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of London, but in suitable spots near the great centres of popula-1 for the producer to anticipate the changes which caprice may dictate. tion in the Midlands and the North, or big towns elsewhere not
Even for the same kind of flower the requirements are very uncertain,
and the white blossom which is all the rage in one season may be already well supplied with nurseries. By such a selection of a
discarded in favour of one of another colour in the next. The sale locality the beginner may build up a retail trade in hothouse of fresh flowers for church decoration at Christmas and Easter has fruit, or at least a trade with local fruiterers and grocers, thus reached enormous dimensions. The irregularity in the date of the avoiding railway charges and salesmen's commissions to a great festival, however, causes some inconvenience to growers. If it falls extent, though it may often be advantageous to send certain forward for sale, whilst a late Easter may find the season too far kinds of produce to a distant market. Above all, a man who has advanced. The trade in cut Aowers, therefore, is generally attended no knowledge of the hothouse industry should avoid embarking by uncertainty, and often by anxiety. (W. FR.; J. Ws.) his capital in it, trusting himself in the hands of a foreman, as
UNITED STATES experience shows that such a venture usually leads to disaster. Some years of training in different nurseries are desirable for In the United States horticulture and market gardening have any young man who is desirous of becoming a grower of hothouse now assumed immense proportions. In a country of over fruits or flowers.
3,000,000 sq. m., stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific There can be no doubt that fower-growing is greatly extending on the one hand, and from the Gulf of Mexico to the great in England, and that competition among home growers is be- northern lakes and the Dominion of Canada on the other, a coming more severe. Foreign supplies of flowers have increased, great variation of climatic conditions is not unnatural. From a but not nearly as greatly in proportion as home supplies, and it horticultural point of view there are practically two well-defined seems clear that home growers have gained ground in relation regions: (1) that to the cast of the Rocky Mountains across to their foreign rivals, except with respect to flowers for the to the Atlantic, where the climate is more like that of eastern growth of whichforeigners haveextraordinarynaturaladvantages. Asia than of western Europe so far as rainfall, temperature and There seems some danger of the home culture of the narcissus seasonable conditions are concerned; (2) that to the west of the being over-done, and the florists' chrysanthemum appears to Rockies, known as the Pacific coast region, where the climate be produced in excess of the demand. Again, in the production is somewhat similar to that of western Europe. It may be added of violets the warm and sunny South of France has an advantage that in the northern states-in Washington, Montana, North not possessed by England, whilst Holland, likewise for climatic Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, &c.-- the winters are often very reasons, maintains her hold upon the hyacinth and tulip trade. severe, while the southern states practically enjoy a temperature Whether the production of flowers as a whole is gaining ground somewhat similar to that of the Riviera. Indeed the range of upon the demand or not is a difficult question to answer. It is temperature between the extreme northern states and the true that the prices of flowers have fallen generally; but produc- extreme southern may vary as much as 120° F. The great aim tion, at any rate under glass, has been cheapened, and if a fair of American gardeners, therefore, has been to find out or to profit can be obtained, the fall in prices, without which the produce the kinds of fruits, flowers and vegetables that are existing consumption of flowers would be impossible, does not likely to flourish in different parts of this immense country, necessarily imply over-production. There is some difference of Fruit Culture.---There is probably no country in the world opinion among growers upon this point; but nearly all agree where so many different kinds of fruit can be grown with adthat profits are now so small that production on a large scale is vantage to the nation as in the United States. In the temperate necessary to provide a fair income. Industrial flower-growing regions apples, pears and plums are la gely grown, and orchards affords such a wide scope for the exercise of superior skill, of these are chiefly to be found in the states of New York, industry and alertness, that it is not surprising to find some Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Missouri, Colorado, who are engaged in it doing remarkably well to all appearance, and also in northern Texas, Arkansas and N. California. To while others are struggling on and hardly paying their way. these may be added cranberries and quinces, which are chiefly That a man with only a little capital, starting in a small way, grown in the New England states. The quinces are not a crop has many disadvantages is certain; also, that his chance of of first-rate importance, but as much as 800,000 bushels of saving money and extending his business quickly is much cranberries are grown each year. The peach orchards are smaller than it was. To the casual looker-on, who knows assuming great proportions, and are chiefly to be found in nothing of the drudgery of the industry, flower-growing seems a Georgia and Texas, while grapes are grown throughout the delightful method of getting a living. That it is an entrancing Republic from east to west in all favourable localities. Oranges, pursuit there is no doubt; but it is equally true that it is a very lemons and citrons are more or less extensively grown in Florida arduous one, requiring careful forethought, ceaseless attention and California, and in these regions what are known as Japanese and abundant energy. Fortunately for those who might be or "Kelsey” plums (forms of Prunus triflora) are also grown tempted, without any knowledge of the industry, to embark as marketable crops. Pomegranates are not yet largely grown, capital in it, flower-growing, if at all comprehensive in scope, so but it is possible their culture will develop in southern Texas obviously requires a varied and extensive technical knowledge, and Louisiana, where the climate is tempered by the waters of combined with good commercial ability, that any one can see the Gulf of Mexico. Tomatoes are grown in most parts of the that a thorough training is necessary to a man who intends to country so casily that there is frequently a glut; while the adopt it as a business, especially if hot house flowers are to be strawberry region extends from Florida to Virginia, Pennsylvania produced.
and other states-thus securing a natural succession from south The market for fruit, and more especially for flowers, is a fickle to north for the various great market centres. one, and there is nearly always some uncertainty as to the course
of the fruits mentioned apples are undoubtedly the most of prices. The perishable nature of soft (ruit and cut flowers renders important. Not only are the American people themselves the markets very sensitive to anything in the nature of a glut, the supplied with fresh fruit, but immense quantities are exported occurrence of which is usually attended with disastrous results to producers. Foreign competition, moreover, has constantly
to Europe-Great Britain alone absorbing as much as 1,430,000 faced, and it is likely to increase rather than diminish. French cwt. in 1908. The varieties originally grown were of course growers have a great advantage over the open-air cultivators of those taken or introduced from Europe by the early settlers. England, for the climate enables them to get iheir produce into the Since the middle of the 19th century great changes have been narkets early in the season, when the highest prices are obtainable: brought about, and the varieties mostly cultivated now are to england is, however, considerably discounted by the increasing distinctly American. They have been raised by crossing and facilities for cold storage in transit, both by rail and sea. The develop- intercrossing the most suitable European forms with others ment of such facilities permits of the retail sale in England of luscious since imported from Russia. In the extreme northern states fruit as fresh and attractive as when it was gathered beneath the indeed, where it is essential to have apple trees that will stand sunny skies of California. In the case of flowers, fashion is an element not to be ignored. Flowers much in request in one season the severest winters, the Russian varieties crossed with the may meet with very little demand in another, and it is difficult l betry crab of eastern Europe (Pyrus baccata) have produced
a race eminently suited to that particular region. The individuals to peach culture. As a rule the crops do well. Sometimes, fruits are not very large, but the trees are remarkably hardy, however, a disease known as the "yellows” makes sad havoc Farther south larger fruited varieties are grown, and among amongst them, and scarcely a fruit is picked in an orchard which these may be noted Baldwins, Newton pippins, Spitzenbergs early in the season gave promise of a magnificent crop. and Rhode Island greening. Apple orchards are numerous Plums are an important crop in many states. Besides the in the State of New York, where it is estimated that over 100,000 European varieties and those that have been raised by crossing acres are devoted to them. In the hilly regions of Missouri, with American forms, there is now a growing trade done in Arkansas and Colorado there are also great plantations of apples. Japanese plums. The largest of these is popularly known as The trees, however, are grown on different principles from those Kelseys," named after John Kelsey, who raised the first fruit in New York State. In the latter state appletrees with ordinary in 1876 from trees brought to California in 1870. Sometimes the care live to more than 100 years of age and produce great crops; fruits are 3 in. in diameter, and like most of the Japanese in the other states, however, an apple tree is said to be middle- varieties are more heart-shaped and pointed than plums of aged at 20, decrepit at 30 and practically useless at 40 years of European origin. One apparent drawback to the Kelsey plum age. They possess the advantage, however, of bearing early and is its irregularity in ripening. It has been known in some years heavily.
to be quite ripe in June, while in others the fruits are still green Until the introduction of the cold-storage system, about the in October. year 1880, America could hardly be regarded as a commercial Pears are much grown in such states as Massachusetts, New fruit-growing country. Since then, however, owing to the York, Pennsylvania, Missouri and California; while bush fruits great improvements made in railway refrigerating vans and like currants, gooseberries and raspberries find large spaces storage houses, immense quantities of fruit can be despatched devoted in most of the middle and northern states. Naturally a in good condition to any part of the world; or they can be kept good deal of crossing and intercrossing has taken place amongst at home in safety until such time as the markets of Chicago, the European and American forms of these fruits, but so far as New York, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, &c., are con- gooseberries are concerned no great advance seems to have been sidered favourable for their reception.
made in securing varieties capable of resisting the devastating Apple trees are planted at distances varying from 25 ft. to gooseberry mildew. 30 ft. apart in the middle western states, to 40 ft. to 50 ft. apart Other fruits of more or less commercial value are oranges, in New York State. Here and there, however, in some of the lemons and citrons, chiefly in Florida. Lemons are practically a very best orchards the trees are planted 60 ft. apart every way. necessity to the American people, owing to the heat of the Each tree thus has a chance to develop to its utmost limits, and summers, when cool and refreshing drinks with an agreeable as air and light reach it better, a far larger fruit-bearing surface acidulous taste are in great demand. The pomelo (grape-fruit) is secured. Actual experience has shown that trees planted at is a kind of lemon with a thicker rind and a more acid flavour. 60 ft. apart-about 28 to the acre-produce more fruit by 43 At one time its culture was confined to Florida, but of recent bushels than trees at 30 ft. apart-i.e. about 48 to the acre. years it has found its way into Californian orchards. Notwith
Until recent years pruning as known to English and French standing the prevailing mildness of the climate in both California gardeners was practically unknown. There was indeed no great and Florida, the crops of oranges, lemons, citrons, &c., are necessity for it, as the trees, not being cramped for space, threw sometimes severely injured by frosts when in blossom. their branches outwards and upwards, and thus rarely become Other fruits likely to be heard of in the future are the kaki overcrowded. When practised, however, the operation could or persimmon, the loquat, which is already grown in Louisiana, scarcely be called pruning; lopping or trimming would be more as well as the pomegranate. accurate descriptions.
Great aid and encouragement are given by the government to Apple orchards are not immune from insect pests and fungoid the progress of American fruit-growing, and by the experiments diseases, and an enormous business is now done in spraying that are being constantly carried out and tabulated at Cornell machines and various insecticides. It pays to spray the trees, University and by the U.S.A. department of agriculture. and figures have been given to show that orchards that have Flower Culture.-So far as flowers are concerned there appears been sprayed four times have produced an average income of to be little difference between the kinds of plants grown in the £211 per acre against £103 per acre from unsprayed orchards. United States and in England, France, Belgium, Germany,
The spring frosts are also troublesome, and in the Colorado Holland, &c. Indeed there is a great interchange of new varieties and other orchards the process known as "smudging ” is now of plants between Europe and America, and modifications in adopted to save the crops. This consists in placing 20 or 30, systems of culture are being gradually introduced from one side or even more, iron or tin pots to an acre, each pot containing of the Atlantic to the other. The building of greenhouses for wooden chips soaked in tar (or pitch) mixed with kerosene. commercial purposes is perhaps on a somewhat different scale Whenever the thermometer shows 3 or 4 degrees of frost the from that in England, but there are probably no extensive smudge-pots are lighted. A dense white smoke then arises and areas of glass such as are to be seen north of London from is diffused throughout the orchards, enveloping the blossoming Enfield Highway to Broxburne. Hot water apparatus differs heads of the trees in a dense cloud. This prevents the frost merely in detail, although most of the boilers used resemble from killing the tender pistils in the blossoms, and when several those on the continent of Europe rather than in England. Great smudge-pots are alight at the same time
the temperature of the business is done in bulbs-mostly imported from Holland-stove orchard is raised two or three degrees. This work has generally and greenhouse plants, hardy perennials, orchids, ferns of the to be done between 3 and 5 A.d., and the growers naturally “fancy” and “ dagger” types of Nephrolepis, and in carnations have an anxious time until all danger is over. The failure to and roses. Amongst the latter thousands of such varieties as attend to smudging, even on one occasion, may result in the Beauty, Liberty, Killarney, Richmond and Bride are grown, loss of the entire crop of plums, apples or pears.
and realize good prices as a rule in the markets. Carnations Next to apples perhaps peaches are the most important fruit of the winter-flowering or perpetual ” type have long been crop. The industry is chiefly carried on in Georgia, Texas grown in America, and enormous prices have been given for and S. Carolina, and on a smaller scale in some of the adjoining individual plants on certain occasions, rivalling the fancy prices states. Peaches thus flourish in regions that are quite un paid in England for certain orchids. The American system of suitable for apples or pears. In many orchards in Georgia, carnation-growing has quite captivated English cultivators, where over 3,000,000 acres have been planted, there are as and new varieties are being constantly raised in both countries. many as 100,000 peach trees; while some of the large fruit Chrysanthemums are another great feature of American florists, companies grow as many as 365,000. In one place in West and sometimes during the winter season a speculative grower Virginia there is, however, a peach orchard containing 175,000 will send a living specimen to one of the London exhibitions in trees, and in Missouri another company has 3 sq. m. devoted the hope of booking large orders for cuttings ofit later on. Sweet
peas, dahlias, lilies of the valley, arum lilies and indeed every FRUSTUM (Latin for a "piece broken off "), a term in geoflower that is popular in England' is equally popular in America, metry for the part of a solid figure, such as a cone or pyramid, and consequently is largely grown.
cut off by a plane parallel to the base, or lying between two Vegetables. --So far as these are concerned, potatoes, cabbages, parallel planes; and hence in architecture a name given to the cauliflowers, beans of all kinds, cucumbers, tomatoes (already drum of a column. referred to under fruits), musk-melons, lettuces, radishes, endives, carrots, &c.; are naturally grown in great quantities, not only in the
FRUYTIERS, PHILIP (1627-1666), Flemish painter and open air, but also under glass. The French system of intensive engraver, was a pupil of the Jesuits' college at Antwerp in 1627, cultivation as practised on hot beds of manure round Paris is practic and entered the Antwerp gild of painters without a fee in 1631, cally unknown at present. In the southern states there would be He is described in the register of that institution as “illuminator, no necessity to practise it, but in the northern ones it is likely to painter and engraver." The current account of his life is that attract attention.
he worked exclusively in water colours, yet was so remarkable PRUMENTIUS (C. 300-6. 360), the founder of the Abyssinian in this branch of his art for arrangement, drawing, and especially church, traditionally identified in Abyssinian literature with
for force and clearness of colour, as to excite the admiration of Abba Salama or Father of Peace (but see ETHIOPIA), was a
Rubens, whom he portrayed with all his family." The truth native of Phoenicia. According to the 4th-century bistorian is that he was an artist of the most versatile talents, as may be Rufinus (x. 9), who gives Aedesius himself as his authority, a judged from the fact that in 1646 he executed an Assumption certain Tyrian, Meropius, accompanied by his kinsmen Fru; with figures of life size, and four smaller pictures in oil, for the mentius and Aedesius, set out on an expedition to “ India,” church of St Jacques 'at Antwerp, for which he received the but fell into the hands of Ethiopians on the shore of the Red Sea considerable sum of 1150 florins. Unhappily no undoubted and, with his ship's crew, was put to death. The two young men production of his hand has been preserved. All that we can were taken to the king at Axum, where they were well treated point to with certainty is a series of etched plates, chiefly por. and in time obtained great influence. With the help of Christian traits, which are acknowledged to have been powerfully and merchants who visited the country Frumentius gave Christianity skilfully handled. If, however, we search the portfolios of art a firm footing, which was strengthened when in 326 he was
collections on the European continent, we sometimes stumble consecrated bishop by Athanasius of Alexandria, who in his
upon miniatures on ellum, drawn with great talent and Epistola ad Constantinum mentions the consecration, and gives Coloured with extraordinary brilliancy. In form they quite some details of the history of Frumentius's mission. Later recall the works of Rubens, and these, it may be, are the work witnesses speak of his fidelity to the homoousian during the
of Philip Fruytiers. Arian controversies. Aedesius returned to Tyre, where he was
FRY, the name of a well-known English Quaker family, ordained presbyter. PRUNDSBERG, GEORG VON (1473-1528), German soldier, century JOSEPH FRY (1728-1787), a doctor, settled in Bristol,
originally living in Wiltshire. About the middle of the 18th was born at Mindelheim on the 24th of September 1473. He where he acquired a large practice, but eventually abandoned fought for the German king Maximilian I. against the Swiss medicine for commerce. He became interested in china-making, in 1499, and in the same year was among the imperial troops soap-boiling and type-founding businesses in Bristol, and in a sent to assist Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, against the French. chemical works at Battersea, all of which ventures proved very Still serving Maximilian, he took part in 1504 in the war over profitable. The type-founding business was subsequently rethe succession to the duchy of Bavaria-Landshut, and after-moved to London and conducted by his son Edmund. Joseph wards fought in the Netherlands. Convinced of the necessity Fry, however
, is best remembered as the founder of the great of a native body of trained infantry Frundsberg assisted Maxi- Bristol form of J. S. Fry & Sons, chocolate manufacturers." milian to organize the Landsknechte (9.0.), and subsequently at
He purchased the chocolate-making patent of William Churchthe head of bands of these formidable troops he was of great man and on it laid the foundations of the present large business. service to the Empire and the Habsburgs. In 1509 he shared in After his death the Bristol chocolate factory was carried on with the war against Venice, winning fame for himself and his men; increasing success by his widow and by his son, Joseph STORRS and after a short visit to Germany returned to Italy, where
FRY (1767-1835). in 1513 and 1514 he gained fresh laurels by his enterprises
In 1795 a new and larger factory was built in Union Street, against the Venetians and the French. Peace being made, he Bristol, which still forms the centre of the firm's premises, and returned to Germany, and at the head of the infantry of the in 1798 a Watt's
steam-engine was purchased and the cocoaSwabian league assisted to drive Ulrich of Württemberg from his duchy in 1519. At the diet of Worms in 1521 he spoke words beans ground by steam. On the death of Joseph Storrs Fry his
three sons, Joseph (1795-1879), Francis, and Richard (1807-1878) of encouragement to Luther, and when the struggle between became partners in the firm, the control being mainly in the France and the Empire was renewed he took part in the invasion hands of FRANCIS FRY (1803-1886).. Francis Fry was in every of Picardy, and then proceeding to Italy brought the greater way a remarkable character. The development of the business part of Lombardy under the influence of Charles V. through his to its modern enormous proportion was chiefly his work, but victory at Bicocca in April 1522. He was partly responsible for this did not exhaust his activities. He took a principal part in the great victory over the French at Pavia in February 1525, and, the introduction of railways to the west of England, and in 1852 returning to Germany, he assisted to suppress the Peasant revolt, drew up a scheme for a general English railway parcel service. using on this occasion, however, diplomacy as well as force. He was an ardent bibliographer, taking a special interest in When the war in Italy was renewed Frundsberg raised an army early English Bibles, of which he made in the course of a long at his own expense, and skilfully surmounting many difficulties, life a large and striking collection, and of the most celebrated joined the constable de Bourbon near Piacenza and marched of which he published facsimiles with bibliographical notes. towards Rome. Before he reached the city, however, his unpaid Francis Fry died in 1886, and his son Francis J. Fry and nephew troops showed signs of mutiny, and their leader, stricken with Joseph Storrs Fry carried on the business, which in 1896 was illness and unable to pacify them, gave up his command. for family reasons converted into a private limited company, Returning to Germany, he died at Mindelheim on the 20th of August 1528. He was a capable and chivalrous soldier, and a Joseph
Storrs Fry being chairman and all the directors members
of the Fry family. devoted servant of the Habsburgs. His son Caspar (1500-1536)
FRY, SIR EDWARD (1827 ), English judge, second son and his grandson Georg (d. 1586) were both soldiers of some
of Joseph Fry (1795-1879), was born at Bristol on the 4th of distinction. With the latter's death the family became extinct. November 1827, and educated at University College, London,
See Adam Reissner, Historia Herrn Georgs und Herrn Kaspars and London University. He was called to the bar in 1854 and
to the bench and knighted. As chancery judge he will be
remembered for his careful interpretations and elucidations of which she died on the 12th of October 1845. She was survived the Judicature Acts, then first coming into operation. In 1883 | by a numerous family, the youngest of whom was born in 1822. he was made a lord justice of appeal, but resigned in 1892; and Two interesting volumes of Memoirs, wilh Extracts from her subsequently his knowledge of equity and talents for arbitration Journals and Letters, edited by two of her daughters, were published were utilized by the British government from time to time in in 1847. See also Elizabeth fry, by G. King Lewis (1910). various special directions, particularly as chairman of many PRYXELL, ANDERS (1795-1881), Swedish historian, was commissions. He was also one of the British representatives born at Hesselskog, Dalsland, Sweden, on the 7th of February at the Paris North Sea Inquiry Commission (1905), and was 1795. He was educated at Upsala, took holy orders in 1820, appointed a member of the Hague Permanent Arbitration Court was made a doctor of philosophy in 1821, and in 1823 began to He wrote A Treatise on the Specific Performance of Public Contracts publish the great work of his life, the Stories from Swedish (London, 1858, and many subsequent editions).
History. He did not bring this labour to a close until, fifty-six FRY, ELIZABETH (1780-1845), English philanthropist, and, years later, he published the forty-sixth and crowning volume after Howard, the chief promoter of prison reform in Europe, of his vast enterprise. Fryxell
, as a historian, appealed to every was born in Norwich on the 21st of May 1780. Her father, class by the picturesqueness of his style and the breadth of his John Gurney, afterwards of Earlham Hall, a wealthy merchant research; he had the gift of awakening to an extraordinary and banker, represented an old family which for some generations degree the national sense in his readers. In 1824 he published had belonged to the Society of Friends. While still a girl she his Swedish Grammar, which was long without a rival. In 1833 gave many indications of the benevolence of disposition,clearness he received the title of professor, and in 1835 he was appointed and independence of judgment, and strength of purpose, for which to the incumbency of Sunne, in the diocese of Karlstad, where she was afterwards so distinguished; but it was not until after he resided for the remainder of his life. In 1840 he was elected she had entered her eighteenth year that her religion assumed to the Swedish Academy in succession to the poet Wallin (1779a decided character, and that she was induced, under the preach-1839). In 1847 Fryxell received from his bishop permission to ing of the American Quaker, William Savery, to become an earnest withdraw from all the services of the Church, that he might devole and enthusiastic though never fanatical “ Friend." In August himself without interruption to historical investigation. Among 1800 she became the wife of Joseph Fry, a London merchant. his numerous minor writings are prominent his Characteristics
Amid increasing family cares she was unwearied in her attention of Sweden between 1592 and 1600 (1830), his Origins of the Into the poor and the neglected of ber neighbourhood; and in accuracy with which the Hislory of Sweden in Catholic Times kas 1811 she was acknowledged by her co-religionists as a “minister," been Trealed (1847), and his Contributions to the Literary History an honour and responsibility for which she was undoubtedly of Sweden. It is now beginning to be seen that the abundant qualified, not only by vigour of intelligence and warmth of heart, labours of Fryxell were rather of a popular than of a scientific but also by an altogether unusual faculty of clear, fluent and order, and although their influence during his lifetime was persuasive speech. Although she had made several visits to unbounded, it is only fair to later and exacter bistorians lo Newgate prison as early as February 1813, it was not until admit that they threaten to become obsolete in more than one nearly four years afterwards that the great public work of her direction. On the 21st of March 1881 Anders Fryxell died at life may be said to have begun. The association for the Improve- Stockholm, and in 1884 his daughter Eva Fryxell (born 1829) ment of the Female Prisoners in Newgate was formed in April published from his MS. an interesting History of My History, 1817. Its aim was the much-needed establishment of some of which was really a literary autobiography and displays the what are now regarded as the first principles of prison discipline, persistency and tirelessness of his industry.
(E. G.) such as entire separation of the sexes, classification of criminals, FUAD PASHA (1815-1869), Turkish statesman, was the son female supervision for the women, and adequate provision for of the distinguished poet Kechéji-zadé Izzet Molla. He was their religious and secular instruction, as also for their useful educated at the medical school and was at first an army surgeon. employment. The ameliorations effected by this association, About 1836 he entered the civil service as an official of the and largely by the personal exertions of Mrs Fry, soon became foreign ministry. He became secretary of the embassy in obvious, and led to a rapid extension of similar methods to other London; was employed on special missions in the principalities places. In 1818 she, along with her brother, visited the prisons and at St Petersburg (1848), and was sent to Egypt as special of Scotland and the north of England; and the publication commissioner in 1851. In that year he became minister for (1819) of the notes of this tour, as also the cordial recognition foreign affairs, a post to which he was appointed also on four of the value of her work by the House of Commons committee subsequent occasions and which he held at the time of his death. on the prisons of the metropolis, led to a great increase of her During the Crimean War he commanded the troops on the correspondence, which now extended to Italy, Denmark and Greek frontier and distinguished himself by his bravery. He Russia, as well as to all parts of the United Kingdom. Through was Turkish delegate at the Paris conference of 1856; was a visit to Ireland, which she made in 1827, she was led to direct charged with a mission to Syria in 1860; grand vizier in 1860 het attention to other houses of detention besides prisons; and and 1861, and also minister of war. He accompanied the her observations resulted in many important improvements sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his journey to Egypt and Europe, when in the British hospital system, and in the treatment of the insane. the freedom of the city of London was conferred on him. He In 1838 she visited France, and besides conferring with many died at Nice (whither he had been ordered for his health) in of the leading prison officials, she personally visited most of the 1869. Fuad was renowned for his boldness and promptness houses of detention in Paris, as well as in Rouen, Caen and some of decision, as well as for his ready wit and his many bons mots. other places. In the following year she obtained an official Generally regarded as the partisan of a pro-English policy; permission to visit all the prisons in that country; and her tour, he rendered most valuable service to his country by his which extended from Boulogne and Abbeville to Toulouse and able management of the foreign relations of Turkey, and not Marseilles, resulted in a report which was presented to the least by his efficacious settlement of affairs in Syria after the minister of the interior and the prefect of police. Before returning massacres of 1860. to England she had included Geneva, Zürich, Stuttgart and FUCHOW, FU-CHAU, FOOchow, a city of China, capital of Frankfort-on-Main in her inspection. The summer of 1840 the province of Fu-kien, and one of the principal ports open to found her travelling through Belgium, Holland and Prussia foreign commerce. In the local dialect it is called Hokchiu. on the same mission; and in 1841 she also visited Copenhagen. It is situated on the river Min, about 35 m. from the sea, in In 1842, through failing health, Mrs Fry was compelled to forgo 26° 5' N. and 119 ° 20' E., 140 m. N. of Amoy and 280 S. of her plans for a still more widely extended activity, but had the Hang-chow. The city proper, lying nearly 3 m. from the north satisfaction of hearing from almost every quarter of Europe bank of the river, is surrounded by a wall about 30 ft. high and that the authorities were giving increased practical effect to her 12 ft. thick, which makes a circuit of upwards of 5 m.and is pierced suggestions. In 1844 she was seized with a lingering illness, of by seven gateways surrounded by tall fantastic watch-towers.
The whole district between the city and the river, the island of another species of the genus Digitalis, which was so named by Nantai, and the southern banks of the Min are occupied by him. extensive suburbs; and the river itself bears a large floating FUCHSIA, so named by Plumier in honour of the botanist population. Communication from bank to bank is afforded Leonhard Fuchs, a genus of plants of the natural order Onagraceae, by a long stone bridge supported by forty solid stone piers in its characterized by entire, usually opposite leaves, pendent flowers, northern section and by nine in its southern. The most remark- a funnel-shaped, brightly coloured, quadripartite, deciduous able establishment of Fuchow is the arsenal situated about calyx, 4 petals, alternating with the calycine segments, 8, rarely 3 m. down the stream at Pagoda Island, where the sea-going 10, exserted stamens, a long filiform style, an inferior ovary, vessels usually anchor. It was founded in 1867, and is conducted and fruit, a fleshy ovoid many-seeded berry. All the members under the direction of French engineers according to European of the genus, with the exception of the New Zealand species, methods. In 1870 it employed about 1000 workmen besides F. excorticata, F. Colensoi and F. procumbens, are natives of fifty European superintendents, and between that date and Central and South America-occurring in the interior of forests 1880 it turned out about 20 or 30 small gunboats. In 1884 it or in damp and shady mountainous situations. The various was partially destroyed by the French fleet, and for a number of species differ not a little in size as well as in other characters; years the workshops and machinery were allowed to stand idle some, as F. verrucosa, being dwarf shrubs; others, as F. arboand go to decay. On the ist of August 1895 an attack was rescens and P. apelala, attaining a height of 12 to 16 st., and having made on the English mission near the city of Ku-chang, 120 m. stems several inches in diameter. Plumier, in his Nova planwest of Fuchow, on which occasion nine missionaries, of whom larum Americanarum genera (p. 14, tab. 14, Paris, 1703), gave eight were ladies, were massacred. The port was opened to a description of a species of fuchsia, the first known, under the European commerce in 1842; and in 1853 the firm of Russell name of Fuchsia Iri phylla, flore coccineo, and a somewhat conand Co. shipped the first cargoes of tea from Fuchow to Europe ventional outline figure and America. The total trade in foreign vessels in 1876 was of the same plant was
0 imports to the value of £1,531,617, and exports to the value published at Amsterof £3,330,489. In 1904 the imports amounted to £1,440,351, dam in 1757 by Burand the exports to £1,034,436. The number of vessels that
In the Histoire entered in 1876 was 275, and of these 211 were British,. 27 des plantes médicinales German, 11 Danish and 9 American. While in 1904 480 of the South American vessels entered the port, 216 of which were British. A large traveller Feuillée (p. 64, trade is carried on by the native merchants in timber, paper, pl. xLvII.), written in woollen and cotton goods, oranges and olives; but the foreign 1709-1711, and pubhouses mainly confine themselves to opium and tea. Commercial lished by him with his intercourse with Australia and New Zealand is on the increase. Journal, Paris, 1725, The principal imports, besides opium, are shirtings, T-cloths, the
Thilco is lead and tin, medicines, rice, tobacco, and beans and peas. applied to a species of Two steamboat lines afford regular communication with Hong- fuchsia from Chile, Kong twice a month. The town is the seat of several important which is described, missions, of which the first was founded in 1846. That supported though not evidently by the American board had in 1876 issued 1,3000,000 copies of so figured, as having Chinese books and tracts.
a pentamerous calyx. FUCHS, JOHANN NEPOMUK VON (1774-1856), German | The F.coccinea of Aiton chemist and mineralogist, was born at Mattenzell, near Brennberg (fig.) (see J. D Hooker, in the Bavarian Forest, on the 15th of May 1774. In 1807 he in Journal Linnean Soc., became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the university Botany, vol. x. p. 458, of Landshut, and in 1823 conservator of the mineralogical 1867), the first species collections at Munich, where he was appointed professor of of fuchsia cultivated in
apod mineralogy three years later, on the removal thither of the England, where it was university of Landshut. He retired in 1852, was ennobled by long confined to the
Fuchsia coccinea. the king of Bavaria in 1854, and died at Munich on the 5th of greenhouse, was brought
I, Flower cut open after removal of March 1856. His name is chiefly known for his mineralogical from South America by sepals; 2, fruit; 3; forál diagram. observations and for his work on soluble glass.
Captain Firth in 1788 and placed in Kew Gardens. Of this His collected works, including Über den Einfluss der Chemie und species Mr Lee, a nurseryman at Hammersmith, soon afterMineralogie (1824), Die Naturgeschichte des Mineralreichs (1842), wards obtained an example, and procured from it by means Über die Theorien der Erde (1844), were published at Munich in 1856. of cuttings several hundred plants, which he sold at a guipea
FUCHS, LEONHARD (1501-1566), German physician and each. In 1823 F. macrostemma and F. gracilis, and during botanist, was born at Wembdingen in Bavaria on the 17th the next two or three years several other species, were introof January 1501. He attended school at Heilbronn and Erfurt, duced into England; but it was not until about 1837, or and in 1521 graduated at the university of Ingolstadt. About soon after florists had acquired f. fulgens, that varieties of the same time he espoused the doctrines of the Reformation. interest began to make their appearance. The numerous Having in 1524 received his diploma as doctor of medicine, he hybrid forms now existing are the result chiefly of the practised for two years in Munich. He became in 1526 professor intercrossing of that or other long-flowered with globoseof medicine at Ingolstadt, and in 1528 physician to the margrave flowered plants. F. Venus-victrix, raised by Mr Gulliver, of Anspach. In Anspach he was the means of saving the lives gardener to the Rev. S. Marriott of Horsemonden, Kent, and sold of many during the epidemic locally known as the “ English in 1822 to Messrs Cripps, was the earliest white-sepalled fuchsia. sweating-sickness.” By the duke of Württemberg he was, in The first fuchsia with a white corolla was produced about 1853 1535, appointed to the professorship of medicine at the university by Mr Storey. In some varieties the blossoms are variegated, of Tübingen, a post held by him till his death on the 10th of May and in others they are double. There appears to be very little 1566. Fuchs was an advocate of the Galenic school of medicine, limit to the number of forms to be obtained by careful cultivation and published several Latin translations of treatises by its and selection. To hybridize, the flower as soon as it opens is founder and by Hippocrates. But his most important publica- emasculated, and it is then fertilized with pollen from some tion was De historia stirpium commentarii insignes (Basel, 1542), different flower. a work illustrated with more than five hundred excellent outline Ripe seed is sown either in autumn or about February or March illustrations, including figures of the common foxglove and of l in light, rich, well-drained mould, and is thinly covered with