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of fruit land upon farms in many parts of Kent bas always been principally grown. Sometimes (ruit bushes are put in alternate rows animportant feature in its agriculture. An excellent

description with bush or standard trees of apple, pear, plum or damson, or they of this noteworthy characteristic of Kentish farming is contained ally for cherry and apple trees on grass 30 st. by 30 It.; for standard in a comprehensive paper on the agriculture of Kent by Mr apples and pear trees from 20 ft. to 24 ft. upon arable land, with

bush Charles Whitehead,' whose remarks, with various additions and fruit, as gooseberries and currants, under them. These are set 6 ft. by modifications, are here reproduced.

6 st. apart, and 5 ft. by 2 st. for raspberries, and strawberries 2 ft. 6 in.

to z ft. by i ft. 6 in. to 1 ft. 3 in. apart. On some fruit farms bush Where the conditions are favourable, especially in East and Mid or dwarf trees-apples, pears, plums--are planted alone, at distances Kent, there is a considerable acreage of fruit land attached to each varying from 8 ft. to 10 st. apart, giving from 485 to 680 bush trees farm, planted with cherry, apple, pear, plum and damson trees,

per acre, nothing being grown between them except perhaps straw. and with bush fruits, or soft fruits as they are sometimes called,

berries or vegetables during the first two or three years. It is believed including gooseberries, currants, raspberries, either with or without that this is the best way of ensuring fruit of high quality and colour. standard trees, and strawberries, and filberts and cob-nuts in Mid

Another arrangement consists in putting standard apple or pear Kent. This acreage has largely increased, and will no doubt con trees 30 st. apart (48 trees per acre), and setting bush trees of apples tinue to increase, as, on the whole, fruit-growing has been profitable or pears 15 lt. apart between them; these latter come quickly into and has materially benefited those fortunate enough to have fruit bearing, and are removed when the standards are fully grown. land on their farms. There are also cultivators who grow

nothing Occasionally gooseberry or currant bushes, or raspberry canes or but fruit. These are principally in the district of East Kent, between strawberry plants, are set between the bush trees, and taken away Rochester and Canterbury, and in the district of Mid Kent near directly they interfere with the growth of these. Hall standard London, and they manage their fruit land, as a rule, better than apple or plum trees are set triangularly 15 ft. apart, and strawberry farmers, as they give their undivided attention to it and have more

plants at a distance of i) ft. from plant to plani and 2) st. from row technical knowledge. But there has been great improvement of

to row. Or currant or gooseberry bushes are set between the hall late in the management of fruit land, especially

of cherry and apple standards, and strawberry plants between these. orchards, the grass of which is led off by animals having corn or

These systems involve high farming. The manures used a. cake, or the land is well manured. Apple trees are grease-banded London manure, where hops are not grown, and bone meal, superand sprayed systematically by advanced fruit-growers, to prevent phosphate, rags, shoddy, wool-waste, fish resuse, nitrate of soda, or check the attacks of destructive insects. Far more attention is kainit and sulphate of ammonia. Where hops are grown the London being paid to the selection of varieties of apples and pears having manure is wanted for them. Fruit plantations are always dug by colour, sizc, flavour, keeping qualities, and other attributes to meet

hand with the Kent spud. Fruit land is never ploughed, as in the the tastes of the public, and to compete with the beautiful fruit that

United States and Canada. The soil is levelled down with the comes from the United States and Canada.

"Canterbury " hoe, and then the plantations are kept free from of the various kinds of apples at present grown in Kent mention

weeds with the ordinary draw or plate hoe. The best fruit should be made of Mr Gladstone, Beauty of Bath, Devonshire farmers spray fruit trees regularly in the early spring, and continue Quarrenden, Lady Sudely, Yellow Ingestre and Worcester Pear main, until the blossoms come out, with quassia and soft soap and paraffin These are dessert apples ready to pick in August and September, emulsions, and a very few with Paris green only, where there is no and are not stored. For storing, King of the Pippins, Cox's Orange under fruit, in order to prevent and check the constant attacks of Pippin (the best dessert apple in existence), Cox's Pomona, Duchess, the various caterpillars and other insect pests. This is a costly and Favourite, Gascoyne's Scarlet Seedling, Court Pendu Plat,Baumann's laborious process, but it pays well, as a rule. The fallacy that (ruit Red Reinette, Allington Pippin, Duke of Devonshire and Blenheim trees on grass land require no manure, and that the grass may be Orange. Among kitchen apples for selling straight from the trees allowed to grow up to their trunks without any harm, is exploding, the most usually planted are Lord Grosvenor, Lord Suffield, Keswick and many fruit farmers are well manuring their grass orchards and Codlin, Early Julian, Eclinville Seedling, Pott's Seedling, Early removing the grass for some distance round the stems, particularly Rivers, Grenadier, Golden Spire, Stirling Castle and Domino. For where the trees are young. storing, the cooking sorts favoured now are Stone's or Loddington,

Strawberries are produced in enormous quantities in the northern Warner's King, Wellington, Lord Derby, Queen Caroline, Tower of part of the Mid Kent district round the Crays, and from thence to Glamis, Winter Queening, Lucombe's Seedling, Bismarck, Bramley's Orpington; also near Sandwich, and to some extent near Maidstone. Secdling, Golden Noble and Lane's Prince Albert. Almost all these Raspberry canes have been extensively put in during the last few will flourish equally as standards, pyramids and bushes. Among years, and in some seasons yield good profits. There is a very great pears are Hessle, Clapp's Favourite, Willian's Bon Chrétien, Beurre and growing demand for all soft® fruits for jam-making, and prices de Capiaumont, Fertility, Beurré Riche, Chissel, Beurré Clairgeau, are fairly good, taking an average of years, notwithstanding the Louise Bonne of Jersey, Doyenne du Comice and Vicar of Winkheld heavy importations from France, Belgium, Holland, Spain and Italy. Among plums, Rivers's Early Prolific, Tsar, Belgian Purple, Black The extraordinary increase in the national demand for jam and other Diamond, Kentish Bush Plum, Pond's Seedling, Magnum Bonum fruit preserves has been of great benefit to Kent fruit producers. and Victoria are mainly cultivated. The damson known as Farleigh The cheapness of duty-free sugar, as compared with sugar paying Prolific, or Crittenden's, is most extensively grown throughout the duty in the United States and other large fruit-producing countries, county, and usually yields large crops, which make good prices. afforded one of the very few advantages possessed by British As a case in point, purchasers were offering to contract for quantities cultivators, but the reimposition of the sugar duty in the United of this damson at 20 per ton in May of 1899. as the prospects of the Kingdom in 1901 has modified the position in this respect. Jam yield were unsatisfactory. On the other hand, in one year recently factories were established in several parts of Kent about 1889 or when the crop was abnormally abundant, some of the fruit barely 1890, but most of them collapsed either from want of capital or from paid the expenses of sending to market. The varieties of cherries bad management. There are still a few remaining, principally in most frequently grown are Governor Wood, Knight's Early Black, connexion with large fruit farms. One of these is at Swanley, whose Frogmore Blackheart, Black Eagle, Waterloo, Amberheart, Bigarreau, energetic owners farm nearly 2000 acres of fruit land in Kent. The Napoleon Bigarreau and Turk. A variety of cherry known as the

fruit wn by them that will not make satisfactory prices in a fresh Kentish cherry, of a light red colour and fine subacid flavour, is

raw state is made into jam, or if time presses it is first made into much grown in Kent for drying and cooking purposes. Another pulp, and kept until the opportunity comes for making it into jam. cherry, similar in colour and quality, which comes rather late, known In this factory there are fifteen steam-jacketed vats in one row, and as the Flemish, is also extensively cultivated, as well as the very six others for candied peel. A season's output on a recent occasion dark red large Morello, used for making cherry brandy. These three comprised about 3500 tons of jam, 850 tons of candied peel and varieties are grown extensively as pyramids, and the last-named 750 gross (108,000 bottles) of bottled fruit. A great deal of the fruit also on walls and sides of buildings. Sometimes the cherry crop is preserved is purchased, whilst much of that grown on the farms is sold by auction to dealers, who pick, pack and consign the fruit to sold. A strigging machine is employed, which does as much work market. Large prices are often made, as much as £80 per acre being as fisty women in taking currants off their strigs or stalks. Black not uncommon. The crop on a large cherry orchard in Mid Kent currant pulp is stored in casks till winter, when there is time to has been sold for more than £100 per acre.

convert it into jam. Strawberries cannot be pulped to advantage, Where old standard trees have been long neglected and have but it is otherwise with raspberries, the pulp of which is largely made. become overgrown by mosses and lichens, the attempts made to Apricots for jam are obtained chiefly from France and Spain. There improve them seldom succeed. The introduction of bush fruit trees is another flourishing factory near Sittingbourne worked on the dwarfed by grafting on the Paradise stock has been of much advantage same lines. It is very advantageous to fruit farmers to have jam to fruit cultivators, as they come into bearing in two or three years, factories in connexion with their farms or to have them near, as and are more easily cultivated, pruned, sprayed and picked than they can thoroughly grade their fruit, and send only the best to market, standards. Many plantations of these bush trees have been formed in thus ensuring a high reputation for its quality. Carriage is saved, Kent of apples, pears and plums. Half standards and pyramids have which is a serious charge, though railway rates from Kent to the great also been planted of these fruits, as well as of cherries. Bushes of manufacturing towns and to Scotland are very much less proportion gooseberries and currants, and clumps or stools of raspberry canes, ally than those to London, and consequently Kent growers send have been planted to a great extent in many parts of the East and increasing quantities to these distant markets, where prices are Mid divisions of Kent, but not much in the Weald, where apples are better, not being so directly interfered with by imported fruit,

which generally finds its way to London. Joir. Roy: Agric. Soc., 1899.

Kentish fruit.growers are becoming more particular in picking,

grading, packing and storing fruit, as well as in marketing it. A acres out of a total of 360 are under fruit. The soil, a stiff loam, larger quantity of fruit is now carefully stored, and sent to selected grows strawberries to perfection, and 165 acres are allotted to this markets as it ripens, or when there is an ascertained demand, as it | Iruit. The other principal crops are 43 acres of raspberries and 30 is found that if it is consigned to market direct from the trees there acres of black currants, besides which there are small areas of red must frequently be forced sales and competition with foreign fruit currants, gooseberries, plums, damsons, greengages, cherries, apples, that is fully matured and in good order. It was customary formerly quinces and blackberries. The variety of strawberry known as the for Kentish growers to consign all their fruit to the London markets; Small Scarlet is a speciality here, and it occupies 55 acres, as it now a good deal of it is sent to Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, makes the best of jam. The Paxton, Royal Sovereign and Noble Sheffield, Newcastle and other large cities. Some is sent even to varieties are also grown. Strawberries stand for six or seven years Edinburgh and Glasgow. Many large growers send no fruit to on this farm, and begin to yield well when two years old. A jam London now. It is by no means uncommon for growers to sell factory is worked in conjunction with the fruit farm. Pulp is not their fruit crops on the trees or bushes by auction or private treaty, made except when there is a glut of fruit. Perishable fruit intended or to contract to supply a stipulated quantity of specified fruit, say for whole-fruit preserves is never held over after it is gathered. of currants, raspberries or strawberries, to jam manufacturers. There The picking of strawberries begins at 4 A.m., and the first lot is made is a considerable quantity of fruit, such as grapes, peaches, nectarines, into jamn by 6 A.M. grown under glass, and this kind of culture tends to increase.

Hampshire, like Cambridgeshire and Norfolk, are the only counties Filberts and cob-nutsarea special product of Kent, in the neighbour in which the area of small fruit exceeds that of orchards. The returns hood of Maidstone principally, and upon the Ragstone soils, certain for 1908 show that Hampshire had 3320 acres of small fruit to 2236 conditions of soil and situation being essential for their profitable acres of orchards; Cambridge had 6878 acres of small fruit to 5221 production. A part of the filbert and cob-nut crop is picked green of orchards; and Norfolk had 5876 acres of small fruit against in September, as they do well for dessert, though their kernels are 5188 acres of orchards. Compared with twenty years previously, not large or firm, and it pays to sell them green, as they weigh more the acreage of small fruit had trebled. This is largely due in Hampheavily. One grower in Mid Kent has 100 acres of nuts, and has shire to the extension of strawberry, culture in the Southampton grown 100 tons in a good year. The average price of late years has district, where the industry is in the hands of many small growers, been about 5d. per lb, which would make the gross return of the few of whom cultivate more than 20 acres each.' Sarisbury and 100 acres amount to £4660. Kentish filberts have long been pro- Botley are the leading parishes in which the business is carried on. verbial for their excellence. Cobs are larger and look better for Most of the strawberry holdings are from half an acre to 5 acres in dessert, though their flavour is not so fine. They are better croppers, extent, a few are from 5 to 10 acres, fewer still from 10 to 20 acres and are now usually planted. This cultivation is not much extending, and only hall-a-dozen over that limit. Runners from one-year plants as it is very long before the trees come into full bearing. The London are used for planting, being found more fruitful than those from market is supplied entirely with these nuts from Kent, and there is older plants. Peat-moss manure from London stables is much some demand in America for them. Filbert and cob trees are most used, but artificial manures are also employed with good results. closely pruned. All the year's growth is cut away except the very shortly after flowering the plants are bedded down with straw at finest young wood, which the trained eye of the tree-cutter sees at the rate of about 25 cwt. per acrc. Picking begins some ton days a glance is blossoin-bearing. The trees are kept from 51 to 7 ft. earlier than in Kent, at a date between ist June and 15th June. high upon stems from 14 10 2 ft. high, and are trained so as to form The first week's gathering is sent mostly to London, but subsequently a cup of from 7 to 8 ft. in diameter.

the greater part of the fruit goes to the Midlands and to Scotland and There seems no reason to expect any decrease in the acreage of Ireland. fruit land in Kent, and if the improvement in the selection of varieties In recent years fruit-growing has much increased in South and in the general management continues it will yet pay. A hundred Worcestershire, in the vicinity of Evesham and Pershore. Handyears ago every one was grubbing fruit land in order that hops might lights are freely used in the market gardens of this district for the be planted, and for this inany acres of splendid cherry orchards were protection of cucumbers and vegetable marrows, besides which sacrificed. Now the disposition is to grub hop plants and substitute tomatoes are extensively grown out of doors. At one time the egg apples, plums, or small fruit or cherry trees.

plum and the Worcester damson were the chief fruit crops, apples and Fruil-growing in other Districts. --The large fruit plantations in chorries ranking next, pears being grown to only a moderate extent. the vicinity of London are to be found mostly in the valley of the According to the 1908 returns, however, apples come first, plums Thames, around such centres as Brentford, Isleworth, Twickenham, second, pears third and cherries fourth. In a prolific season a single Heston, Hounslow, Cranford and Southall. All varieties of orchard tree of the Damascene or Worcester damson will yield from 400 to trees, but mostly apples, pears, and plums and small fruit, are grown 500 lb of fruit. There is a tendency to grow plum trees in the bush in these districts, the .nearness of which to the metropolitan fruit shape, as they are less liable than standards to injury from wind. market at Covent Garden is of course an advantage. Some of the The manures used include soot, fish guano, blood manure and orchards are old, and are not managed on modern principles. They phosphates-basic slag amongst the last-named. In the Pershore contain, moreover, varieties of fruit many of which are out of date district, where there is a jam factory, plums are the chief tree fruit, and would not be employed in establishing new plantations. In whilst most of the orchard apples and pears are grown for cider and the better-managed grounds the antiquated varieties have been perry. Gooseberries are a feature, as are also strawberries, red and removed, and their places taken by newer and more approved types. black currants and a few white, but raspberries are little grown. In addition to apples, pears, plums, damsons, cherries and quinces The soil, a strong or medium loam of fair depth, resting on clay, is so as top fruit, currants, gooseberries and raspberries are grown as well adapted to plums that trecs live for fisty years. In order to check bottom fruit. Strawberries are extensively grown in some of the the ravages of the winter moth, plum and apple trees are grease. localities, and in favourable seasons outdoor tomatoes are ripened and banded at the beginning of October and again at the end of March, marketed.

The trees are also sprayed when necessary with insecticidal solutions. Fruit is extensively grown in Cambridgeshire and adjacent counties Pruning is done in the autumn. An approved distance apart at in the east of England. A leading centre is Cottenham, where the which to grow plum trees is 12 st, by 12 it. In the Earl of Coventry's Lower Greensand crops out and furnishes one of the best of soils for fruit plantation, 40 acres in extent, at Croome Court, plums and fruit-culture. In Cottenham about a thousand acres are devoted apples are pla ted alternately, the bottom fruit being black currants, to fruit, and nearly the same acreage to asparagus, which is, however, which are less liable to injury from birds than are red currants or giving place to fruit. Currants, gooseberries and strawberries are the gooseberries. Details concerning the methods of cultivation of most largely grown, apples, plums and raspberries following. of fruit and flowers in various parts of England, the varieties commonly varieties of plums the Victoria is first in favour, and then Rivers's grown, the expenditure involved, and allied matters, will be found in Early Prolific, Tsar and Gisborne. London is the chief market, Mr W. E. Bear's papers in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural as it' receives about hall the fruit sent away, whilst a considerable Society in 1898 and 1899. quantity goes to Manchester, and some is sent to a neighbouring jam Apart altogether from market gardening and commercial fruitfactory at Histon, where also a moderate acreage of fruit is grown. growing, it must be borne in mind that an enormous business is Another fruit-growing centre in Cambridgeshire is at Willing done in the raising of young fruit-trees every year. Hundreds of ham, where--besides plums, gooseberries and raspberries-outdoor thousands of apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines and tomatoes are a feature. Greengages are largely grown near Cain- apricots are budded or grafted cach year on suitable stocks. They bridge. Wisbech is the centre of an extensive fruit district, are trained in various ways, and are usually fit for sale the third situated partly in Cambridgeshire and partly in Norfolk. Goose year. These young trees replace old ones in private and commercial berries, strawberries and raspberries are largely grown, and as many gardens, and are also used to establish new plantations in different as 80 tons of the first-named (ruit have been sent away from Wisbech parts of the kingdom. station in a single day. In the fruit-growing localities of Huntingdon The Woburn Experimental Fruil Farm.---The establishment in shire apples, plums and gooseberries are the most extensively grown, 1894 of the experimental fruit farm at Ridgmont, near Woburn, but pcars, greengages, cherries, currants, strawberries and raspberries Beds, has exercised a healthy influence upon the progress and are also cultivated. As illustrating variations iņ price, it may be development of fruit-farming in England. The farm was founded mentioned that about the year 1880 the lowest price for gooseberries and carried on by the public-spirited enterprise of the Duke of was (10 per ton, whereas it has since been down to £4. Huntingdon Bedford and Mr Spencer' U. Pickering, the latter acting as director. shire fruit is sent chiefly to Yorkshire, Scotland and South Wales, The main object of the experimental station was " to ascertain facts but railway freights are high.

relative to the culture of fruit, and to increase our knowledge of, and Essex affords a good example of successful fruit-farming at Tiptree to improve our practice in, this industry." The farm is 20 acres in Heath, near Kelvedon, where under one management about 260 extent, and occupies a field which up to June 1894 had been used as

223

arable land for the ordinary rotation of farm crops. The soil is a crops of fruit were about twice as heavy as in 1897, and 1899, but sandy loam 9 or 10 in. deep, restingona bed of Oxford Clay. Although it has not been found possible to correlate these variations with the it contains a large proportion of sand, the land would generally be meteorological records of the several seasons. Taking the average of all termed very heavy, and the water often used to stand on it in places the varieties, the relative weights of crop per plant, when these are for weeks together in a wet season. The tillage to which the ground compared with the two-year-old plants in the same season, are, for was subjected for the purposes of the fruit farm much improved its the five ages of one to five years, 31, 100, 122, 121 and 134, apparently character, and in dry weather it presents as good a tilth as could be showing that the bearing power increases rapidly up to two years. desired. Chemical analyses of the soil from different parts of the field less rapidly up to three years, after which age it remains practically show such wide differences that it is admitted to be by no means an constant. The relative average size of the berries shows a deterioraideal one for experimental purposes. Without entering upon further tion with the age of the plant. The comparative sizes from plants of details, it may be useful to give a summary of the chief results one to five years old were 115, 100, 96, 91 and 82 respectively. If obtained.

the money, value of the crop is taken to be directly dependent on its Apples have been grown and treated in a variety of ways, but of total weight, and also on the size of the fruits, the relative values the different methods of treatment careless planting, coupled with of the crop for the different ages would be 34, 100, 117, 11 and 110, subsequent neglect, has given the most adverse results, the crop so that, on the Ridgmont ground, strawberry plants could be profit of fruit being not 5% of that from trees grown normally. Of the ably retained up to five years and probably longer. As regards separate deleterious items constituting total neglect, by far the most what may be termed the order of merit of different varieties of effective was the growth of weeds on the surface; careless planting, strawberries, it appears that even small differences in position and absence of manure, and the omission of trenching all had com treatment cause large variations, not only in the features of the paratively little influence on the results. A set of trees that had been crop generally, but also in the relative behaviour of the different carelessly planted and neglected, but subsequently tended in the varieties. The relative cropping power of the varieties under early part of 1896, were in the autumn of that year only 10% apparently similar conditions may often be expressed by a number behind their normally-treated neighbours, thus demonstrating that five or tenfold as great in one case as in the other. A comparison the response to proper attention is prompt. The growth of grass of the relative behaviour of the same varieties in different seasons around young apple trees produced a very striking effect, the injury is attended by similar variations. The varying sensitiveness of being much greater than that due to weeds. It is possible, however, different varieties of strawberry plants to small and undefinable that in wet years the ill-effects of both grass and weeds would be differences in circumstances is indeed one of the most important less than in dry seasons. Nevertheless, the grass-grown trees, after facts brought to light in the experiments. five years, were scarcely bigger than when planted, and the actual Fruit Culture in Ireland. The following figures have been kindly increase in weight which they showed during that time was about supplied by the Irish Board of Agriculture, and deal with the acreage eighteen times smaller than in the case of similar trees in tilled under fruit culture in Ireland up to the end of the year 1907. ground. It is believed that one of the main causes of the ill-effects 1. Orchard Fruit

Statute Acres. is the large increase in the evaporation of water from the soil which

Apples

5829 is known to be produced by grass, the trees being thereby made to

Pears

224 suffer from drought, with constant deprivation of other nourishment

Plums as well. That grass growing round young apple trees is deleterious

Damsons

138 was a circumstance known to many horticulturists, but the extent to

Other kinds

129 which it interferes with the development of the trees had never before been realized. Thousands of pounds are annually thrown away in Eng

Total

6543 land through want of knowledge of this fact. Yet trees will flourish

2. Small Fruilin grass under certain conditions. Whether the dominant factor is

Currants, black

234 the age (or size) of the tree has been investigated by grassing over

Currants, red and white

159 trees which have hitherto been in the open ground, and the results

Gooseberries

675 appear to indicate that the grass is as deleterious to the older trees as

Raspberries

374 it was to the younger ones. Again, it appears to have been demon

Strawberries

994 strated that young apple trees, at all events in certain soils, require

Mixed fruit

2470 but little or no manure in the early stages of their existence, so that in this case also large sums must be annually wasted upon

Total

.. 4906 manurial dressings which produce no effects. The experiments It therefore appears that while Ireland grows only about one. have dealt with dwarf trees of Bramley, Cox and Potts, six trees thirty-third the quantity of apples that England does, it is nevertheless of cach variety constituting one investigation. Some of the experi; nearly 5000 acres ahead of Scotland and about 2000 acres ahead of ments were repeated with Stirling Castle, and others with standard trees of Bramley, Cox and Lane's Prince Albert. All were planted ahead of Scotland and a long way ahead of Wales in this fruit.

Wales. It grows 41 times fewer pears than England, but still is in 1894–1895, the dwarfs being then three years old and the standards There are 70 times fewer plums grown in Ireland than in England, four. In each experiment the

normal"

treatment is altered in some one particular, this normal treatment consisting of planting In small fruit Ireland is a long way behind Scotland in the culture

and about the same in Scotland, while Wales does very little indeed. the trees carefully in trenched ground, and subsequently keeping of strawberries and raspberries, although with currants and goosethe surface clean; cutting back after planting, pruning moderately berries it is very close. Considering the climate, and the fact that in autumn, and shortening the growths when it appeared necessary

there are, according to the latest available returns, over 62,000 in summer; giving in autumn a dressing of mixed mineral manures, holdings above 1 acre but not exceeding 5 acres (having a total of and in February one of nitrate of soda, this dressing being probably 224,000 acres), it is possible fruit culture may become more prevalent equivalent to one of 12 tons of dung per acre. In the experiments than it has been in the past. on branch treatment, the bad effects of omitting to cut the trees back on planting, or to prune them subsequently, is evident chiefly in

The Flower-growing Industry. -During the last two or three the straggling and bad shape of the resulting trees, but such trees also decades of the 19th century a very marked increase in flower are not so vigorous as they should be. The quantity of fruit borne, production occurred in England. Notably was this the case in however, is in excess of the average. The check on the vigour and the neighbourhood of London, where, within a radius of 15 or growth of a tree by cutting or injuring its roots is in marked contrast with the effects of a similar interference with the branches. Trees

20 m., the fruit crops, which had largely taken the place of garden which had been root-pruned each year were in 1898 little more than vegetables, were themselves ousted in turn to satisfy the increasing half as big as the normal trees, whilst

those root-pruned every second demand for land for flower cultivation. No flower has entered year were about two-thirds as big as the normal. The crops borne by these trees were nevertheless heavy in proportion to the size of

more largely into the development of the industry than the the trees. Such frequent root-pruning is not, of course, a practice narcissus or daffodil, of which there are now some 600 varieties. which should be adopted. It was found that trees which had been comparatively few of these, however, are grown for market mo ill-effects from the operation; but in a case where the trees after purposes, although all are charming from the amateur point of

view. On some flower farms a dozen or more acres are devoted being lifted had been left in a shed for three days before replanting which would reproduce to a certain extent the conditions experienced

to narcissi alone, the production of bulbs for sale as well as of when trees are sent out from a nursery-material injury was suffered, flowers for market being the object of the

growers. which had not been replanted. Sets of trees planted respectively of the metropolis is as largely occupied by flower Tarms as it is these trees after four years being 28% smaller than similar ones In the London district the country in the Thames valley west in November, January and March have, on the whole, shown nothing in favour of any of these different times for planting by fruit farms-in fact, the cultivation of flowers is commonly purposes. Some doubt is thrown on the accepted view that there associated with that of fruit. In the vicinity of Richmond is a tendency, at any rate with young apple and pear trees, to fruit narcissi are extensively grown, as they also are more to the west in alternate seasons. Strawberries of eighty-five different varieties have been experi

in the Long Ditton district, and likewise around Twickenham, mented with, each variety being represented in 1900 by plants of Isleworth, Hounslow, Feltham and Hampton. Roses come more bve different ages, from one to five years. In 1896 and 1898 the I into evidence in the neighbourhood of Hounslow, Cranford,

4,481

Hillingdon and Uxbridge, and in some gardens daffodils and both in the held and in pots. Cut flowers are sent out in large roses occupy alternate rows. In this district also such flowers quantities, neatly and effectively packed, the parcel post being as herbaceous paeonies, Spanish irises, German irises, Christmas mainly employed as a means of distribution. In the neighbour. roses, lilies of the valley, chrysanthemums, foxgloves, holly hood of Spalding crocuses and snowdrops are less extensively hocks, wallflowers, carnations, &c., are extensively grown in grown than used to be the case. On one farm, however, upwards many market gardens. South of London is the Mitcham country, of 20 acres are devoted to narcissi alone, whilst gladioli, lilies long noted for its production of lavender. The incessant growth and irises are grown on a smaller scale. Around Boston narcissi of the lavender plant upon the same land, however, has led to are also extensively grown for the market, both bulbs and cut the decline of this industry, which has been largely transferred blooms being sold. The bulbs are planted 3 in. apart in rows, the to districts in the counties of Bedford Essex and Hertford. At latter being 9 in. apart, and are allowed to stand from two to Mitcham, nevertheless, mixed flowers are very largely grown four years. for the supply of the metropolis, and one farm alone has nearly The imports of fresh flowers into the United Kingdom were not 100 acres under flowers and glass-houses. Chrysanthemums, separately shown prior to 1900. In that year, however, their value asters, Iceland poppies, gaillardias, pansies, bedding calceolarias, amounted to £200,585, in 1901 to £225,011, in 1906 to £233,884, in zonal pelargoniums and other plants are cultivated in immense 1907 to £233,641, and in 1908 to £229,802, so that the trade showed quantities. At Swanley and Eynsford, in Kent, flowers are

a fairly stçady condition. From the monthly totals quoted in

Table VI. it would appear that the trade sinks to its ininimum extensively cultivated in association with fruit and vegetables.

TABLE VI.-Values of Fresh Flowers imporled inlo the United Narcissi, chrysanthemums, violets, carnations, campanulas,

Kingdom. roses, pansies, irises, sweet peas, and many other flowers are here raised, and disposed of in the form both of cut flowers and of

Month.

1906.
1907

1908. plants. The Scilly Isles are important as providing the main source

January

£31,035 £18,545 £29,180 February

34,647 25,541 30,541 of supply of narcissi to the English markets in the early months March

50,232 42,611

35,185 of the year. This trade arose almost by accident, for it was April

30,809
50,418

42,681 about the year 1865 that a box of narcissi sent to Covent Garden

May

22,980 21,767 23,129 Market, London, realized £!; and the knowledge of this fact

June

17,641

18,358 16,904 July

3,386 4.509 3,467 getting abroad, the farmers of the isles began collecting wild August

1,646
1,539

1,081 bulbs from the fields in order to cultivate them and increase their September.

852
736

953 stocks. Some ten years, however, elapsed before the industry

October

3,180

4,504

November promised to become remunerative. In 1885 a Bulb and Flower

17,506 15.763 15,097 December

18,669 Association was established to promote the industrial growth

30,674

27,080 of flowers. The exports of flowers in that year reached 65 tons,

Total

£233,884 £233,641 £229,802 and they steadily increased until 1893, when they amounted dimensions in the four months July to October inclusive, and that to 450 tons. A slight decline followed, but in 1896 the quantity after September the business continually expands up to April, exported was no less than 514 tons. This would represent subsequent to which contraction again sets in. About one-half of upwards of 31 million bunches of flowers, chiefly narcissi and the trade belongs practically to the three months of February, anemones. Rather more than 500 acres are devoted to flower- March and April. growing in the isles, by far the greater part of this area being

Hothouse Cullure of Fruit and flowers.--The cultivation assigned to narcissi, whilst anemones, gladioli, marguerites, of fruit and flowers under glass has increased enormously arum lilies, Spanish irises, pinks and walliowers are cultivated since about the year 1880, especially in the neighbourhood on a much smaller scale. The great advantage enjoyed by the of London, where large sums of money have been sunk in the Scilly flower-growers is earliness of production, due to climatic erection and equipment of hothouses. In the parish of Cheshunt, causes; the soil, moreover, is well suited to lower culture and Herts, alone there are upwards of 130 acres covered with glass, there is an abundance of sunshine. The long journey to London and between that place on the north and London on the south is somewhat of a drawback, in regard to both time and freight, extensive areas of land are similarly utilized. In Middlesex, but the earliness of the flowers more than compensates for this. in the north, in the districts of Edmonton, Enfield, Ponders End Open-air narcissi are usually ready at the beginning of January, and Finchley, and in the west from Isleworth to Hampton, and the supply is maintained in different varieties up to the Feltham, Hillingdon, Sipson and Uxbridge, many crops are now middle or end of May. The narcissus bulbs are usually planted cultivated under glass. At Erith, Swanley, and other places in in October, 4 in. by 3 in. apart for the smaller sorts and 6 in. Kent, as also at Worthing, in Sussex, glass-house culture has by 4 to 6 in. for the larger. A compost of farmyard manure, much extended. A careful estimate puts the area of industrial seaweed, earth and road scrapings is the usual dressing, but hot houses in England at about 1200 acres, but it is probably nitrate of soda, guano and bones are also occasionally employed. much more than this. Most of the greenhouses are fixtures, A better plan, perhaps, is to manure heavily the previous crop, but in some parts of the kingdom structures that move on rails frequently potatoes, no direct manuring then being needed for and wheels are used, to enable the ground to be prepared in the the bulbs, these not being left in the ground more than two or open for one crop while another is maturing under glass. The three years. The expenses of cultivation are heavy, the cost leading products are grapes, tomatoes and cucumbers, the lastof bulbs alone of which it requires nearly a quarter of a million named two being true fruits from the botanist's point of view, of the smaller varieties, or half as many of the largest, to plant though commercially included with vegetables. To these may an acre-being considerable. The polyanthus varieties of be added on the same ground dwarf or French beans, and runner narcissus are likely to continue the most remunerative to the or climbing beans. Peaches, nectarines and strawberries are flower-growers of Scilly, as they flourish better in these isles largely grown under glass, and, in private hothouses-from than on the mainland.

which the produce is used mainly for household consumption, In the district around the Wash, in the vicinity of such towns and which are not taken into consideration here--pineapples, as Wisbech, Spalding and Boston, the industrial culture of bulbs figs and other fruit. Conservative estimates indicate the average and flowers underwent great expansion in the period between annual yield of hothouse grapes to be about 12 tons per acre and 1880 and 1909. At Wisbech one concern alone has a farm of of tomatoes 20 tons. The greater part of the space in the hotsome 900 acres, devoted chiefly to flowers and fruit, the soil houses is assigned to fruit, but whilst some houses are devoted being a deep fine alluvium. Roses are grown here, one field exclusively to flowers, in others, where fruit is the main containing upwards of 100,000 trees. Nearly 20 acres are object, flowers are forced in considerable quantities in winter devoted to narcissi, which are grown for the bulbs and also, and early spring. The flowers grown under glass include tulips, together with tulips, for cut Aowers. Carnations are cultivated l hyacinths, primulas, cyclamens, spiraeas, mignonettes, fuchsias

calceolarias, roses, chrysanthemums, daffodils, arum lilies or feature of modern gardening. These are grown and imported callas, liliums, azaleas, eucharises, camellias, stephanotis, by thousands chiefly for their sprays of blossom or foliage, and tuberoses, bouvardias, gardenias, heaths or ericas, poinsettias, for planting in large or small gardens, public parks, &c., for lilies of the valley,zonal pelargoniums,tuberous and fibrous rooted landscape effect. Indeed there is scarcely an easily grown plant begonias, and many others. There is an increasing demand for from the northern or southern temperate zones that does not now foliage hot house plants, such as ferns, palms, crotons, aspidistras, find a place in the nursery or garden, provided it is sufficiently araucarias, dracaenas, India-rubber plants, aralias, grevilleas, attractive to sell for its flowers, foliage or appearance. &c. Berried plants like solanums and aucubas also find a ready Conditions of the Fruil and Flower growing Industries.-As sale, while the ornamental kinds of asparagus such as sprengeri regards open-air fruit-growing, the outlook for new ventures is and plumosus nanus, are ever in demand for trailing decorations, perhaps brighter than in the hothouse industry, not-as Mr as well as myrsiphyllum. Special mention must be made of the Bear has pointed out-because the area of fruit land in England winter or perpetual flowering carnations which are now grown is too small, but because the level of efficiency, from the selection by hundreds of thousands in all parts of the kingdom for of varieties to the packing and marketing of the produce, is very decorative work during the winter season. The converse of much lower in the former than in the latter branch of enterprise, forcing plants into early blossom is adopted with such an im- In other words, whereas the practice of the majority of hothouse portant crop as lily of the valley. During the summer season the nurserymen is so skilled, so up-to-date, and so entirely under high crowns are placed in refrigerators with about 2 degrees of frost, pressure that a new competitor, however well.trained, will find and quantities are taken out as required every week and trans- it difficult to rise above mediocrity, the converse is true of openferred to the greenhouse to develop. Tomatoes are grown air fruit-growers. Many, and an increasing proportion, of the largely in houses exclusively occupied by them, in which case two latter are thoroughly efficient in all branches of their business, and sometimes three crops can be gathered in the year. In the and are in possession of plantations of the best market varieties Channel Islands, where potatoes grown under glass are lifted of fruit, well cultivated, pruned and otherwise managed. But in April and May, in order to secure the high prices of the early the extent of fruit plantations completely up to the mark in markets, tomato seedlings are planted out from boxes into the relation to varieties and treatment of trees and bushes, and in ground as quickly as the potatoes are removed, the tomato connexion with which the packing and marketing of the produce planter working only a few rows behind the potato digger. are equally satisfactory, is small in proportion to the total fruit The trade in imported tomatoes is so considerable that home area of the country. Information concerning the best treatment growers are well justified in their endeavours to meet the demand of fruit trees has spread widely in recent years, and old plantamore fully with native produce, whether raised under glass or tions, as a rule, suffer from the neglect or errors of the past, in the open. Tomatoes were not separately enumerated in the however skilful their present holders may be. Although the imports previous to 1900. It has already been stated that in majority of professional market fruit-growers may be well up 1900 the raw tomatoes imported amounted to 833,032 cwt., to the standard in skill, there are numerous contributors to valued at £792,339, and in 1901 to 793,991 cwt., valued at the fruit supply who are either ignorant of the best methods £734,051. From the monthly quantities given in Table VII., of cultivation and marketing or careless in their application. be

The bad condition of the great majority of farm orchards is TABLE VII.-Quantities of Tomatoes imporled into the United Kingdom.

notorious, and many landowners, farmers and amateur gardeners hud

who have planted fruit on a more or less extensive scale have 1104 Month.

1907

1908. mismanaged their undertakings. For these reasons new growers

of open-air fruit for market have opportunities of succeeding by January

61,940 56,022 73.409 February

means of superiority to the majority of those with whom they 58,187 58,289 69,350 March 106,458 98,028 86,928

will compete, provided that they possess the requisite knowledge, April 103,273 109,057 74.917

energyland capital. It has been asserted on sound authority Mayani

67,933 114,041 88,901 that there is no chance of success for fruit-growers except in June

62,906 144.379 127.793 districts favourable as regards soil, climate and nearness to a July

238,362 150,907 171,978 August. 180,046

railway or a good market; and, even under these conditions,

102,600 124,757 September 114,860 101,198 119,224

only for men who have had experience in the industry and are October

52,678 67,860 75.722 prepared to devote their unremitting attention to it. Most November

41,513 66,522 74,292 important is it to a beginner that he should ascertain the varieties December 36,316 66,591 73,012

of fruit that flourish best in his particular district. Certain kinds 1,124.472 1,135,494 1,160,283

seem to do well or fairly well in all parts of the country; others, | OROIATン

whilst heavy croppers in some localities, are often unsatisfactory XT Value

1953,475 (1,135,499 £1,160,283 in others. Ti spiseptining JO1911,

As has been intimated, there is probably in England less room it would appear that the imports are largest in June, July and for expansion of fruit culture under glass than in the open. August, about one-hall of the year's total arriving during those The large increase of glass-houses in modern times appears to three months. It is too early in June and July for home-grown have brought the supply of hothouse produce, even at greatly. outdoor tomatoes to enter into competition with the imported reduced prices, at least up to the level of the demand; and as product, but home-grown hothouse tomatoes should be qualified most nurserymen continue to extend their expanse of glass, to challenge this trade.

the prospect for new competitors is not a bright one. Moreover, An important feature of modern flower growing is the pro- the vast scale upon which some of the growers conduct the duction and cultivation of what are known as“ hardy herbaceous hothouse industry puts small producers at a great disadvantage, perennials.” Some 2000 or 3000 different species and varieties not only because the extensive producers can grow grapes and of these are now raised in special nurseries, and during the other fruit more economically than small growers--with the spring, summer and autumn seasons magnificent displays are possible exception of those who do all or nearly all their own to be seen not only in the markets but at the exhibitions in work-but also, and still more, because the former have greater London and at the great provincial shows held throughout the advantages in transporting and marketing their fruit. There has, kingdom. The production of many of these perennials is so in recent years, been a much greater fall in the prices of hothouse easy that amateurs in several instances have taken it up as a than of open-air fruit, especially under the existing system of business hobby; and in some cases, chiefly through advertising distribution, which involves the payment by consumers of 59 in the horticultural press, very lucrative concerns have been to 100% more in prices than growers receive. The best openings established.

for new nurseries are probably not where they are now to be Ornamental flowering trees and shrubs constitute another found in large groups, and especially not in the neighbourhood

1906.

Aar07 Total

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