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host on which the uredospores (if present) and the teleutospores are developed. A few examples are appended:

Species. Teleutospores on Aecidiospores on Coleosporium Senecionis Pinus Senecio Melampsora Rostrupi . Populus Mecurialis Pucciniastrum £" Vaccinium Abies Gymnospergrgium nael Juniperus Pyrus ..., Uromyces Pisi Pisum, &c. Euphorbia Puecinia graminis Triticum, &c. Berberis P. dispersa Secale, &c. Anchusa P. coronata Agrostis Rhamnus P. Ari-Phalaridis Phalaris Arum P. Caricis Carex Urtica Cronartium Ribicola Ribes Pinus Chrysomyxa Rhododendri Rhododendron Piced

Some of the Uredineae also exhibit the peculiarity of the development of biologic forms within a single morphological species, sometimes termed s ization of parasitism; this will be dealt with later under the section Physiology. Cytology of Uredimede.--The study of the nuclear behaviour of the cells of the Uredineae has thrown great light on the question of sexuality. This group like the rest of the Basidiales bits an association of nuclei at some point-in-its ''' but unlike the case of the Basidiomycetes the point of association in the Uredineae is very well defined in all those forms which possess aecidiospores. We find thus that in the eu and opsis forms the association of nuclei takes place at the base of the aecidium-which produces the aecidiospores. There we find an association of nuclei either by the fusion of two similar cells as described Christmann or # the migration of the nucleus of a vegetative cell into a special cell of the accidium. After this association-the-nuclei continue in the conjugate-condition so that the aecidiospores, the uredospore-bearing mycelium, the uredospores and the young teleutospores all contain two paired nuclei in their cells (fig. 17). Before the teleutospore reaches maturity the nuclei fuse, and the uninucleate condition then continues again until aeciFrom Strasb. Lehrbuch der ik £ formation. a'. £ rom Strasburger's Læder Botanik brachy, micro an to forms, by permission of Gustav Fischer. which possess no £ we Fig. 17-Phragmidium Vio. find that the association, takes inceum. (After Blackman.) place at various points in the ordinary, mycelium but alwa A, Portion of a young aecidium, before the formation of the st, Sterile cell uredospores in the hemi and a, Fertile cells; at as the brachy forms, and before the passage of a nucleus from formation of teleutospores, in the adjoining cell is seen. micro and lepto form. Whether B, Formation of the first spore- the association of nuclei in the mother-cell, (sm), from the ordinary mycelium takes place basal cell (a) of one of the by the migration of a nucleus rows of spores. from, one cell to another or , A further stage in which whether two daughter nuclei from sm: the first aecidio- become conjugate in one cell, spore (a) and the intercalary is not yet clear. The most cell (z) have arisen. reasonable interpretation of the sm, The second spore-mother-cell, spermatia is that they, are D, Ripe aecidiospore. abortive male cells. They have never been found to cause in: fection, and they have not the characters of conidia; the la size of their nuclei, the reduction of their cytoplasm and the absence of reserve material and their thin cell wall all point to their being male gametes. Although in the forms without aecidia the two £ are not sharply marked off from one another, we may look up the generation with single nuclei in the cells as the ametophyte and that with conjugate nuclei as the sporophyte. he subjoined diagram will indicate the relationship of the forms: Basidiomycetes-This groupischaracterized by its greatly reduced life-history as compared with that of the eu forms among the Ure. dineae, 'll the forms have the same life-history as the leptoforms of that group, so that there is no longer any trace of sexual organs, There is also a further reduction in that the basidium is not derived

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and later fusion of from 4. - nuclei in the bas- om Annals of Botany, by #: the Clarendon Press.

idium), a reduced fertilization which denotes their derivation, through the Uredineae, from more typically sexual forms. No one has yet made out in any form the exact way in which the association of nuclei takes place in the roup. The mycelium is always found to contain conjugate nuclei fore the formation of basidia, but the point at which the conjugate condition arises seems very variable, Miss Nichols finds that it occurs very soon after the germination of the spore in Coprinus, but nofusion of cells or migration of nuclei was to be observed. Protobasidiomycetes-This, by far the smaller division of Basidiomycetes, includes those forms £ have aseptate basidium. There arethree * Pilacreaceae and Tremellinaceae, *

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The first named contains a small number of forms with the basidium divided like, the promycelium of the Uredineae. They are characterized by their gelatinous consistence and large size of their sporohore. irneola (Auricularia) Auricula-Judae is the well-known #: Ear, so named from the resemblance of the sporophore to a unnan-ear. The Pilacreaceae area family found by Brefeld to contain the genus Pilacre. P. Petersii has a transversely divided basidium as in Auriculariaceae, but the basidia are surrounded with a peridium-like sheath. The Tremellinaceae are characterized by the possession of basidia which are divided by two vertical walls at right angles to one another. From each of the four segments in the case of Tremella a long outgrowtharises which reaches to the surface of the hymenium and bears the basidiospores. In Dacryomyces only two outgrowths and two spores are produced. - - Autobasidiomycetes.—In this by far the larger division of the Basidiomycetes the basidia are undivided and the four basidiospores are borne on short sterigmata nearly always at the apex of the basidium. The group may divided into two main divisions, Hymenomycetes and Gasteromycetes. - Hymenomycetes are a very large group containing over 11,000 species, most of which live in soil rich in humus or on fallen wood or stems, a few only being parasites. In the simplest forms (e.g. Exobasidium) the £ are borne directly on the ordinary mycelium, but in the majority of cases the basidia are found developed in layers (hymenium) on special, sporophores of characteristic form in the various groups. In these sporophores (such as the well-known toadstools and mushrooms where the ordinary vegetative mycelium is underground) we have structures specially developed for bearing the basidiospores and protecting them from rain, &c., and for the distribution of the spores-see earlier part of article on distribution of spores (figs. 19 and 20). The underground mycelium in many cases spreads wider and wider each year, often in a circular manner, and the sporophores springing from it appear in the form of a ring—the socalled fairy rings. Armillaria melleus and Polyporus annosus are examples of parasitic forms which attack and destroy living trees, while Merulius lacryg mans is the well-known “dry rot" fungus. Gästeromycetes st, characterized by hav sporophores or

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mucidus. Sporidia; c, cystidium, closed fruit-bodies, which only open after the spores are ripe and then often merely by a small pore. The fruit-bodies are of

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very various shapes, showing a differentiation into an outer peridium and an inner spore-bearing mass, the gleba. The gleba is usually differentiated into a number of chambers which are lined directly by the hymenium (basidial layer), or else the chambers contain an interwoven mass of hyphae, the branches of which bear the basidia. By the breaking down of the inner tissues the spores often come to lie as a powdery mass in the interior of the hollow fruity, mixed sometimes with a capillitium. best- nera are Bovista, Lycoperdon (puff-ball) Scleroderma, Geaster (earth-star, .v.). In the last-named genus the peridium is double the outer # becomes ruptured and spreads out in the form of star-shaped £: - the inner layer, however, merely opens at the apex by a Sina re. £t complex members of the Gasteromycetes belong to the Phalloideae, which is sometimes placed as a distinct division of the Autobasidiomycetes. Phallus impudicus, the stink-horn, is occasionally found growing in woods in Britain. The fruit-body before it ruptures may reach the size of a hen's egg and is white in colour; from this there grows out a hollow cylindrical structure which can be distinguished at the distance of several yards by its disgusting odour. It is highly poisonous. Physiology.-The physiology of the fungi comes under the head of that of plants generally, and the works of Pfeffer, Sachs, Vines, Darwin and Klebs may be consulted for details. But we may refer generally here to certain phenomena peculiar to these plants, the life-actions of which are restricted and specialized by their peculiar dependence on organic supplies of carbon and nitrogen, so that most fungi resemble the colourless cells of higher plants in their nutrition. Like these they require water, small but indispensable quantities of salts of potassium, magnesium, sulphur and phosphorus, and supplies of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials in different stages of complexity in the different cases. Like these, also, they respire oxygen, and are independent of light; and their various powers of growth, secretion, and general metabolism, irritability, and response to external factors show similar specific variations in both cases. It is quite a mistake to suppose that, apart from the chlorophyll function, the physiology of the fungus-cell is fundamentally different from that of ordinary plant-cells. Nevertheless, certain biological phenomena in fungi are especially pronounced, and of these the following require particular notice. Parasatism.–Some fungi, though able to live as sprophytes occasionally enter the # of living plants, and are thus term

(Hemileia) when the mycelium never extends

facultative parasites. The occasion may be a wound (e.g. Nectria, Dasyscypha, &c.), or the enfeeblement of the tissues of the host, or invigoration of the fungus, the mycelium of which then becomes strong enough to overcome the host's resistance (Botrytis). Many fungi, however, cannot complete their life-history apart from the host-plant. Such obligate parasites may be epiphytic (Erysipheae), the mycelium remaining on the outside and at most : sending haustoria into the epidermal cells, or endophytic (Uredineae, Ustilagineae, &c.), when the mycelium is entirely inside the organs of the host. An epiphytic fungus is not necessarily a parasite, however, as many saprophytes (moulds, &c.) germinate and develop a loose mycelium on living leaves, but only enter and destroy the tissues after the leaf has fallen; in some cases, however, these saprophytic epiphytes can do harm by intercepting light and air from the leaf (Fumago, &c.), and such cases make it difficult to draw the line between saprophytism and parasitism... Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium lunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, genidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but # are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago). or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis). No lines can be drawn, however, since many mycelia are intercellular at first and £ become intracellular (Ustilagineae), and the various stages doubtless depend on the degrees of resistance which the host tissues are able to offer. Similar gradations are observed in the direct effect of the parasite on the host, which may be local - far from the point of infection, or general (Phytophthora) when it runs throughout the plant. Destructive parasites rapidly ruin the whole plant-body (Pythium), whereas restrained £ only tax the host slightly, and ill effects may not be visible for a long time, or only when the fungus is epidemic (Rhytisma). A parasite may be restricted during a long, incubation-period, however, and rampant and destructive later (Ustilago). The latter fact, as well as the extraordinary fastidiousness, so to speak, of parasites in their choice of hosts or of organs for attack, point to reactions on the part of the host-plant, as well as capacities on that of the parasite, which may be partly explained in the light of what we now know regarding enzymes and chemotropism. Some parasites attack many hosts and almost any tissue or organ (Botrytis cincrea), others are restricted to one family (Cystopus candidus) or genus (Phytophthora infestans) or even species (Pucciniastrum Padi), and it is customary to speak of rootparasites, leaf-parasites, &c., in expression of the fact that a given parasite occurs only on such organs-e.g. Dematophora mecatrix on roots, Calyptospora Goeppertiana on stems, Ustilago Scabiosae in anthers, Claviceps purpărea in ovaries, &c. Associated with these relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to the # of the host. Many parasites can enter a seedling, but are unable to attack the same host when older—e.g. Pythium, Phytophthora omnivora. Chemotropism-Taken in conjunction with Pfeffer's beautiful discovery that, certain chemicals exert a distinct attractive influence on fungus hyphae (chemotropism), and the results of Miyoshi's experimental application of it, the phenomena of enzyme-secretion throw considerable light on the processes of infection and parasitism of fungi. Pfeffer showed that certain substances in definite concentrations cause the tips of hyphae to turn towards them; other substances, # not innutritious, repel them, as also do nutritious bodies if too highly concentrated. Marshall Ward showed that the hyphae of Botrytis pierce the cell-walls of a lily by secreting a cytase and dissolving a hole through the membrane, Miyoshi then denonstrated that if Botrytis is sown in a lamella of gelatine, and this lamella is super on another similar one to which a chemotropic substance is added, the tips of the hyphae at once turn from the former and enter the latter. If a thin cellulose membrane is interd between the lamellae, the hyphae nevertheless turn chemotropically from the one lamella to the other and pierce the cellulose membrane in the process. The # will also dissolve their way through a lamella of collodion, n; parchment paper, elder-pith, of even cork or the wing of a fly, to do which it must excrete very different enzymes. . If the membrane is of some impermeable substance, like gold leaf, the hyphae cannot dissolve its wa through. but the tip finds the most minute pore and traverses the barrier by means of it, as it does a stoma on a leaf. We may hence conclude t a parasitic hyphae pierces some plants or their stomata and refuses to enter others, because in the former case there are chemo. tropically attractive substances present which are absent from the latter, or are there replaced by repellent poisonous or protective substances such as enzymes or antitoxins. Specialization of Parasitism.—The careful investigations of recent years have shown that in several groups of fungi we cannot be content to distinguish as units morphologically different species, but we are compelled to # deeper and analyse further the species. It has been shown especially in the Uredineae and Erysiphaceae that £ which can hardly be distinguished morphologically, or which cannot be differentiated at all by structural characters, are not really homogeneous but consist of a number of forms which are

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sharply distinguishable by their infecting power." Eriksson found,
for example, that the well-known species Pucciniagraminis could be
split up into a number of forms which though morphologically
similar were physiologically distinct. He found that the species
really consisted of six distinct races, each having a more or less
narrowrange of grasses on which it can live. The six races he named
P. graminis Secalis, Tritici, Avenge, Airae, Agrostis, Poae. The
first named will grow on rye and £ not on wheator oat.
The form Tritici is the least sharply marked and will grow on wheat,
barley, rye and oat but not on the other grasses. The form Avenae
will grow on oat and many grasses but not on the other three cereals
mentioned. The last three forms grow only on the £ Aira,
Agrostis and Poa respectively. All these forms have of course their
accidium-stage on the barberry...The terms biologic forms, biological
species, physiological species, physiological races, specialized forms
have all been applied to these; perhaps the term biologic forms is
the most satisfactory. A similar specialization has been observed
by Marshall Ward in the Puccinia parasitic on species of Bromus,
and by Neger, Marchal and especially Salmon in the Erysiphaceae.
In the last-named family the single morphological species Erysiphe
graminis is found growing on the ce , barley, oat, wheat, 8:
and a number of wild grasses (such as Poa, Bromus, Dactylis). On
each of these host-plants the fungus has become specialized so that
the form on barley cannot infect the other three cereals or the wild
grasses and so on. Just as the : and aecidiospores both
show these specialized characters in the case of Puccinia graminis
so we find that both the conidia and ascospores of E. graminis show
this phenomenon. Salmon has further shown in investigating the
relation of E. graminis to various species of the genus, Bromus, that
certain species may act as “bridging species,” enabling the transfer
of a biologic form to a host-plant which it cannot normally infect.
Thus £ form on B. racemosus cannot infect B. commutatus.
If, however, conidia from B. racemosus are sown on B. hordaceus,
the conidia which develop on that plant are now able to infect
B. commutatus; thus B. hordaceus acts as a bridging species. Salmon
also found that injury of a leaf by mechanical means, by heat, by
anaesthetics, &c., would affect the immunity of the plant and allow
infection by conidia which was not able to enter a normal leaf. The
effect of the abnormal conditions is probably to stop the production
of, or weaken or destroy the protective enzymes or antitoxins, the
presence of which normally confers immunity on the leaf.
Symbiosis-The remarkable case of life in common first observed
in lichens, where a fungus and an alga unite to form a compound
organism—the lichen-totally different from either, has now been
proved to be universal in these plants, and lichens are in all cases
merely algae enmeshed in the interwoven hyphae of fungi (see
LichENs). This dualism, where the one constituent (alga) furnishes
carbohydrates, and the other (fungus) ensures a £ of mineral
matters, shade and moisture, has n termed symbiosis. Since
then numerous other cases of symbiosis have been demonstrated.
Many trees are found to have their smaller roots invaded by fungi
and deformed by their action, but so far from these being injurious,
experiments go to show that this mycorhiza (fungus-root) is
necessary for the well-being of the tree. This is also '' case with
numerous other plants of moors and : Ericaceae,
Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, - Recent
experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid
seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus,
which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately
it emerges from the seed. The well-known failures with rhododen-
£ &c., in ordinary garden soils are also explained by
the need of the fungus-infected peat for their roots. The rôle of the
fungus appears to be to supply materials from the leaf-mould around,
in forms which ordinary root-hairs are incapable of providing for
the plant; in return the latter supports the fungus at slight expense
from its abundant stores of reserve materials. •Numerous other
cases of symbiosis have been discovered among the fungi offer-
mentation, of which those, between Aspergillus and £ in saké
manufacture, and between yeasts and bacteria in-kephir and in the
£ plant are best worked out. For cases of symbiosis see
ACTERIOLOGY.
Authorities.-General: Engler and Prant!, Die natürlichen
£ i. Teil (1892 onwards); Zopf, Die Pilze (Breslau,
1890); De Bary, £ Morphology of Fungi, &c. (Oxford,
1887); von Tafel, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze (Jena, 1892);
Brefeld, Unters. aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Mykologie, Heft i. 13
(1872-1905); Lotsy, Vorträge über-botanische Stammesgeschichte
(Jena, 1907). Distribution, &c.; Cooke, Introduction to the Study
of Fungi (London, 1895); Felix in Zeitschr, d. deutsch.ogeologisch.
esellsch, (1894-1896); Staub, Sitzungsber, d. bot. Sec, d. Kgl.
ungarischen naturwiss. Gesellsch... su Budapest (1897). Anatomy,
&c.; Bommer, “Sclerotes et cordons mycéliens,” Mém. de l'Acad.
Roy, de Belg. (1894); Mangin, "Observ-sur la membrane des
mucorinées,” Journ. de Boi. (1899); Zimmermann, Die Morph.
and Physiologie, des. Pflanzenzellkernes (Jena, 1896); Wisselingh,
“Microchem. Unters. "uber die Zellwanded. Fungi,”-Pringsh.
Jahrb. B. 31, p. 619 (1898): Istvanffvi, "Unters. r die phys.
Anat der Pilze," Prings. Jahrb. (1896). Spore Distribution: Fulton,
"Dispersal of the Spores of Fungi by Insects." Ann. Bot. (1889);
Falck, "Die Sporenverbreitung bei den Basidiomyceten," Beitr,

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Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (Cambridge, 1899); Parasitism: “On some Relations between Host and Parasite,” Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. 47 (1890); "A Lily Disease,” Ann. of Botany, vol. 2 (1888); Eriksson & Hennings, Die Getreideroste (vide # Ward, "On the Question of Predisposition and Immunity in Plants,” Proc. Cambridge Phil...Soc. vol. 11 '' also Annals of Bot. vol. 16 (1902) and vol. 19 (1905); Neger, “Beitr. z. Biol. d: Erysipheen.” Flora, Bde, 88 and 90 £ “Cultural Experiments with "Biologic Forms of the Erysiphaceae,” Phil. Trans. (1904); “On ££ and its adaptative parasitism within the genus, Bromus,” Ann. Mycol. vol. 11 (1904), also Ann. of Bot. vol. 19 (1905). Symbiosis: Ward, “The Ginger-Beer lant," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (1892); "Symbiosis,” Ann. % Bot. 1 (1899); Shalk, “Der Sinn der Mykorrhizenbildung,” Jahrb. } wiss. Bot. Bd. 34 (1900); Bernard, "On some Different Cases of Germination,” Gardener's Chronicle (1900); Pierce, Publ. Univ. California (1900). (H. M. W.; V. H. B.) FUNJ (FUNNIYEH, FUNG, FUNGHA), a very mixed negroid race, occupying parts of Sennar and the hilly country to the south between the White and Blue Niles. They traditionally come from west of the White Nile and are affiliated by some to the Kordofan Nubas, by others, more justifiably, to the negro Shilluks. These Funj, who became the dominant race in Sennar in the 15th century, almost everywhere assimilated the speech, religion and habits of the Arabs settled in that region. Until the 19th century they were one of the most powerful of African peoples in the eastern Sudan. About the end of the 15th century they overthrew the kingdom of Aloa, between the two Niles, and conquered the neighbouring peoples of the Sudan, Nubia and even Kordofan. The Funj had mixed much with the Arabs before their conquests, and had been converted to Islam. But they were still in many ways savages, for James Bruce (who traversed the district in 1772) says that their most famous king, Malek-el-Gahman, preferred human liver to any other food, and the Belgian traveller E. Pruyssenaere (1826-1864) found them still performing pagan rites on their sacred Mount Gula. Ernst Marno declared that as late as 187o the most southern branch of the race, the Boruns, a non-Arabic speaking tribe, were cannibals. The Funj. kings were content with levying tribute on their neighbours, and in this loose way Shendi, Berber and Dongola were once tributary. The Arab viziers gradually absorbed all power, the Funj sovereignty becoming

nominal; and in 1821 the Egyptians easily destroyed the Funj To-day the Funj are few, and represent no real'

domination. type. They are a bright, hospitable folk. Many of them are skilful surgeons and go far afield in their work. The fellahin, indeed, call surgeons “Senaari” (men of Sennar). See further SENNAR and SUDAN (Anglo-Egyptian). FUNKIA, in botany, a genus of rather handsome, hardy, herbaceous plants belonging to the natural order Liliaceae, and natives of China and Japan. They are tuberous, with broadly ovate or heart-shaped leaves and racemes of white or pale lilac, drooping, funnel-shaped flowers. They are useful for the borders of a shrubbery, the lawn or rock-work, or may be grown in pots for the greenhouse. The plants are propagated by dividing the crowns in autumn or when growth begins in spring. FUNNEL (through an O. Fr. founil, found in Breton, from Lat. infundibulum, that through which anything is poured, from fundere, to pour), a vessel shaped like a cone having a small tube at the apex through which powder, liquid, &c., may be easily passed into another vessel with a small opening. The term is used in metal-casting of the hole through which the metal is poured into a mould, and in anatomy and zoology of an infundibulum or funnel-shaped organ. The word is thus used generally of any shaft or passage to convey light, air or smoke, as of the chimney of an engine or a steam-boat, or the flue of an ordinary chimney. It is also used of a shaft or channel in rocks, and in the decoying of wild-fowl is applied to the cone-shaped passage leading from a pond and covered with a net, a “funnelnet,” into which the birds are decoyed. FUR (connected with O. Fr. forre, a sheath or case; so “an outer covering”), the name specially given to the covering of the skin in certain animals which are natives of the colder climatcs, lying alongside of another and longer covering, called

the overhair. The fur differs from the overhair, in that it is soft, silky, curly, downy and barbed lengthwise, while the overhair-is straight, smooth and comparatively rigid. These properties of fur constitute its essential value for felting purposes, and mark its difference from wool and silk; the first, after some slight preparation by the aid of hot water, readily unites its fibres into a strong and compact mass; the others can best be managed by spinning and weaving. On the living animal the overhair keeps the fur filaments apart, prevents their tendency to felt, and protects them from injury-thus securing to the animal an immunity from cold and storm; while, as a matter of fact, this very overhair, though of an humbler name, is most generally the beauty and pride of the pelt, and marks its chief value with the furrier. We arrive thus at two distinct and opposite uses and values of fur. Regarded as useful for felt it is denominated staple fur, while with respect to its use with and on the pelt it is called fancy fur. History.—The manufacture of fur into a felt is of comparatively modern origin, while the use of fur pelts as a covering for the body, for the couch, or for the tent is coeval with the earliest history of all northern tribes and nations. Their use was not simply a barbarous expedient to defend man from the rigours of an arctic winter; woven wool alone cannot, in its most perfect form, accomplish this. The pelt or skin is requisite to keep out the piercing wind and driving storm, while the fur and overhair ward off the cold; and “furs” are as much a necessity to-day among more northern peoples as they ever were in the days of barbarism. With them the providing of this necessary covering

became the first purpose of their toil; subsequently it grew

into an object of barter and traffic, at first among themselves, and afterwards with their neighbours of more temperate climes; and with the latter it naturally became an article of fashion, of ornament and of luxury. This, in brief, has been the history of its use in China, Tatary, Russia, Siberia and North America, and at present the employment of fancy furs among civilized nations has grown to be more extensive than at any former period. The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance. Furs have constituted the price of redemption for royal captives, the gifts of emperors and kings, and the peculiar badge of state functionaries. At the present day they vie with precious gems and gold as ornaments and garniture for wealth and fashion; but by their abundance, and the cheapness of some varieties, they have recently come within the reach of men of moderate incomes. The history of furs can be read in Marco Polo, as he grows eloquent with the description of the rich skins of the khan of Tatary; in the early fathers of the church, who lament their introduction into Rome and Byzantium as an evidence of barbaric and debasing luxury; in the political history of Russia, stretching out a powerful arm over Siberia to secure her rich treasures; in thc story of the French occupation of Canada, and the ascent of the St Lawrence to Lake Superior, and the subsequent contest to retain possession against England; in the history of early settlements of New England, New York and Virginia; in Irving's Astoria; in the records of the Hudson's Bay Company; and in the annals of the fairs held at Nizhniy Novgorod and Leipzig. Here it may suffice to give some account of the present condition of the trade in fancy furs. The collection of skins is now chiefly a matter of private enterprise. Few, if any, monopolies exist. Natural Supplies.—We are dependent upon the Carnivora, Rodentia, Ungulata and Marsupialia for our supplies of furs, the first two classes being by far of the greatest importance. The Carnivora include bears, wolverines, wolves, raccoons, foxes, sables, martens, skunks, kolinskis, fitch, fishers, ermines, cats, sea otters, fur seals, hair seals, lions, tigers, leopards, lynxes, jackals, &c. The Rodentia include beavers, nutrias, musk-rats or musquash, marmots, hamsters, chinchillas, hares, rabbits, squirrels, &c. The Ungulata include Persian, Astrachan,Crimean, Chinese and Tibet lambs, mouflon, guanaco, goats, ponies, &c. The Marsupialia include opossums, wallabies and kangaroos. These, of course, could be subdivided, but for general purposes of the fur trade the above is deemed sufficient. The question frequently arises, not only for those interested in the production of fur apparel, but for those who derive so much comfort and pleasure from its use, whether the supply of fur-bearing animals is likely to be exhausted. Although it is a fact that the demand is ever increasing, and that some of the rarer animals are decreasing in numbers, yet on the other hand some kinds of furs are occasionally neglected through vagaries of fashion, which give nature an opportunity to replenish their source. These respites are, however, becoming fewer every day, and what were formerly the most neglected kinds of furs are becoming more and more sought after. The supply of some of the most valuable, such as sable, silver and natural black fox, sea otter and ermine, which are all taken from animals of a more or less shy nature, does very gradually decrease with persistent hunting and the encroachment of man upon the districts where they live, but the climate of these vast regions is so cold and inhospitable that the probabilities of man ever permancntly inhabiting them in numbers sufficient to scare away or exterminate the fur-bearing wild animals is unlikely. Besides these there are many useful, though commonplace, fur-bearing animals like mink, musquash, skunk, raccoon, opossum, hamster, rabbit, hares and moles, that thrive by depredations upon cultivated land. Some of these are reared upon extensive wild farms. In addition there are domestic fur-bearing animals, such as Persian, Astrachan and Chinese lambs, and goats, easily bred and available. With regard to the rearing of the Persian lamb, there is a prevalent idea that the skins of the unborn lamb are frequently used; this, however, is a mistake. A few such skins have been taken, but they are too delicate to be of any service. The youngest, known as “broadtails,” are killed when a few days old, but for the weil-developed curly fur, the lambs must be six or seven weeks old. During these weeks their bodies are covered with leather so that the fur may develop in close, light and clean cuts. The experiment has been tried of rearing rare, wild, fur-bearing animals in captivity, and although climatic conditions and food have been precisely as in their natural environment, the fur has been poor in quality and bad in colour, totally unlike that taken from animals in the wild state. The sensation of fear or the restriction of movement and the obtaining of food without exertion evidently prevent the normal development of the creature. In mountainous districts in the more temperate zones some good supplies are found. Chinchillas and nutrias are obtained from South America, whence come also civet cats, jaguars, ocelots and pumas. Opossums and wallabies, good useful furs, come from Australia and New Zealand. The martens, foxes and otters imported from southern Europe and southern Asia, are very mixed in quality, and the majority are poor compared with those of Canada and the north. Certain characteristics in the skin reveal to the expert from what section of territory they come, but in classifying them it is considered sufficient to mention territories only. Some of the poorer sorts of furs, such as hamster, marmot, Chinese goats and lambs, Tatar ponies, weasels, kaluga, various monkeys, antelopes, foxes, otters, jackals and others from the warmer zones, which until recently were neglected on account of their inferior quality of colour, by the better class of the trade, are now being deftly dressed or dyed in Europe and America, and good effects are produced, although the lack of quality when compared with the better furs from colder climates which possess full top hair, close underwool and supple leathers, is readily manifest. It is only the pressure of increasing demand that makes marketable hard pelts with harsh brittle hair of nondescript hue, and these would, naturally, be the last to attract the notice of dealers. As it is impossible that we shall ever discover any new furbearing animals other than those we know, it behoves responsible authorities to enforce close seasons and restrictions, as to the

sex and age, in the killing for the purpose of equalizing the numbers of the catches. As evidence of indiscriminate slaughter the case of the American buffaloes may be cited. At one time thousands of buffalo skins were obtainable and provided material for most useful coats and rugs for rough wear in cold regions, but to-day only a herd or so of the animals remain, and in captivity. The majority of animals taken for their fur are trapped or snared, the gun being avoided as much as possible in order that the coat may be quite undamaged. Many weary hours are spent in setting baits, traps and wires, and, frequently, when the hunter retraces his steps to collect the quarry it is only to find it gone, devoured by some large animal that has visited his traps before him. After the skins have been carefully removed-the sooner after death the better for the subsequent condition of the fur-they are lightly tacked out, pelt outwards, and, without being exposed to the sun or close contact with a fire, allowed to dry in a hut or shady place where there is some warmth or movement of air. With the exception of sealskins, which are pickled in brine, all raw skins come to the various trade markets simply dried like this. Quality and Colour.-The best fur is obtained by killing animals when the winter is at its height and the colder the season the better its quality and colour. Fur skins taken out of season are indifferent, and the hair is liable to shed itself freely; a good furrier will, however, reject such faulty specimens in the manufacturing. The finest furs are obtained from the Arctic and northern regions, and the lower the latitude the less full and silky the fur, till, at the torrid zone, fur gives place to harsh hair without any underwool. The finest and closest wools are possessed by the amphibious Carnivora and Rodentia, viz. seals, otters, beavers, nutrias and musquash, the beauty of which is not seen until after the stiff water or top hairs are pulled out or otherwise removed. In this class of animal the underneath wool of the belly is thicker than that of the back, while the opposite is true of those found on the land. The sea otter, one of the richest and rarest of furs, especially for men's wear, is an exception to this unhairing process, which it does not require, the hair being of the same length as the wool, silky and bright, quite the reverse of the case of other aquatic animals. Of sealskins there are two distinct classes, the fur seals and the hair seals. The latter have no growth of fur under the stiff top hair and are killed, with few exceptions (generally of the marbled scals), on account of the oil and leather they yield. The best fur seals are found off the Alaska coast and down as far south as San Francisco. It is found that in densely wooded districts furs are darker in colour than in exposed regions, and that the quality of wool and hair is softer and more silky than those from bare tracts of country, where nature exacts from its creatures greater efforts to secure food, thereby developing stronger limbs and a consequently coarser body covering. As regards density of colour the skunk or black marten has the blackest fur, and some cats of the domestic kind, specially reared for their fur, are nearly black. Black bcars have occasionally very black coats, but the majority have a brownish underwool. The natural black fox is a member of the silver fox family and is very rare, the skins bringing a high price. Most silver foxes have dark necks and in some the dark shade runs a quarter, half-way, or three-quarters, or even the whole length of the skin, but it is rather of a brownish hue. Some Russian sables are of a very dense bluish brown almost a black, which is the origin undoubtedly of the term “sables,” while some, from one district in particular, have a quantity of silver hairs, evenly interspersed in the fur, a peculiarity which has nothing to do with age. The best sea otters have very dark coats which are highly esteemed, a few with silver hairs in parts; where these are equally and evenly spread the skins are very valuable. Otters and beavers that run dark in the hair or wool are more valuable than the paler ones, the wools of which are frequently touched with a chemical to produce a golden shade. This is also done with nutrias after unhairing. The darker sorts of mink,

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