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labour to manage them, is all that is necessary for the transit riveted and tested, so as to form a storage tank. From this tank and combustion of petroleum fuel; and it is certain that even in England will be found places which, from topographical type already indicated, and this burner is so arranged
Liquid and other circumstances, will use petroleum more economically as to enter a short distance inside the furnace than coal as fuel for manufacturing purposes under reasonable mouth. The ordinary fire-bars are covered with a thin conditions of price for the fuel.
layer of coal, which starts the ignition in the first
motives. The theoretical calorific value of oil fuel is more nearly realized place, and the whole apparatus is ready for work. The burner in practice than the theoretical calorific value of coal, because best adapted for locomotive practice is the Holden Burner the facilities for complete combustion, due to the artificial (fig. 1), which was used on the Great Eastern railway. The admixture of the air by the atomizing process, are greater in steam-pipe is connected at A, the oil-pipe at B, and the handmod moll b109eco goed wed on
wheels C and D are for the adjustment of the Uud to intotin ebbn
internal orifices according to the rate of comen lotado ng con
bustion required. The nozzle E is directed RODALOolto basinsvleque os aliczog ud
towards the furnace, and the external ring nemouts diwana 10g botaslim 2015 oth in FF, supplied by the small pipe G and the .angel of good 8.00 ionin end si basa soledar do aloby-pass valve H, projects a series of steam ditud sotsi
Total TIT brassenbjets into the furnace, independent of the Et to ang 30 dagi van arribant and injections of atomized fuel
, and so induces an Туда Бло роіntlArtion
artificial inrush of air for the promotion of hoginis N° I Size BURNER E about
combustion. This type of burner has also 6 stoga 21 to
been tried on stationary boilers and on board ship. It works well, although the great con
sumption of steam by the supplementary ring По поје
is a difficulty at sea, where the water lost by
the consumption of steam cannot easily be zbog bus TODDZER 2010
otse has a bus for land and locomotive boilers has already
Although the application of the new fuel bollamos gue date of a
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been large, the practice at sea has
Liquid fuel a visokogli la oroz to nos ad dels jierd wo1930) ose old most ban blurpii lo unicazib das - ne basis chiefly to be found in the fact that - Jar ons outros Tigal love se SEOT
although the sources of supply are at a dissite si ob 23.00 a to do both our um 10 orisoja ait tance from Great Britain, yet they are in 31940 Jud rous Vista
countries to whose neighbourhood British son boeksoni loul bispil to
steamships regularly trade, and in which
British navalsquadrons are regularly stationed, Skov odrolas 1338973 Fig. 2.-Rusden and Eeles Burner. AT
so that the advantages of adopting liquid fuel
al have been more immediate and the economy practical evaporative results are proportionately higher with the wide distribution of storage stations have so altered the liquid fuel. In some cases the work done in a steam-engine by conditions that the general adoption of the new fuel for marine 2 tons of coal has been performed by i ton of oil fuel, but in purposes becomes a matter of urgency for the statesman, the others the proportions have been as 3 to 2, and these latter can be merchant and the engineer. None of these can afford to neglect safely relied on in practice as a minimum. This saving, combined the new conditions, lest they be noted and acted upon by their with the savings of labour and transit already explained, will competitors. Storage for supply now.exists at a number of sea in the near future make the use of liquid fuel compulsory, except poris. London, Barrow, Southampton, Amsterdam, Copenis places so near to coal-fields that the cost of coal becomes hagen, New Orleans, Savannah, New York, Philadelphia, sufficiently low to counterbalance the savings in weight of fuel Singapore, Hong Kong, Madras, Colombo, Suez, Hamburg, consumed and in labour in handling it. In some locomotives Port Arthur, Rangoon, Calcutta, Bombay, Alexandria, on the Great Eastern railway the consumption of oil and coal Bangkok, Saigon, Penang, Batavia, Surabaya, Amoy, Swatow, for the same development of horse-power was as 17 tb oil is Fuchow, Shanghai, Hankow, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, to 35 tb coal; all, however, did not realize so high a result. Zanzibar, Mombasa, Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki; also
The mechanical apparatus for applying petroleum to steam in South African and South American ports. raising in locomotives is very simple. The space in the tender The British admiralty have undertaken experiments with usually occupied by coal is closed up by steel-plating closely | liquid fuel at sea, and at the same time investigations of the
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possibility of supply from sources within the regions of the efficiency based on the thickest armour, the heaviest and most British empire. There is an enormous supply of shale under the numerous guns, the highest maximum speed, and, last and not north-eastern counties of England, but no oil that can be pumped least, the greatest range of effective action based upon the --still less oil with a pressure above it so as to “gush " like the maximum supplies of fuel, provisions and other consumable wells in America-and the only sources of liquid supply under the stores that the ship can carry. Now, if by changing the type British flag appear to be in Burma and Trinidad. The Borneo I of fuel it be possible to reduce its weight by 30%, and to abolish Data e
the stokers, who are usually more than half the ship's ole
company, the weight saved will be represented not
merely by the fuel, but by the consumable stores que Toro Evo sa
otherwise necessary for the stokers. Conversely, the W
radius of effective action of the ship will be doubled
as regards consumable stores if the crew be halved, and Dont med
will be increased by 50% if the same weight of fuel be la dernida a Lligig
carried in the form of liquid instead of coal. In space iq=ad மாயன
the gain by using oil fuel is still greater, and 36 cubic 24-22
feet of oil as stored are equal in practical calorific value ho
to 67 cubic feet of coal according to the allowance usual mata a
for ship's bunkering. On the other hand, coal has od be brahm
been relied upon, when placed in the side bunkers of alband 797 wd abwa
unarmoured ships, as a protection against shot and uose
shell, and this advantage, if it really exists, could not od leta shiwo ad diw
be claimed in regard to liquid fuel. doo
Recent experiments in coaling warships at sea have FIG. 4.-Installation on ss. “Trocas."
not been very successful, as the least bad weather has fields are not under British control, although developed prevented the safe transmission of coal bags from the collier to entirely by British capital. The Italian admiralty have fitted the ship. The same difficulty does not exist for oil fuel, which several large warships with boiler apparatus to burn petroleum. has been pumped through flexible tubing from one ship to the The German admiralty are regularly using liquid fuel on the other even in comparatively rough weather. Smokelessness, China station. The Dutch navy have fitted coal fuel and liquid so important a feature of sea strategy, has not always been fuel furnaces in combination, so that the smaller powers required l attained by liquid fuel, but where the combustion is complete,
by reason of suitable furnace arrangements and AGT L careful management, there is no smoke. The
great drawback, however, to the use of liquid a bho bring
fuel in fast small vessels is the confined space 2obs 309972 a lo la
allotted to the boilers, such confinement being
unavoidable in view of the high power conELE.
centrated in a small hull. The British adhd bid a
miralty's experiments, however, have gone far 1 bainua
to solve the problem, and the quantity of oil which can be consumed by forced draught in confined boilers now more nearly equals the quantity of coal consumed under similar con
ditions. All recent vessels built for the British FIG. 5.—Details of Furnace, Meyer System.
navy are so constructed that the spaces between
their double bottoms are oil-tight and capable may be developed by coal alone, and the larger powers by of storing liquid fuel in the tanks so formed. Most recent battlesupplementing coal fuel with oil fuel. The speeds of some ships and cruisers have also liquid fuel furnace fittings, and in vessels of the destroyer type have by this means been accelerated 1910 it already appeared probable that the use of oil fuel in warnearly two knots.
ships would rapidly develop. The questions which govern the use of fuel in warships are In view of recent accusations of insufficiency of coal storage in more largely those of strategy and fighting efficiency than foreign naval depots, by reason of the allegation that coal so
economy of evaporation. Indeed, the cost of construct-stored quickly perishes, it is interesting to note that liquid fuel
ing and maintaining in fighting efficiency a modern may be stored in tanks for an indefinite time without any tages la warships. warship is so great that the utmost use strategically deterioration whatever
must be obtained from the vessel, and in this compari In the case of merchant steamers large progress has also been son the cost of fuel is relatively so small an item that its increase made. The Shell Transport and Trading Company have twenty
one vessels successfully navigating in all parts of the Advan. world and using liquid fuel. The Hamburg-American tages in Steamship Company have four large vessels similarly merchant fitted for oil fuel, which, however, differ in furnace ships. arrangements, as will be hereafter described, although using coal when the fluctuation of the market renders that the more economical fuel. One of the large American transatlantic lines is adopting liquid fuel, and French, German, Danish and American mercantile vessels are also beginning to use it in considerable amounts.
In the case of very large passenger steamers, such as those
of 20 knots and upwards in the Atlantic trade, the saving in cost FIG. 6.-Details of Exterior Elongation of Furnace, Meyer System greater weight and space available for
freight. Adopting a basis
of fuel is trifling compared with the advantage arising from the or decrease may be considered almost a negligible quantity of 3 to 2 as between coal consumption and oil consumption, The desideratum in a warship is to obtain the greatest fighting there is an increase of 1000 tons of dead weight cargo in even a
medium-sized Atlantic stcamer, and a collateral gain of about pulverized and sprayed into the furnace. Fig. 3 is a profile and 100,000 cub. ft. of measurement cargo, by reason of the ordinary plan of a steamer adapted for carrying oil in bulk, and showing bunkers being left quite free, and the oil being stored in the double all the storage arrangements for handling liquid fuel. Fig. 4 shows bottom spaces hitherto unutilized except for the purpose of
the interior arrangement of the boiler furnace of the steamship
"Trocas." A is broken fire-brick resting on the ordinary water ballast. The cleanliness and saving of time from bunkering fire-bars, B is a brick bridge, C a casing of fire-brick intended by the use of oil fuel is also ap important factor in passenger to protect the riveted seam immediately above it from the direct
impact of the flame, and D is a lining of fire-brick at the back of the not till 1821 that it was turned to use at Fredonia, N.Y. In combustion-box, also intended to protect the plating from the direct Pennsylvania natural gas was discovered in 1859, but at first the Meyer system is shown in fig. 5, where E is an annular pro- very little use was made of it. Its industrial employment dates jection built at the mouth of the furnace, and BB are spiral passages only from 1874, and became of great importance about ten the rings CC and details of the casting which forms the projection localities was an accumulation of many ages and that, being for heating the air before it passes into the furnace. Fig. 6. shows years later. Nobody ever doubted that the gas found in these or exterior elongation of the furnace. The brickwork arrangement tapped by thousands of bore-holes, it must rapidly come to an adopted for the double-ended boilers on the Hamburg-American Steamship Company's " Ferdinand Laeisz" is represented in fig. 7, end. This assumption was strengthened by the fact that the The whole furnace is lined with fire-brick, and the burner is mounted gas-wells," which at first gave out the gas at a pressure of 700 upon a circular disk plate which covers the mouth of the furnace. The oil is injected not by steam pulverization, but by pressure due
or 800, sometimes even of 1400 Id per sq. in., gradually showed to a steam-pump. The oil is heated to about 60°C. before entering a more and more diminishing pressure and many of them ceased the pump, and further heated to 90° C. after leaving thc pump. It to work altogether. About the year 1890 the belief was fairly
is then filtered, and passes general that the stock of natural gas would soon be entirely to the furnace injector C at exhausted. Indeed, the value of the annual production of natural its passage through this in- gas in the United States, computed as its equivalent of coal, jector and the spiral pass
was then estimated at twenty-one million dollars, in 1895 at ages of which it consists twelve millions, in 1899 at eleven and a half millions. But the pulverizes the oil into spray: output rose again to a value of twenty-seven millions in 1901, ignites on reaching the and to fifty million dollars in 1907. Mostly the gas, derived interior of the furnace. The from upwards of 10,000 gas-wells, is now artificially compressed injector is on the Körting to a pressure of 300 or 400 lb per sq. in. by means of steamprinciple, that is, it atomizes
power or gas motors, fed by the gas itself, and is conveyed over by fracture of the liquid oil arising from its own mo.
great distances in iron pipes, from 9 or 10 to 36 in. in diameter. under
In 1904 nearly 30,000 m. of pipe lines were in operation. In The advantage of this
1907 the quantity of natural gas consumed in the United States Fig. 10.--Section through Furnace the steam-jet system is the nearly half of which was in Pennsylvania) was 400,000 million
saving of fresh water, the cub. ft., or nearly 3 cub. m. Canada Ontario) also produces
abstraction of which is so some natural gas, reaching a maximum of about $746,000 in injurious to the boiler by the formation of scale.
1907. The general arrangement of the fuel tanks and filling pipes on the ss. “Murex" is shown in fig. 8; and fig. 9 represents the furnace CH., of which it contains from 68.4 to 94.0% by volume. Those
The principal constituent of natural gas is always methane, the injector, D the swivel upon which the injector is hung so that gases which contain less methane contain all the more hydrogen, it may be swung clear of the furnace, E the fire-door, and F the viz. 2-9 to 29.8%. There is also some ethylene, ethane and handle for adjusting the injector. In fig. 10, which represents a carbon monoxide, rarely exceeding 2 or 3%. The quantity section of the furnace, H is a fire-brick pier and K a fire-brick of incombustible gases-oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogenbaffling bridge.
It is found in practice that to leave out the fire-bars ordinarily ranges from mere traces to about 5%. The density is from used for coal produces a better result with liquid fuel than the 0.45 to 0.55. The heating power of 1000 cub. ft. of natural gas alternative system of keeping them in place and protecting them is equal to from 80 to 120 Ib, on the average 100 tb, of good by a layer of broken fire-brick.
Boilers fitted upon all the above systems have been run for coal, but it is really worth much more than this proportion thousands of miles without trouble. In new construction it is would indicate, as it burns completely, without smoke or ashes, desirable to give larger combustion chambers and longer and narrower and without requiring any manual labour. It is employed for boiler tubes than in the case of boilers intended for the combustion all domestic and for most industrial purposes. of coal alone.
(F. F.*) Gaseous Fuel.
The origin of natural gas is not properly understood, even
now. The most natural assumption is, of course, that its formaStrictly speaking, much, and sometimes even most, of the tion is connected with that of the petroleum always found in heating effected by solid or liquid fuel is actually performed by the same neighbourhood, the latter principally consisting of the the gases given off during the combustion. We speak, however, higher-boiling aliphatic hydrocarbons of the methane series. of gascous fuel only in those cases where we supply a combustible But whence do they both come? Some bring them into congas from the outset, or where we produce from ordinary solidnexion with the formation of coal, others with the decomposition (or liquid) fuel in one place a stream of combustible gas which of animal remains; others with that of dialomaceae, &c., and is burned in another place, more or less distant from that where even an inorganic origin of both petroleum and natural gas has it has been generated,
been assumed by chemists of the rank of D. I. Mendeléeff and The various descriptions of gaseous fuel employed in practice H. Moissan. may be classified under the following heads:
II. Gases oblained as By-products. There are two important 1. Natural Gas.
cases in which gaseous by-products are utilized as fuel; both II. Combustible Gases obtained as by-products, in various technical operations.
are intimately connected with the manufacture of iron, but in III. Coal Gas (Illuminating Gas).
a very different way, and the gases are of very different IV. Combustible Gases obtained by the partial combustion of composition. coal, &c.
(a) Blasi-furnace Gases.-The gases issuing from the mouths I. Natural Gas.-From time immemorial it has been known of blast-furnaces (see IRON AND STEEL) were first utilized in that in some parts of the Caucasus and of China large quantities 1837 by Faber du Faur, at Wasseralfingen. Their use became of gases issue from the soil, sometimes under water, which can more extensive after 1860, and practically universal after 1870. be lighted and burn with a luminous flame. The “eternal The volume of gas given off per ton of iron made is about 158,000 fires” of Baku belong to this class. In coal-mines frequently cub. ft. Its percentage composition by volume is: similar streams of gas issue from the coal; these are called Carbon monoxide 21.6 to 29.0, mostly about 26 "blowers," and when they are of somewhat regular occurrence Hydrogen
6.3, are sometimes conducted away in pipes and used for underground
0.8, lighting. As a regular source of heating power, however, natural
60, gas is employed only in some parts of the United States, especially
Steam in Pennsylvania, Kansas, Ohio and West Virginia, where it always occurs in the neighbourhood of coal and petroleum
100% fields. The first public mention of it was made in 1775, but it was I There is always a large amount of mechanically suspended
3 0.5 9.5 56
fue-dust in this gas. It is practically equal to a poor producer. | it is obtained by heating bituminous coal in fireclay retorts and gas (see below), and is everywhere used, first for heating the blast purifying the products of this destructive distillation by cooling, in Cowper stoves or similar apparatus, and secondly for raising washing and other operations. The residual gas, the ordinary all the steam required for the operation of the blast-furnace, composition of which is given in the table below, amounts to that is, for driving the blowing-engines, hoisting the materials, about 10,000 cub. ft. for a ton of coal, and represents about &c. Where the iron ore is roasted previously to being sed into 21% of its original heating value, 56-5% being left in the coke, the furnace, this can also be done by this gas, but in some cases. 5.5% in the tar and 17% being lost. As we must deduct from the waste in using it is so great that there is not enough left for the coke that quantity which is required for the heating of the the last purpose. The calorific power of this gas per cubic foot retorts, and which, even when good gas producers are employed, is from 80 to 120 B.Th.U.
amounts to 12% of the weight of the coal, or 10% of its heat Since about 1900 a great advance has been made in this field. value, the total loss of heat rises to 27%. Taking, further, into Instead of burning the blast-furnace gas under steam boilers account the cost of labour, the wear and tear, and the capital and employing the steam for producing mechanical energy, the interest on the plant, coal gas must always be an expensive fuel gas is directly burned in gas-motors on the explosion principle. in comparison with coal itself, and cannot be thought of as a Thus upwards of three times the mechanical energy is obtained general substitute for the latter. But in many cases the greater in comparison with the indirect way through the steam boiler. expense of the coal gas is more than compensated by its easy After all the power required for the operations of the blast- distribution, the facility and cleanliness of its application, the furnace has been supplied, there is a surplus of from 10 to general freedom from the mechanical loss, unavoidable in the 20 h.p. for each ton of pig-iron made, which may be applied case of coal fires, the prevention of black smoke and so forth. to any other purpose.
The following table shows the average composition of coal gas (6) Coke-oven Gases.-Where the coking of coal is performed by volume and weight, together with the heat developed by in the old beebive ovens or similar apparatus the gas issuing its single constituents, the latter being expressed in kilogramat the mouth of the ovens is lost. The attempts at utilizing the calories per cub. metre (0-252 kilogram-calories = 1 British heat gases in such cases have not been very successful. It is quite unit; i cub. metre=35-3 cub. ft; therefore 0·1123 calories per different where coke is manufactured in the same way as illumin-1 cub. metre=1 British heat unit per cub. foot). ating gas, viz. by the destructive distillation of coal in closed apparatus
Heat-value Heat-value (retorts), heated from the outside.
per Quantity This industry, which is described in
of Total. detail in G. Lunge's Coal-Tar and
Calories. 1 Cub. Met.
22-8 ated in France, but has spread far Methane, CH,
54.5 more in Germany, where more than, Carbon monoxide, CO
5-1 half of the coke produced is made Benzene vapour, CoHo 1.2
7.7 Ethylene, CH
9.9 by it; in the United Kingdom and the Carbon dioxide, co, :
8-6 United States its progress has been Nitrogen, N,
5.5 much slower, but there also it has long
Total been recognized as the only proper
5319 method. The output of coke is increased by about 15% in comparison with the beehive ovens, One cubic metre of such gas weighs 568 grammes. Rich gas, as the heat required for the process of distillation is not produced or gas made by the destructive distillation of certain bituminous by burning part of the coal itself (as in the beehive ovens), but schists, of oil, &c., contains much more of the heavy hydrocarbons, by burning part of the gas. The quality of the coke for iron and its heat-value is therefore much higher ihan the above. making is quite as good as that of beehive coke, although it The carburetted water gas, very generally made in America, and
differs from it in appearance. Moreover, the gases can be made sometimes employed in England for mixing with coal gas, is to yield their ammonia, their tar, and even their benzene vapours, of varying composition; its heat-value is generally rather less the value of which products sometimes exceeds that of the coke than that of coal gas (see below). itself, And after all this there is still an excess of gas available IV. Combustible Gases produced by the Partial Combustion of for any other purpose.
Coal, &c.—These form by far the most important kind of gaseous As the principle of distilling the coal is just the same, whether fuel. When coal is submitted to destructive distillation to the object is the manufacture of coal gas proper or of coke as the produce the illuminating gas described in the preceding paramain product, although there is much difference in the details graph, only a comparatively small proportion of the heating of the manufacture, it follows that the quality of the gas is very value of the coal (say, a sixth or at most a fifth part) is obtained similar in both cases, so far as its heating value is concerned. in the shape of gaseous fuel, by far the greater proportion remainOf course this heating value is less where the benzene has been ing behind in the shape of coke. extracted from coke-oven gas, since this compound is the richest An entirely different class of gaseous fuels comprises those heat-producer in the gas. This is, however, of minor importance produced by the incomplete combustion of the total carbon in the present case, as there is only about 1% benzene in these contained in the raw material, where the result is a mixture of gases.
gases which, being capable of combining with more oxygen, can The composition of coke-oven gases, after the extraction of be burnt and employed for heating purposes. Apart from some The ammonia and tar, is about 53% hydrogen, 36% methane, descriptions of waste gases belonging to this class (of which the % carbon monoxide, 2% ethylene and benzene, 0.5% sul most notable are those from blast-furnaces), we must distinguish phuretted hydrogen, 1.5% carbon dioxide, 1% nitrogen. two ways of producing such gaseous fuels entirely different in
III. Coal Gas (Illuminating Gas).- Although ordinary coal gas principle, though sometimes combined in one operation. The is primarily manufactured for illuminating purposes, it is also incomplete combustion of carbon may be brought about by extensively used for cooking, frequently also for heating domestic means of atmospheric oxygen, by means of water, or by a rooms, baths, &c., and to some extent also for industrial opera- simultaneous combination of these two actions. In the first tions on a small scale, where cleanliness and exact regulation of case the chemical reaction is the work are of particular importance. In chemical laboratories
(a); it is preferred to every other kind of fuel wherever it is available. the nitrogen accompanying the oxygen in the atmospheric air The manufacture of coal gas being described elsewhere in this necessarily remains mixed with carbon monoxide, and the result work (sec Gas, $ Manufacture), we need here only point out that ling gases, which always contain some carbon dioxide, some