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riveted and tested, so as to form a storage tank. From this talk a feed-pipe is led to a burner of the combined steam-and-d type already indicated, and this burner is so arranged as to enter a short distance inside the furnace "is mouth. The ordinary fire-bars are covered with a thin Poco" layer of coal, which starts the ignition in the first "

place, and the whole apparatus is ready for work. The burn: ,

best adapted for locomotive practice is the Holden Burn: (fig. 1), which was used on the Great Eastern railway. The steam-pipe is connected at A, the oil-pipe at B, and the hand. wheels C and D are for the adjustment of the internal orifices according to the rate of combustion required. The nozzle E is directed towards the furnace, and the external ring FF, supplied by the small pipe G and the by-pass valve H, projects a series of steam jets into the furnace, independent of the injections of atomized fuel, and so induces in artificial inrush of air for the promotion of combustion. This type of burner has als been tried on stationary boilers and on boar: ship. It works well, although the great on

sumption of steam by the supplementary:

Fig. 2.-Rusden and Eeles Burner. the case of oil than coal, and for this reason, among others, the practical evaporative results are proportionately higher with liquid fuel. In some cases the work done in a steam-engine by 2 tons of coal has been performed by 1 ton of oil fuel, but in others the proportions have been as 3 to 2, and these latter can be safely relied on in practice as a minimum. This saving, combined with the savings of labour and transit already explained, will in the near future make the use of liquid fuel compulsory, except in places so near to coal-fields that the cost of coal becomes sufficiently low to counterbalance the savings in weight of fuel consumed and in labour in handling it. In some locomotives on the Great Eastern railway the consumption of oil and coal for the same development of horse-power was as 17 lb oil is

to 35 lb coal; all, however, did not realize so high a result. The mechanical apparatus for applying petroleum to steamraising in locomotives is very simple. The space in the tender usually occupied by coal is closed up by steel-plating closely

is a difficulty at sea, where the water lost ti the consumption of steam cannot easily be made up. Although the application of the new fuel for land and locomotive boilers has already been large, the practice at sea has been far more extensive. The reason is chiefly to be found in the fact that although the sources of supply are at a distance from Great Britain, yet they are in countries to whose neighbourhood British steamships regularly trade, and in which British navalsduadrons are regularly stationed, so that the advantages of adopting liquid fuel have been more immediate and the economy more direct. The certainty of continuous supply of the fuel and the wide distribution of storage stations have so altered the conditions that the general adoption of the new fuel for marine purposes becomes a matter of urgency for the statesman, the merchant and the engineer. None of these can afford to neglect the new conditions, lest they be noted and acted upon by their competitors. Storage for supply now exists at a number of sea ports. London, Barrow, Southampton, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, New Orleans, Savannah, New York, Philadelphia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Madras, Colombo, Suez, Hamburg. Port Arthur, Rangoon, Calcutta, Bombay, Alexandria, Bangkok, Saigon, Penang, Batavia, Surabaya, Amoy, Swatow, Fuchow, Shanghai, Hankow, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki; also in South African and South American ports. The British admiralty have undertaken experiments with liquid fuel at sea, and at the same time investigations of the

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efficiency based on the thickest armour, the heaviest and most numerous guns, the highest maximum speed, and, last and not least, the greatest range of effective action based upon the maximum supplies of fuel, provisions and other consumable stores that the ship can carry. Now, if by changing the type of fuel it be possible to reduce its weight by 30%, and to abolish the stokers, who are usually more than half the ship's company, the weight saved will be represented not merely by the fuel, but by the consumable-stores otherwise necessary for the stokers. Conversely, the radius of effective action of the ship will be doubled as regards consumable stores if the crew be halved, and will be increased by 50% if the same weight of fuel be carried in the form of liquid instead of coal. In space the gain by using oil fuel is still greater, and 36 cubic feet of oil as stored are equal in practical calorific value to 67 cubic feet of coal according to the allowance usual for ship's bunkering-On the other hand, coal has been relied upon, when placed in the side bunkers of unarmoured ships, as a protection against shot and shell, and this advantage, if it really exists, could not be claimed in regard to liquid fuel. Recent experiments in coaling warships at sea have not been very successful, as the least bad weather has prevented the safe transmission of coal bags from the collier to the ship. The same difficulty does not exist for oil fuel, which has been pumped through flexible tubing from one ship to the other even in comparatively rough weather. Smokelessness, so important a feature of sea strategy, has not always been attained by liquid fuel, but where the combustion is complete, by reason of suitable furnace arrangements and careful management, there is no smoke. The great drawback, however, to the use of liquid fuel in fast small vessels is the confined space allotted to the boilers, such confinement being unavoidable in view of the high power concentrated in a small hull. The British-admiralty's experiments, however, have gone far to solve the problem, and the quantity of oil which can be consumed by forced draught in confined boilers now more nearly equals the quantity of coal consumed under similar con

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ditions. All recent vessels built for the British navy are so constructed that the spaces between their double bottoms are oil-tight and capable of storing liquid fuelin the tanks so formed. Most recent battleships and cruisers have also liquid fuel furnace fittings, and in 191o it already appeared probable that the use of oil fuel in warships would rapidly develop. In view of recent accusations of insufficiency of coal storage in foreign naval depots, by reason of the allegation that coal so stored quickly perishes, it is interesting to note that liquid fuel may be stored in tanks for an indefinite time without any deterioration whatever In the case of merchant steamers large progress has also been made. The ShellTransport and Trading Company have twentyone vessels successfully navigating in all parts of the Advan. world and using liquid fuel. The Hamburg-American ages in Steamship Company have four large vessels similarly merchant fitted for oil fuel, which, however, differ in furnace ships. arrangements, as will be hereafter described, although using coal when the fluctuation of the market renders that the more economical-fuel. One of -the-large American transatlantic lines is adopting liquid fuel, and French, German, Danish and American mercantile vessels are also beginning to use it in considerable amounts. In the case of very large passenger steamers, such as those of 20 knots and upwards in the Atlantic trade, the saving in cost of fuel is trifling compared with the advantage arising from the greater weight and space available for freight. Adopting a basis of 3 to 2 as between coal consumption and oil consumption, there is an increase of iooo tons of dead weight cargo in even a

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ships, whilst considerable additional speed is obtainable. The cost of the installation, however, is very considerable, as it includes not only burners and pipes for the furnaces, but also the construction of oil-tight tanks, with pumps and numerous valves and pipe connexions.

%
Fig. 2 shows a burner of Rusden and
Eeles' patent as generally used on board
ships for the purpose of injecting the oil.
A is a movable cap holding the packing B,
7 which renders the annular spindle M oil and
steam tight. E is the outer casing contain-
ing the steam jacket from which the steam,
after being fed through the steam-supply
pipe G, passes into the annular space sur-
rounding the spindle P. It will be seen that
if the spindle P be travelled inwards by
turning the handle N, the orifice at the
nozzle RR will be opened so as to allow
the steam to flow out radially. If at the

2 same time the annular spindle M be drawn FIG.7-Furnace on ss." Ferdinand Laeisz." A, it is proposed to do away with this ring inwards by revolving the handle L, the oil

of brickwork as being useless; B, it is proposed to fill this space up, thus continuing lining which through the supply pipe F will

of furnace to combustion chamber, and also to fit protection bricks in way of saddle plate. £"£, :": :

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medium-sized Atlantic steamer, and a collateral gain of about | pulverized and sprayed into the furnace. Fig. 3 is a profile and 1oo,ooo cub. ft. of measurement cargo, by reason of the ordinary plan, of a steamer adapted for carrying oil in, bulk, and showing bunkers being left quite free, and theolibeingstored in the double | "...t'g''n''g'''...'ig. 4 sh's

- - * * - - il al. bottom spaces hitherto unutilized except for the purpose of th# '''' £" £ : '. ": waterballast. The cleanliness and saving of time from bunkering | fire-bars, B is a brick bridge, C a casing of fire-brick intended

by the use of oil fuel is also an important factor in passenger | to protect the riveted seam immediately above it from the direct

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impact of the flame, and D is a lining of fire-brick at the back of the combustion-box, also intended to protect the plating from the direct impact of the petroleum flame. The arrangement of the furnace on the Meyer system is shown in fig. 5, where E is an annular projection £ilt at the mouth of the furnace, and BB are spiral passages or heating the air before it passes into the furnace. Fig. 6. shows the rings CC and details of the casting which forms the projection or exterior elongation of the furnace. The brickwork arrangement adopted for the double-ended boilers on, the Hamburg American Steamship Company's "Ferdinand Laeisz" is represented in fig. 7, The whole furnace is lined with fire-brick, and the burner is mounted upon a circular disk plate which covers the mouth, of the furnace. e oil is injected not by steam pulverization, but by pressure due to a £ The oil is heated to about 60°C. before entering the pump, and further heated to 90° C. after leaving the pump. It is then filtered, and passes to the furnace injector C at about 30-lb pressure; , and its passage through this injector and the spiral passages of which, it consists pulverizes the oil into £ in which form it readily ignites on reaching the interior of the furnace. The injector is, on the Körting rinciple, that is, it atomizes |: fracture of the liquid oil arising from its own momentum under pressure. The advantage of this £ as compared, with the steam-jet system is the saving of fresh water, the - ... abstraction of which is so injurious to the boiler by the formation of scale. The general arrangement of the fuel tanks and filling pipes on the ss. “Murex" is shown in fig. 8; and fig. 9 represents the furnace r of the same vessel, A being the steam-pipe, B the oil-pipe, £ injector, D the swivel upon which the injector is hung so that it may swung clear of the furnace, E the fire-door, and F the handle for adjusting the injector. In fig. 10, which represents a section of the furnace, H is a fire-brick pier and K a fire-brick baffling bridge. It is found in practice that to leave out the fire-bars ordinarily used for coal produces a better result with liquid fuel than, the alternative system of # them in place and protecting them by a layer of broken fire-brick. Boilers fitted upon all the above systems have been, run for thousands of miles without trouble. In new construction it is desirable to give larger combustion chambers and longer and narrower boiler tubes than in the case of boilers intended for the combustion of coal alone. (F. F.") Gascous Fuel.

Strictly speaking, much, and sometimes even most, of the heating effected by solid or liquid fuel is actually performed by the gases given off during the combustion. We speak, however, of gaseous fuel only in those cases where we supply a combustible gas from the outset, or where we produce from ordinary solid (or liquid) fuel in one place a stream of combustible gas which is burned in another place, more or less distant from that where it has been generated. The various descriptions of gaseous fuel employed in practice may be classified under the following heads: I. Natural Gas. II. Combustible Gases obtained as by-products. In various technical operations. III. Coal Gas (Illuminating Gas). IV. Combustible Gases obtained by the partial combustion of coal, &c. I. Natural Gas.–From time immemorial it has been known that in some parts of the Caucasus and of China large quantities of gases issue from the soil, sometimes under water, which can be lighted and burn with a luminous flame. The “eternal fires” of Baku belong to this class. In coal-mines frequently similar streams of gas issue from the coal; these are called “blowers,” and when they are of somewhat regular occurrence are sometimes conducted away in pipes and used for underground lighting. As a regular source of heating power, however, natural gas is employed only in some parts of the United States, especially in Pennsylvania, Kansas, Ohio and West Virginia, where it always occurs in the neighbourhood of coal and petroleum fields. The first public mention of it was made in 1775, but it was

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not till 1821 that it was turned, to use at Fredonia, N.Y. In Pennsylvania natural gas was discovered in 1859, but at first very little use was made of it. Its industrial employment dates only from 1874, and became of great importance about ten years later. Nobody ever doubted that the gas found in these localities was an accumulation of many ages and that, being tapped by thousands of bore-holes, it must rapidly come to an end. This assumption was strengthened by the fact that the “gas-wells,” which at first gave out the gas at a pressure of 7oo or 800, sometimes even of 1400 lb per sq. in., gradually showed a more and more diminishing pressure and many of them ceased to work altogether. About the year 1890 the belief was fairly general that the stock of natural gas would soon be entirely exhausted. Indeed, the value of the annual production of natural gas in the United States, computed as its equivalent of coal, was then estimated at twenty-one million dollars, in 1895 at twelve millions, in 1899 at eleven and a half millions. But the output rose again to a value of twenty-seven millions in 1901, and to fifty million dollars in 1907. Mostly the gas, derived from upwards of 10,000 gas-wells, is now artificially compressed to a pressure of 300 or 400 lb per sq. in. by means of steampower or gas motors, fed by the gas itself, and is conveyed over great distances in iron pipes, from 9 or 10 to 36 in. in diameter. In 1904 nearly 30,000 m. of pipe lines were in operation. In 1907 the quantity of natural gas consumed in the United States (nearly half of which was in Pennsylvania) was 400,000 million cub. ft., or nearly 3 cub. m. Canada (Ontario) also produces some natural gas, reaching a maximum of about $746,000 in 1907. The principal constituent of natural gas is always methane, CH., of which it contains from 68.4 to 94.0% by volume. Those gases which contain less methane contain all the more hydrogen, viz. 2-9 to 29.8%. There is also some ethylene, ethane and carbon monoxide, rarely exceeding 2 or 3%. The quantity of incombustible gases–oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogenranges from mere traces to about 5%. The density is from o 45 to o'55. The heating power of 1000 cub. ft. of natural gas is equal to from 80 to 120 lb, on the average 100 lb, of good coal, but it is really worth much more than this proportion would indicate, as it burns completely, without smoke or ashes, and without requiring any manual labour. It is employed for all domestic and for most industrial purposes. The origin of natural gas is not properly understood, even now. The most natural assumption is, of course, that its formation is connected with that of the petroleum always found in the same neighbourhood, the latter principally consisting of the higher-boiling aliphatic hydrocarbons of the methane series. But whence do they both come 7 Some bring them into connexion with the formation of coal, others with the decomposition of animal remains, others with that of diatomaceae, &c., and even an inorganic origin of both petroleum and natural gas has been assumed by chemists of the rank of D. I. Mendeléeff and H. Moissan. II. Gases oblained as By-products.-There are two important cases in which gaseous by-products are utilized as fuel; both are intimately connected with the manufacture of iron, but in a very different way, and the gases are of very different composition. (a) Blast-furnace Gases.—The gases issuing from the mouths of blast-furnaces (see IRoN AND STEEL) were first utilized in 1837 by Faber du Faur, at Wasseralfingen. Their use became more extensive after 1860, and practically universal after 1870. The volume of gas given off perton of iron made is about 158,000

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flue-dust in this gas. It is practically equal to a poor producer-
gas (see below), and is everywhere used, first for heating the blast
in Cowper stoves or similar apparatus, and secondly for raising
all the steam required for the operation of the blast-furnace,
that is, for driving the blowing-engines, hoisting the materials,
&c. Where the iron ore is roasted previously to being fed into
the furnace, this can also be done by this gas, but in some cases
the waste in using it is so great that there is not enough left for
the last purpose. The calorific power of this gas per cubic foot
is from 8o to 12o B.Th.U.
Since about 1900 a great advance has been made in this field.
Instead of burning the blast-furnace gas under steam boilers
and employing the steam for producing mechanical energy, the
gas is directly burned in gas-motors on the explosion principle.
Thus upwards of three times the mechanical energy is obtained
in comparison with the indirect way through the steam boiler.
After all the power required for the operations of the blast-
furnace has been supplied, there is a surplus of from 10 to
20 h.p. for each ton of pig-iron made, which may be applied
to any other purpose.
(b) Coke-oven Gases.—Where the coking of coal is performed
in the old beehive ovens or similar apparatus the gas issuing
at the mouth of the ovens is lost. The attempts at utilizing the
gases in such cases have not been very successful. It is quite
different where coke is manufactured in the same way as illumin-
ating gas, viz. by the destructive dis-

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composition of which is given in the table below, amounts to about 10,000 cub. ft. for a ton of coal, and represents about 21% of its original heating value, 56.5% being left in the coke, 5.5% in the tar and 17% being lost. As we must deduct from the coke that quantity which is required for the heating of the retorts, and which, even when good gas producers are employed, amounts to 12% of the weight of the coal, or 10% of its heat value, the total loss of heat rises to 27%. Taking, further, into account the cost of labour, the wear and tear, and the capital interest on the plant, coal gas must always be an expensive fuel in comparison with coal itself, and cannot be thought of as a general substitute for the latter. But in many cases the greater expense of the coal gas is more than compensated by its easy distribution, the facility and cleanliness of its application, the general freedom from the mechanical loss, unavoidable in the case of coal fires, the prevention of black smoke and so forth. The following table shows the average composition of coal gas by volume and weight, together with the heat developed by its single constituents, the latter being expressed in kilogramcalories per cub, metre (or 252 kilogram-calories=1 British heat unit; 1 cub. metre = 35.3 cub. ft; therefore or 1123 calories per cub. metre = 1 British heat unit per cub. foot).

tillation of coal in closed apparatus Heat value | Heat-value | H r (retorts), heated from the outside. Constituents. Volume Weight per Cubic per Quantity #: This industry, which is described in per cent. per cent. Metre contains: in ''T'i. detail in G. Lunge's Coal-Tar and Calories. i Cub. Met. Ammonia (4th ed., 1909), origin | Hydrogen, H, . 47 7. 2,582 121 22-8 ated in France, but has spread far || Methane, CH. . . . . . 34 .# 8,524 # 54-5 more in Germany, where more than £ £ 9 19-9 3,043 273 5-1 half of the coke produced is made £ '' ". # # # # # by it; in the United Kingdom and the £ dioxide, CO2 . 2.5 8-6 - - - - - United States its progress has been Nitrogen, N. . . . 2.5 5.5

much slower, but there also it has long

been recognized as the only proper Total IOo-o too-o 5319 too-d

method. The output of coke is
increased by about 15% in co rison with the beehive ovens,
as the heat required for the process of distillation is not produced
by burning part of the coal itself (as in the beehive ovens), but
by burning part of the gas. The quality of the coke for iron-
making is quite as good as that of beehive coke, although it
iiffers from it in appearance. Moreover, the gases can be made
to yield their ammonia, their tar, and even their benzene vapours,
the value of which products sometimes exceeds that of the coke
itself. And after all this there is still an excess of gas available
for any other purpose.
As the principle of distilling the coal is just the same, whether
the object is the manufacture of coal gas proper or of coke as the
main product, although there is much difference in the details
of the manufacture, it follows that the quality of the gas is very
similar in both cases, so far as its heating value is concerned.
Of course this heating value is less where the benzene has been
extracted from coke-oven gas, since this compound is the richest
heat-producer in the gas. This is, however, of minor importance
in the present case, as there is only about 1% benzene in these
gases.
The composition of coke-oven gases, after the extraction of
the ammonia and tar, is about 53% hydrogen, 36% methane,
5% carbon monoxide, 2/6 ethylene and benzene, o'5% sul-
phuretted hydrogen, 1.5% carbon dioxide, 1% nitrogen.
III. Coal Gas (Illuminating Gas).-Although ordinary coal gas
is primarily manufactured for illuminating purposes, it is also
extensively used for cooking, frequently also for heating domestic
rooms, baths, &c., and to some extent also for industrial opera-
tions on a small scale, where cleanliness and exact regulation of
the work are of particular importance. In chemical laboratories
it is preferred to every other kind of fuel wherever it is available.
The manufacture of coal gas being described elsewhere in this
work (see GAs, § Manufacture), we need here only point out that

One cubic metre of such gas weighs 568 grammes. Rich gas, or gas made by the destructive distillation of certain bituminous schists, of oil, &c., contains much more of the heavy hydrocarbons, and its heat-value is therefore much higher than the above. The carburetted water gas, very generally made in America, and sometimes employed in England for mixing with coal gas, is of varying composition; its heat-value is generally rather less than that of coal gas (see below).

IV. Combustible Gases produced by the Partial Combustion of Coal, &c.-These form by far the most important kind of gaseous fuel. When coal is submitted to destructive distillation to produce the illuminating gas described in the preceding paragraph, only a comparatively small proportion of the heating value of the coal (say, a sixth or at most a fifth part) is obtained in the shape of gaseous fuel, by far the greater proportion remain

ing behind in the shape of coke.

An entirely different class of gaseous fuels comprises those produced by the incomplete combustion of the total carbon contained in the raw material, where the result is a mixture of gases which, being capable of combining with more oxygen, can be burnt and employed for heating purposes. Apart from some descriptions of waste gases belonging to this class (of which the most notable are those from blast-furnaces), we must distinguish two ways of producing such gaseous fuels entirely different in principle, though sometimes combined in one operation. The incomplete combustion of carbon may be brought about by means of atmospheric oxygen, by means of water, or by a

simultaneous combination of these two actions. In the first
case the chemical reaction is
C+O = CO . . (a);

the nitrogen accompanying the oxygen in the atmospheric air necessarily remains mixed with carbon monoxide, and the resulting gases, which always contain some carbon dioxide, some

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