensitive to the call of oppression and distress (e.g. a famine) in all parts of the world, it frequently raises large sums of money to alleviate the same, and intervenes, often successfully, and mostly without publicity, with those in authority who have the power to b' about an amelioration. e offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term "office" is not strictly applicable, seeabove as to “recording "); (2) of flier, whose duty it is “to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church. In most Monthly # the care of the poor is committed to the overseers. These officers hold, from time to time, meetings separate from the general assemblies of the members, but the special organization for many years known as the Meeting of Ministers and Elders, reconstituted in 1876 as the Meeting on Ministry and Oversight, came to an end in 1906-1907. This present form both of organization and of discipline has been reached only by a process of development. As early as 1652-1654 there is evidence of some slight organization for dealing with marriages, poor relief, “disorderly w£ matters of arbitration, &c. The Quarterly or “General” meetings of the different counties seem to have been the first unions of separate congregations. in 1666 Fox established Monthly Meetings; in 1727 elders were first £: in 1752 overseers were added; and in 1737 the right of children of &: to be considered as members was fully recognized. Concerning the 18th century in general, see above. Of late years the stringency of the £ discipline has been relaxed: the peculiarities of dress and language have been abandoned; marriage with a non-member or between two nonmembers is now possible at a Quaker meeting-house; and marriage elsewhere has ceased to involve exclusion from the body. Above all, many of its members have come to “the conviction, which is not new, but old, that the virtues which can be rewarded and the vices which can be punished by external discipline are not as a rule the virtues and the vices that make or mar the soul” (Hatch, Bampton Lectures, 81). A genuine vein of philanthropy has always existed in the Quaker
body. In nothing has this been more conspicuous than in the matter of slavery. . George Fox and William Penn Phila laboured to secure the religious teaching of slaves. As th : early as 1676 the assembly of Barbados passed “An Act £.
to prevent the people called Quakers from bringing negroes to their meetings.” . On the attitude of Friends in America to slavery, see the section “Quakerism in America” (above). In # the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the long agitation which ensued the # In 1798 Joseph Lancastcr, himself a F for the education of the poor; and the cause of unsectarian religious education found in the Quakers steady support. They also took an active part in Sir Samuel Romilly's efforts to ameliorate the penal code, in prison reform, with which the name of Elizabeth Fry (a Friend) is especially connected, and in the efforts to ameliorate the condition of lunatics in England (the Friends' Retreat at York, founded in #. was the earliest example in England of kindly treatment of the insane). It is noteworthy that Quaker efforts for the education of the poor and philanthropy in general, though they have always been Christian in character, have not been undertaken primarily for the purpose of bringing prosclytes within the body, and have not done so to any great extent. By means of the Adult Schools, Friends have becn able to exercise a religious influence beyond the borders of their own Society. The movement an in Birmingham in 1845, in an attempt Educato help the loungers at street corners; reading tion writing were the chief inducements offered. The schools are unsectarian in character and mainly democratic in government: the aim is to draw out what is best in men and to induce them to act for the help of their fellows. Whilst the work is £: in character, a well-equipped school also caters for social, intellectual and physical parts of a man's nature. Bible teaching is the central part of the school session: the lessons are mainly concerned with life's practical problems. The spirit of brotherliness which prevails is largely the secret of the success of the movement; At the end of 1909 there were in connexion with the “National Council of Adult-School Associations" 1818 “schools" for men with
took a prominent part.
riend, opened his first school a membership of about 113,789; and 402 for women with a membership of about 27,ooo. The movement, which is no longer exclusively under the control of Friends, is rapidly becoming one of the chief means of bringing about a religious fellowship among a class which the organized churches have largely failed to reach." The effect of the work upon the Society itself may be summarized thus: some addition to membership; the creation of a sphere of usefulness for the younger and more active members; a general stirring of interest in social questions." A strong interest in Sunday schools for children preceded the Adult School movement. The earliest schools which are still existing were formed at Bristol, for boys in 1810 and for girls in the following year. Several isolated efforts were made earlier than this; it is evident that there was a school at Lothersdale near Skipton in 1800 "for the preservation of the youth of both sexes, and for their instruction in useful learning”; and another at Nottingham. Even earlier still were the Sunday and day schools in Rossendale, Lancashire, dating from 1793. At the end of # there were in connexion with the Friends'. First-Day School Association 240 schools with 3722 teachers and 25,215 scholars, very few of whom were the children of Friends. Not included in these figures are tlasses for children of members and “attenders,” which are usually held before or during a portion of the time of the morning meeting for worship; in these #. denominational teaching is given. Monthly organ, Teachers and Taught. A "provisional committee” of members of the Society of Friends was formed in 1865 to deal with offers of service in foreign lands. In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission missions. Association, which now undertakes, Missionary work in ndia (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886), Ceylon (1896). In 1909 the number of missionaries (including wives) was 113: organized churches, 194; members and adherents, 21,085; schools, 135; pupils, 7042; hospitals and dispensaries, 17; patients treated, 6865; subscriptions raised from Friends in Great Britain and Ireland, £26,689, besides £3245 received in the fields of work. Quarterly organ, Our Missions. Statistics of Quakerism.—At the close of #% there were 18,686 akers (the number includes children) in Great Britain; and associates" and habitual “attenders” not in membership, 8586; number of congregations regularly meeting, 390. Ireland-members, 2528; habitual attenders not in membership, 402. The central offices and reference library of the Society of Friends are situate at Devonshire House, Bishopsgate Without, London. Bibliography.—The writings of the early Friends are very numerous: the most noteworthy are the Journals of George Fox and of Thomas Ellwood, both autobi phies, the Apology and other works of Robert Barclay, and the works of Penn and Penington. Early in the 18th century William Sewel, a Dutch Quaker, wrote a history of the Society and published an English translation; modern £ histories have been written by dmund Harvey (The ise of the Quakers) and by Mrs Emmott (The Story of Quakerism); The Sufferings of the Quakers # Joseph Besse (1753) gives a detailed account of the persecution of the early Friends in England and America. An excellent portraiture of early Quakerism is given in William Tanner's Lectures on Friends in Bristol and Somersetshire. The Book of Discipline in its successive printed editions from 1783 to 1906 contains the working rules of the organization, and also a compilation of testimonies borne by the Society at different periods, to important points of Christian truth, and often called forth by the special circumstances of the time. The Inner Life of the Religious ocieties of the Commonwealth (London, 1876) by Robert Barclay, a descendant of the Apologist, contains much curious information about the Quakers. £ also "Quaker" in the index to Masson's Life of Milton. Joseph Smith's Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books (London, 1867) gives the information which its title promises; the same author has also published a catalogue of works hostile to Quakerism: . For an exposition of Quakerism on its spiritual side many of the poems by Whittier may be referred to, also Quaker Strongholds and Light Arising by Caroline E. Stephen; The Society of Friends, its Faith and Practice, and other works by John Stephenson Rowntree, A Dynamic Faith and other works by Rufus M. Jones; Authority and #: Light Within and other works by Edw, Grubb, and the series of “Swarthmore tures" as well as the histories above mentioned. Much valuable information will be found in John Stephenson Rowntree: His Life and Work (1908). The history of the modern forward movement may be studied in Essays and Addresses John Wilhelm Rowntree, and in Present Day Papersedited by him. # social life of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th is trayed in Records of a ker Family, the Richardsons of Cleveland, y Mrs Boyce, and The Diaries of Edward Pease, the Father of # Railways, edited by Sir A. E. Pease. Other works which may usefully be consulted are the Journals of John Woolman, Stephen Grellet and Elizabeth Fry; also The First Publishers of Truth, a reprint of contemporary accounts of the rise of 9: in various districts. The periodicals issued (not # in connexion with the Quaker body are The Friend (weekly), The British Friend (monthly), The
*See A History of the Adult School Movement by J. W. Rowntree and H. B. Binns. The organ of the movement is One and All, published monthly. See also The Adult School Year Book.
Friends' Witness, The Friendly Messenger, The Friends' Fellowship Papers, The Friends' Quarterly Examiner, Journal of the Friend;’ Historical Society. Officially issued: The Book of Meetings and The Friends' Year Book. See also works mentioned at the close of sections on Adult Schools and on Quakerism in America, Scotland and Ireland, and elsewhere in this article; also Fox, GeoRGE.
(A. N. B. FRIES, ELIAS MAGNUS (1794-1878), Swedish botanist, was born at Femsjö, Småland, on the 15th of August 1794. From his father, the pastor of the church at Femsjö, he early acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants. In 1811 he entered the university of Lund, where in 1814 he was elected docent of botany and in 1824 professor. In 1834 he became professor of practical economy at Upsala, and in 1844 and 1848 he represented the university of that city in the Rigsdag. On the death of Göran Wahlenberg (1780—1851) he was appointed professor of botany at Upsala, where he died on the 8th of February 1878. Fries was admitted a member of the Swedish Royal Academy in 1847, and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London in 1875. As an author on the Cryptogamia he was in the first rank. He wrote Novitiae florae Suecicae (1814 and 1823); Observationes mycologicae (1815); Flora Hollandica t:# Systema mycologicum (1821-1829); Systema orbis vegetabilis, not completed (1825); nchus, fungorum (1828); Lichenographia Europaea (1831); Epicrisis systemalis mycologici (#38; 2nd ed., or Hymenomycetes Europaei, 1874); S. getabil C-----------> # Sveriges àtliga och #: Svampar, with coloured plates (1860); Monographia hymenomycetum Suecicae (1863), with the Icones hymenomycetum, vol. i. (1867), and pt. i. vol. ii. (1877). FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH (1773–1843), German philosopher, was born at Barby, Saxony, on the 23rd of August 1773. Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg. Though the progress of his psychological thought compelled him to abandon the positive theology of the Moravians, he always retained an appreciation of its spiritual or symbolic significance. His philosophical position with regard to his contemporaries he had already made clear in the critical work Reinhold, Fichte und Schelling (1803; reprinted in 1824 as Polemisché Schriften), and in the more systematic treatises System der Philosophie als evidente Wissenschaft (1804), Wissen, Glaube und Ahnung (1805, new ed. 1905). His most important treatise, the Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft (2nd ed., 1828–1831), was an attempt to give a new foundation of psychological analysis to the critical theory of Kant. In 1811 appeared his System der Logik (ed. 1819 and 1837), a very instructive work, and in 1814 Julius und Evagoras, a philosophical romance. In 1816 he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy (including mathematics and physics, and philosophy proper), and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism. In politics he was a strong Liberal and Unionist, and did much to inspire the organization of the Burschenschaft. In 1816 he had published his views in a brochure, Vom deutschen Bund und deutscher Staatsverfassung, dedicated to “the youth of Germany,” and his influence gave a powerful impetus to the agitation which led in 1819 to the issue of the Carlsbad Decrecs by the representatives of the German governments. Karl Sand, the murderer of Kotzebue, was one of his pupils; and a letter of his, found on another student, warning the lad against participation in secret societies, was twisted by the suspicious authorities into evidence of his guilt. He was condemned by the Mainz Commission; the grand-duke of Weimar was compelled to deprive him of his professorship; and he was forbidden to lecture on philosophy. The grand-duke, however, continued to pay him his stipend, and in 1824 he was recalled to Jena as professor of mathematics and physics, receiving permission also to lecture on philosophy in his own rooms to a select number of students. Finally, in 1838, the unrestricted right of lecturing was restored to him. He died on the 10th of August 1843. The most important of the many works written during his Jena professorate are the Handbuch der praktischen Philosophie (1817
1832), the Handbuch der psychischen Anthropologie (1820–1821. 2nd ed. 1837-1839), Die mathematische Naturphilosophie (1822),
System der Metaphysik (1824), Die Geschichte der Philosophie (1837– 1840). Fries's point of view in philosophy may be described as a modified Kantianism, an attempt to reconcile the criticism of Kant and Jacobi's philosophy of belief. With Kant he regarded Kritik, or the critical investigation of the faculty of knowledge, as the essential preliminary to philosophy. But he differed from Kant both as regards the foundation for this criticism and as regards the metaphysical results yielded by it. Kant's analysis of knowledge had disclosed the a priori element as the necessary complement of the isolated a posteriori facts of experience. But it did not seem to Fries that Kant had with sufficient accuracy examined the mode in which we arrive at knowledge of this a priori element. According to him we only know these a priori principles through inner or psychical experience; they are not then to be regarded as transcendental factors of all experience, but as the :*: constant elements discovered by us in our inner experience. Accordingly Fries, like the Scotch school, places psychology or analysis of consciousness at the foundation of philosophy, and called his criticism of knowledge an anthropological critique. A second point in which Fries differed from Kant is the view taken as to the relation between immediate and mediate cognitions. According to Fries, the understanding is purely the f # of proof; it is in itself void; immediate certitude is the only source of knowledge. Reason contains principles which we cannot demonstrate, but which can be deduced, and are the proper £ of belief. In this view of reason Fries approximates to Jacobi rather than to Kant. His most original idea is the '' of knowledge into knowing, belief and presentiment. We know phenomena, how the existence of things appears to us in nature; we believe in the true nature, the eternal essence of things # good, the true, the beautiful); by means of presentiment Ahnung) the intermediary between knowledge and belief, we recognize the supra-sensible in the sensible, the being in the phenomenon. See E. L. Henke, J. F. Fries (1867); C. Grapengi , J. F. Fries, ein Gedenkblatt and Kant's “Kritik der # ” und deren Fortbildung durch J. F. Fries (1882); H. Strasosky, J. F. Fries als Kritiker der Kantischen Erkenntnistheorie (1891); articles in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopädie and Allgemeine deutsche Biographie; J. E. Erdmann, Hist. of Philos. (Eng: trans, London, 1890), vol. ii. § 305. FRIES, JOHN (c. 1764-1825), American insurgent leader, was born in Pennsylvania of “Dutch" (German) descent about 1764. As an itinerant auctioneer he became well acquainted with the Germans in the S.E. part of Pennsylvania. In July 1798, during the troubles between the United States and France, Congress levied a direct tax (on dwelling-houses, lands and slaves) of $2,000,ooo, of which Pennsylvania was called upon to contribute $237,000. There were very few slaves in the state, and the tax was accordingly assessed upon dwelling-houses and land, the value of the houses being determined by the number and size of the windows. The inquisitorial nature of the proceedings aroused strong opposition among the Germans, and many of them refused to pay. Fries, assuming leadership, organized an armed band of about sixty men, who marched about the country intimidating the assessors and encouraging the people to resist. At last the governor called out the militia (March 1799) and the leaders were arrested. Fries and two others were twice tried for treason (the second time before Samuel Chase) and were sentenced to be hanged, but they were pardoned by President Adams in April 1800, and a general amnesty was issued on 21st May. The affair is variously known as the “Fries Rebellion,” the “Hot-Water Rebellion”—because hot water was used to drive assessors from houses-, and the “Home Tax Rebellion.” Fries died in Philadelphia in #. See T. Carpenter, Two Trials of John Fries.... Taken in Shorthand (Philadelphia, 18oo); the second volume of McMaster's History the United States (New York, 1883); and W. W. H. Davis, The ries Rebellion (Doylestown, Pa., 1899). FRIESLAND, or VRIESLAND, a province of Holland, bounded S.W., W. and N. by the Zuider Zee and the North Sea, E. by Groningen and Drente, and S.E. by Overysel. It also includes the islands of Ameland and Schiermonnikoog (see FRISLAN ISLANDs). Area, 1281 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 340,262. The soil of Friesland falls naturally into three divisions consisting of sea-clay in the north and north-west, of low-fen between the south-west and north-east, and of a comparatively small area of high-fen in the south-east. The clay and low-fen furnish a luxuriant meadow-land for the principal industries of the province -cattle-rearing and cheese- and butter-making. Horse-breeding has also been practised for centuries, and the breed of black
Frisian horse is well known. On the clay lands agriculture is also extensively practised. In the high-fen district peat-digging is the chief occupation. The effect of this industry, however, is to lay bare a subsoil of diluvial sand which offers little inducement for subsequent cultivation. Despite the general productiveness of the soil, however, the social condition of Friesland has remained in a backward state and poverty is rife in many districts. The ownership of property being largely in the hands of absentee landlords, the peasantry have little interest in the land, the profits from which go to enrich other provinces. Moreover, the nature of the fertility of the meadow-lands is such as to require little manual labour, and other industrial means of subsistence have hardly yet come into existence. This state of affairs has given rise to a social-democratic outcry on account of which Friesland is sometimes regarded as the “Ireland of Holland.” The water system of the province comprises a few small rivers (now largely canalized) in the high lands in the east, and the vast network of canals, waterways and lakes of the whole north and west. The principal lakes are Tjeuke Meer, Sloter Meer, De Fluessen and Sneeker Meer. The tides being lowest on the north coast of the province, the scheme of the Waterstaat, the government department (dating from 1879), provides for the largest removal of superfluous surface water into the Lauwerszee. But owing to the long distance which the water must travel from certain parts of the province, and the continual recession of the Lauwerszee, the drainage problem is a peculiarly difficult one, and floods are sometimes inevitable. The population of the province is evenly distributed in small villages. The principal market centres are Leeuwarden, the chief towns, Sneek, Bolsward, Franeker (qq.v.), Dokkum (4053) and Heerenveen (5011). With the exception of Franeker and Heerenveen all these towns originally arose on the inlet of the Middle Sea. The seaport towns are more or less decayed; they include Stavoren (820), Hindeloopen (1030), Workum (3428), Harlingen (q.v.) and Makkum (2456). For history see FRISLANs. FRIEZE. 1. (Through the Fr. frise, and Ital, fregio, from the Lat. Phrygium, sc. opus, Phrygian or embroidered work), a term given in architecture to the central division of the entablature of an order (see ORDER), but also applied to any oblong horizontal feature, introduced for decorative purposes and enriched with carving. The Doric frieze had a structural origin as the triglyphs suggest vertical support. The Ionic frieze was purely decorative and probably did not exist in the earliest examples, if we may judge by the copies found in the Lycian tombs carved in the rock. There is no frieze in the Caryatide portico of the Erechtheum, but in the Ionic temples its introduction may have been necessitated in consequence of more height being required in the entablature to carry the beams supporting the lacunaria over the peristyle. In the frieze of the Erechtheum the figures (about 2 ft. high) were carved in white marble and affixed by clamps to a background of black Eleusinian marble. The frieze of the Choragic monument of Lysicrates (10 in high) was carved with figures representing the story of Dionysus and the pirates. The most remarkable frieze ever sculptured was that on the outside of the wall of the cella of the Parthenon representing the procession of the celebrants of the Panathenaic Festival. It was 40 in. in height and 525 ft. long, being carried round the whole building under the peristyle. Nearly the whole of the western frieze exists in situ; of the remainder, about half is in the British Museum, and as much as remains is either in Athens or in other museums. In some of the Roman temples, as in the temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the temple of the Sun, the frieze is elaborately carved and in later work is made convex, to which the term “pulvinated ” is given. 2. (Probably connected with “frizz,” to curl; there is no historical reason to connect the word with Friesland), a thick, rough woollen cloth, of very lasting quality, and with a heavy nap, forming small tufts or curls. It is largely manufactured in Ireland. FRIGATE (Fr. frégate, Span. and Port. fragata; the etymology of the word is obscure; it has been derived from the Late Lat. fabricata, and the use of the Fr. bátiment, for a vessel as well as a building is compared; another suggestion derives the word from the Gr. &#pakros, unfenced or unguarded), originally a small swift, undecked vessel, propelled by oars or sails, in use on the Mediterranean. The word is thus used of the large open boats, without guns, used for war purposes by the Portuguese in the East Indies during the 16th and 17th centuries. The French first applied the term to a particular type of ships of war during the second quarter of the 18th century. The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) marked the definite adoption of the “frigate ” as a standard class of vessel, coming next to ships of the line, and used for cruising and scouting purposes. They were threemasted, fully rigged, fast vessels, with the main armament carried on a single deck, and additional guns on the poop and forecastle. The number of guns varied from 24 to 5o, but between 30 and 40 guns was the usual amount carried. “Frigate” continued to be used as the name for this type of ship, even after the introduction of steam and of ironclad vessels, but the class is now represented by that known as “cruiser.” FRIGATE-BIRD, the name commonly given by English sailors, on account of the swiftness of its flight, its habit of cruising about near other species and of daringly pursuing them, to a large sea-bird"—the Fregata aquila of most ornithologiststhe Fregatte of French and the Rabihorcado of Spanish mariners. It was placed by Linnaeus in the genus Pelecanus, and its assignment to the family Pelecanidae had hardly ever been doubted till Professor St George Mivart declared (Trans. Zool. Soc. x. p. 364) that, as regards the postcranial part of its axial skeleton, he could not detect sufficiently good characters to unite it with that family in the group named by Professor J. F. Brandt Steganopodes. There seems to be no ground for disputing this decision so far as separating the genus Fregata from the Pelecanidae goes, but systematists will probably pause before they proceed to abolish the Steganopodes, and the result will most likely be that the frigate-birds will be considered to form a distinct family (Fregatidae) in that group. In one very remarkable way the osteology of Fregata differs from that of all other birds known. The furcula coalesces firmly at its symphysis with the carina of the sternum, and also with the coracoids at the upper extremity of each of its rami, the anterior end of each coracoid coalescing also with the proximal end of the scapula. Thus the only articulations in the whole sternal apparatus are where the coracoids meet the sternum, and the consequence is a bony framework which would be perfectly rigid did not the flexibility of the rami of the furcula permit a limited amount of motion. That this mechanism is closely related to the faculty which the bird possesses of soaring for a considerable time in the air with scarcely a perceptible movement of the wings can hardly be doubted. Two species of Fregata are considered to exist, though they differ in little but size and geographical distribution. The larger, F. aquila, has a wide range all round the world within the tropics and at times passes their limits. The smaller, F. minor, appears to be confined to the eastern seas, from Madagascar to the Moluccas, and southward to Australia, being particularly abundant in Torres Strait, -the other species, however, being found there as well. Having a spread of wing equal to a swan's and a very small body, the buoyancy of these birds is very great. It is a beautiful sight to watch one or more of them floating overhead against the deep bluesky, the long forked tail alternately opening and shutting like a pair of scissors, and the hoad, which is of course kept to windward, inclined from side to side, while the wings are to all appearance fixedly extended, though the breeze may be constantly varying in strength and direction. Equally fine is the contrast afforded by these birds when engaged in fishing, or, as seems more often to happen, in robbing other birds, especially boobies, as they are fishing. Then the speed of their flight is indeed seen to advantage, as well as the marvel
.* “Man-of-war-bird” is also sometimes applied to it, and is perhaps the older name; but A is less distinctive, some of the larger Albatrosses being so called, and, in books at least, has generally passed out of use.
lous suddenness with which they can change their rapid course as their victim tries to escape from their attack. Before gales frigate-birds are said often to fly low, and their appearance near or over land, except at their breeding-time, is supposed to portend a hurricane.” Generally seen singly or in pairs, except when the prospect of prey induces them to congregate, they breed in large companies, and O. Salvin has graphically described (Ibis, 1864, p. 375) one of their settlements off the coast of British Honduras, which he visited in May 1862. Here they chose the highest mangrove-trees” on which to build their frail nests, and seemed to prefer the leeward side. The single egg laid in each nest has a white and chalky shell very like that of a cormorant's. The nestlings are clothed in pure white down, and so thickly as to resemble puff-balls. When fledged, the beak, head, neck and belly are white, the legs and feet bluishwhite, but the body is dark above. The adult females retain the white beneath, but the adult males lose it, and in both sexes at maturity the upper plumage is of a very dark chocolate brown, nearly black, with a bright metallic gloss, while the feet in the females are pink, and black in the males—the last also acquiring a bright scarlet pouch, capable of inflation, and being perceptible when on the wing. The habits of F. minor seem wholly to resemble those of F. aquila. According to J. M. Bechstein, an example of this last species was obtained at the mouth of the Weser in January 1792. (A. N.) FRIGG, the wife of the god Odin (Woden) in northern mythology. She was known also to other Teutonic peoples both on the continent (O. H. Ger. Friia, Langobardic Frea) and in Eng-. land, where her name still survives in Friday (O.E. Frigedag). She is often wrongly identified with Freyia. (See TEUTonic PEOPLEs, ad fin.) FRIGIDARIUM, the Latin term (from frigidus, cold) applied to the open area of the Roman thermae, in which there was generally a cold swimming bath, and sometimes to the bath (see BATHs). From the description given by Aelius Spartianus (A.D. 297) it would seem that portions of the frigidarium were covered over by a ceiling formed of interlaced bars of gilt bronze, and this statement has been to a certain extent substantiated by the discovery of many tons of T-shaped iron found in the excavations under the paving of the frigidarium of the thermae of Caracalla. Dr J. H. Middleton in The Remains of Ancient Rome (1892) points out that in the part of the enclosure walls are deep sinkings to receive the ends of the great girders. He suggests that the panels of the lattice-work ceiling were filled in with concrete made of light pumice stone, FRIIS, JOHAN (1494–1570), Danish statesman, was born in 1494, and was educated at Odense and at Copenhagen, completing his studies abroad. Few among the ancient Danish nobility occupy so prominent a place in Danish history as Johan Friis, who exercised a decisive influence in the government of the realm during the reign of three kings. He was one of the first of the magnates to adhere to the Reformation and its promoter King Frederick I. (1523-1533), his apostasy being so richly rewarded out of the spoils of the plundered Church that his heirs had to restore property of the value of 1,000,000 kroner. Friis succeeded Claus Gjoodsen as imperial chancellor in 1532, and held that dignity till his death. During the ensuing interregnum he powerfully contributed, at the head of the nobles of Funen and Jutland, to the election of Christian III. (1533-1559), but in the course of the “Count's War” he was taken prisoner by Count Christopher, the Catholic candidate for the throne, and forced to do him homage. Subsequently by judicious bribery he contrived to escape to Germany, and from thence rejoined Christian III. He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lübeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for
* Hence another of the names—“hurricane-bird"—by which this species is occasionally known.
* Captain Taylor, fowever, found their nests as well on low bushes of the same tree in the Bay of Fonseca (Ibis, 1859, pp. 150-152). .
supremacy during the earlier years of Christian III. This he was able to do, as a moderate Lutheran, whose calmness and common sense contrasted advantageously with the unbridled violence of his contemporaries. As the first chancellor of the reconstructed university of Copenhagen, Friis took the keenest interest in spiritual and scientific matters, and was the first donor of a legacy to the institution. He also enjoyed the society of learned men, especially of “those who could talk with him concerning ancient monuments and their history.” He encouraged Hans Svaning to complete Saxo's history of Denmark, and Anders Wedel to translate Saxo into Danish. His generosity to poor students was well known; but he could afford to be liberal, as his share of spoliated Church property had made him one of the wealthiest men in Denmark. Under King Frederick II. (1559-1588), who understood but little of state affairs, Friis was well-nigh omnipotent. He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562–70), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden. Friis died on the 5th of December 157o, a few days before the peace of Stettin, which put an end to the exhausting and unnecessary struggle. FRIMLEY, an urban district in the Chertsey parliamentary division of Surrey, England, 33 m. W.S.W. from London by the London & South-Western railway, and 1 m. N. of Farnborough in Hampshire. Pop. (1901) 8409. Its healthy climate, its position in the sandy heath-district of the west of Surrey, and its proximity to Aldershot Camp have contributed to its growth as a residential township. To the east the moorland rises in the picturesque elevation of Chobham Ridges; and 3 m. N.E. is Bagshot, another village growing into a residential town, on the heath of the same name extending into Berkshire. Bisley Camp, to which in 1890 the meetings of the National Rifle Association were removed from Wimbledon, is 4 m. E. Coniferous trees and rhododendrons are characteristic products of the soil, and large nurseries are devoted to their cultivation. FRIMONT, JOHANN MARIA PHILIPP, Count of PALoTA, PRINCE OF ANTRODocco (1759-1831), Austrian general, entered the Austrian cavalry as a trooper in 1776, won his commission in the War of the Bavarian Succession, and took part in the Turkish wars and in the early campaigns against the French Revolutionary armies, in which he frequently earned distinction. At Frankenthal in 1796 he won the cross of Maria Theresa. In the campaign of 18oo he distinguished himself greatly as a cavalry leader at Marengo (14th of June), and in the next year became major-general. In the war of 1805 he was again employed in Italy and won further renown by his gallantry at the battle of Caldiero. In 1809 he again saw active service in Italy in the rank of lieutenant field marshal, and in 1812 led the cavalry of Schwarzenberg's corps in the Russian campaign. He served in the campaigns of 1813-14 in high command, and rendered conspicuous service at Brienne-La Rothière and at Arcis-surAube. In 1815 he was commander-in-chief of the Austrians in Italy, and his army penetrated France as far as Lyons, which was entered on the 11th of July. With the army of occupation he remained in France for some years, and in 1819 he commanded at Venice. In 1821 he led the Austrian army which was employed against the Neapolitan rebels, and by the 24th of March he had victoriously entered Naples. His reward from King Ferdinand of Naples was the title of prince of Antrodocco and a handsome sum of money, and from his own master the rank of general of cavalry. After this he commanded in North Italy, and was called upon to deal with many outbreaks of the Italian patriots. He became president of the Aulic council in 1831, but died a few months later. FRISCHES HAFF, a lagoon on the Baltic coast of Germany, within the provinces East and West Prussia, between Danzig and Königsberg. It is 52 m. in length, from 4 tp 12 m. broad, 332 sq. m. in area, and is separated from the Baltic by a narrow spit or bank of land. This barrier was torn open by a storm in 1510, and the channel thus formed, now dredged out to a depth of 22 ft., affords a navigable passage for vessels. Into the Haff
flow the Nogat, the Elbing, the Passarge, the Pregel and the .
Frisching, from the last of which the name Frisches Haff probably arose. FRISCHLIN, PHILIPP NIKODEMUS (1547-1590), German philologist and poet, was born on the 22nd of September 1547 at Balingen in Württemberg, where his father was parish minister. He was educated at the university of Tübingen, where in 1568 he was promoted to the chair of, poetry and history. In 1575 for his comedy of Rebecca, which he read at Regensburg before the emperor Maximilian II., he was rewarded with the laureateship, and in 1577 he was made a count palatine (comes palatinus) or Pfalzgraf. In 1582 his unguarded language and reckless life made it necessary that he should lcave Tübingen, and he accepted a mastership at Laibach in Carniola, which he held for about two years. Shortly after his return to the university in 1584, he was threatened with a criminal prosecution on a charge of immoral conduct, and the threat led to his withdrawal to Frankfort-on-Main in 1587. For eighteen months he taught in the Brunswick gymnasium, and he appears also to have resided occasionally at Strassburg, Marburg and Mainz. From the last-named city he wrote certain libellous letters, which led to his being arrested in March 1590. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Hohcnurach, near Reutlingen, where, on the night of the 29th of November 1590, he was killed by a fall in attempting to let himself down from the window of his cell. Frischlin's prolific and versatile genius £ a great variety of works, which entitle him to some rank both among poets and among scholars. In his Latin verse he often successfully imitated the classical models; his comedics are not without freshness and vivacity; and some of his versions and commentarics, particularl those on the Georgics and Bucolics of Virgil, though now £ forgotten, were important contributions to the scholarship of his time. There is no collected edition of his works, but his Opera poètica were published twelve times between 1535 and 1636... Among those most widely known may be mentioned the Hebraeis (1590), a Latin epic based on the Scripture history of the Jews; the Elegiaca (1601), his collected lyric try, in twenty-two books; the Opera scenica (1604) consisting of six comedies and two tragedies (among the former, Julius Caesar reditivus, completed 1584); the Grammatica Latina (1585); the versions of Callimachus and Aristophanes; and the commentaries on Persius and Virgil. See the monograph of D. F. Strauss (Leben und Schriften des Dichters und £ Frischlin, 1856). FRISI, PAOLO (1728-1784), Italian mathematician and astronomer, was born at Milan on the 13th of April 1728. He was educated at the Barnabite monastery and afterwards at Padua. When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale. His friendship with Radicati, a man of liberal opinions, occasioned Frisi's removal by his clerical superiors to Novara, where he was compelled to do duty as a preacher. In 1753 he was elected a corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and shortly afterwards he became professor of philosophy in the Barnabite College of St Alexander at Milan. An acrimonious attack by a young Jesuit, about this time, upon his dissertation on the figure of the carth laid the foundation of his animosity against the Jesuits, with whose enemies, including J. d'Alembert, J. A. N. Condorcet and other Encyclopedists, he later closely associated himself. In 1756 he was appointed by Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, to the professorship of mathematics in the university of Pisa, a post which he held for eight years. In 1757 he became an associate of the Imperial Academy of St Petersburg, and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, and in 1758 a member of the Academy of Berlin, in 1766 of that of Stockholm, and in 1770 of the Academies of Copenhagen and of Bern. From several European crowned heads he received, at various times, marks of special distinction, and the empress Maria Theresa granted him a yearly pension of 100 sequins (fso). In 1764 he was created professor of mathematics in the palatine schools at Milan, and obtained from Pope Pius VI. release from ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and authority to become a secular priest. In 1766 he visited France and England, and in 1768 Vienna. In 1777 he became director of a school of architecture at Milan. His knowledge of hydraulics