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musquash, raccoon and wolverine are more valuable than the Goats, Chinese

T261,190

Hares paler skins.

41,256 Collective Supplies and Sales. There are ten large AmericanKid, Chinese linings and skins equal to

Kangaroo

7,115

5,080,047 and Canadian companies with extensive systems for gathering Kolinsky

114,251 the annual hauls of skins from the far-scattered trappers. These Lamb, Mongolian linings and skins equal to 214,072

Slink are the Hudson's Bay Co., Russian Fur Co., Alaska Commercial 1)

167,372

Tibet Co., North American Commercial Co., Russian Sealskin Co.,

794,130 Leopard

3.574 Harmony Fur Co., Royal Greenland Fur Co., American Fur Co., Lynx

88,822 Missouri Co. and Pacific Co. Most of the raw skins are forwarded 31 Marmot, linings and skins equal to

1,600,600 to about half-a-dozen brokers in London, who roughly sort them. Marten, Baum

4,573

Japanese in convenient lots, issuing catalogues to the traders of the world,

16,461 Stone

12,939 and after due time for examination of the goods by intending Mink, Canadian and Americana

299,254 purchasers, the lots are sold by public auction. The principal Japanese

2360,373 sales of general furs are held in London in January and March, 25

Mouflon
Musk-rat or Musquash, Brown

91023.594 smaller offerings. being made in June and October; while the

5,126,339 Black

41,788 bulk of fur sealskins is sold separately in December. The Nutria Hudson's Bay Co.'s sales take place before the others, and, as Opossum, American

902,065 no reserves are placed on any lot, the results are taken as exactly

Australian

4,161,685

Otter, River indicating current values. While many buyers from America

Sea

50 21,235 and Russia are personally in attendance at the sales, many more Raccoon

310,712 are represented by London and Leipzig agents who buy for them Sable, Canadian and American

97,282 upon commission. In addition to the fur skins coming from

TOIRE Japanese

556

Russian North America vast numbers from Russia, Siberia, China, Japan,

26,399

77,000 Australia and South America are offered during the same periods Hair at public auction. Fairs are also held in Siberia, Russia and Skunk aneh

laila 1,068,408 Germany for the distribution of fur skins as follows: Lo Squirrel

194.596

Linings each averaging 126 skins. January: Frankfort-on-the- Small collection of pro

1,982,736

Tige: troud Oder with two vincial produce, such Wallaby

60,956 Tul as otter, fox, fitch and 5 Wolf.

56,642

Wolverine 57 February: Irbit, Siberia. General Russian furs.

1.726

Wombat E! Easter: Leipzig, Germany General furs.

193,625 21 August: Nizhniy Novgorod, Persian lamb and general

A brief account of the different qualities of the pelts, with Russia furs.

some general remarks as to their customary uses, follows. The August: Kiakhta, Siberia . Chinese furs and ermine. prices quoted are subject to constant fluctuation and represent December: Ishim, Siberia. Chiefly squirrels.

purely trade prices for bulk, and it should be explained that the Of course there are many transactions, generally in the cheaper very great variations are due to different sizes, qualities and and coarser kinds of furs, used only in central Europe, Russia colours, and moreover are only first cost, before skins are dressed and Asia which in no way interest the London market, and there and prepared. These preparations are in some cases expensive, are many direct consignments of skins from collectors in America and there is generally a considerable percentage of waste. The and Russia to London, New York and Leipzig merchants. But prices cannot be taken as a guide to the wholesale price of a the bulk of the fine furs of the world is sold at the large public single and finished skin, but simply as relative value. trade auction sales in London. The chief exceptions are the The fullest and darkest skins of each kind are the most valuPersian and Astrachan lambs, which are bought at the Russian able, and, in cases of bluish grey or white, the fuller, clearer and fairs, and are dressed and dyed in Leipzig, and the ermine and brighter are the more expensive. A few albinos are found in Russian squirrels, which are dressed and manufactured into every species, but whatever their value to a museum, they are of linings either in Russia or Germany before offered for sale to the little commercial importance. Some odd lots of skins arrive wholesale merchants or manufacturers.

designated simply as “sundries,” so no classification is possible, The annual collection of fur skins varies considerably in and this will account for the absence of a few names of skins of quantity according to the demand and to the good or bad climatic which the imports are insignificant in quantity, or are received conditions of the season; and it is impossible to give a complete direct by the wholesale merchants. record, as many skins are used in the country of their origin or

Names, Qualities and Uses of Pelts. Edisobe, exported direct to merchants. But a fairly exact statement of AsTRACHAN.-See Lambs, below. the numbers sold in the great public trade auction sales in BADGER.-Size 2 X 1 ft. American sorts have coarse thick underLondon during the year 1905-1906 is herewith set out.

wool of a pale fawn or stone colour with a growth of longer black

and white hairs, 3 or 4 in. long; a very durable but clumsy fur. Year ending 31st of March 1906. Total Number

of Skins

The best skins are exported to France, Spain and Italy, and used for

carriage rugs and military purposes. Asiatic, including Japanese, -7 Badger

28,634 *Badger, Japanese

Polo 6,026 darker, and used mostly for brush trade. Value 6d. to 198.

skins are more woolly. Russian and Prussian kinds are coarser and Bear

cov 18,576 BEAR, AUSTRALIAN.See Wombat, below. In Beaver Cat, Civet

89,5141 BEAR, BLACK.—Size 6X3 ft. Fine dark brown underwool with 157,915

bright black and flowing about hall the size and not only softer and Cat, House

hair 4 in. long. Cubs are nearly as long

126,703 Wild Chinchilla (La Plata), known also as Bastard. 43,578. Widely distributed in North Åmerica, the best come from Canada,

. 1116 32,2531 better, but have the advantage of being very much lighter in pelt. Peruvian finest

5,603 IT Deer, Chinese

are costly and are used for military caps, boas, muffs, trimmings,

124,355 Ermine

carriage rugs and coachmen's capes, and the fur wears exceedingly 40,641well. Value 175, 6d, to 86s. Those from East India and warm

5,949 climates are harsh, poor and only fit for floor rugs. Fitch

BEAR, BROWN.--Size 6x3 ft. Similar in quality to the black, Fox, Blue.

1,893 but far more limited in number; the colours range from light yellow
10,276

Ida
Grey

to a rich dark brown. The best come from Hudson Bay territory

304-59,561 and are valuable. Used for muffs, trimmings, boas, and carriage Japanese

o 81.429

1 The measurements given are from nose to root of tail of average Red

158,961 large sizes after the dressing process, which has a shrinking tendency. Silver

2,510 The depths of fur quoted are the greatest, but there are plenty of White

27.463 good useful skins possessing a lesser depth.

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395. 6d.

rugs. Inferior sorts, almost grizzly in effect and some very pale, into trimmings, muffs, &c. Tails worked separately in these forms are are found in Europe and Asia and are mostly used locally. In India as rich and fine and more durable than any other fur suitable for a there is a species called Isabelline bear, which was formerly imported like purpose. The fur of the skin itsell is something like a dark to Great Britain, but does not now arrive in any quantity worth silky raccoon, but is not as attractive as the tails. Value 128. to 46s. mentioning. Value los. 6d. to 6os., Isabelline sort ios. 6d. to 785. FITCH.--Size 12X3 in., of the marten species, also known as the

BEAR, GRIZZLY.-Size 8X4 It. Coarse hair, heavy pelt, mostly pole cat. Yellow underwool } in. deep. black top hair, ! | to 1 in. dark yellowish and brown colours, only found in western parts of long, very fine and open in growth, and not close as in martens. United States, Russia and Siberia. Used as carriage rugs and Hoor Largest skins come from Denmark, Holland and Germany. The rugs, most durable for latter purpose and of fine effect. They are Russian are smaller, but more silky and, as now dyed, make a cheap about half the value of brown bear. Value 155. to 545.

and fair substitute for sable. They are excellent for linings of BEAR, ISABELLINE.-See Bear, Brown, above.

ladies' coats, being of light weight and fairly strong in the pelt BEAR, WHITE.-Size 1oX5 ft. The largest of all bears. Short English mayors and civic officials' robes are frequently trimmed close hair except on flanks, colour white to vellow. An inhabitant with this fur in lieu of sable. Value of the German variety 25. 10 of the Arctic circle, best from Greenland. Used for floor rugs, very 58. 6d. and of the Russian 7d. to Is. 4d. durable; and very white specimens are valuable. Value 2os. to 520s. Fox, BLUE.-Size 24 X8 in. Underwool thick and long. Top

BEAVER. Size 3x2 ft. The largest of rodents, it possesses a hair fine and not so plentiful as in other foxes. Found in Alaska. close underwool of bluish-brown hue, nearly an inch in depth, with Hudson Bay territory, Archangel and Greenland. Although called coarse, bright, black or reddish brown top hair. 3 in. long. Found blue, the coldur is a slaty or drab tone. Those from Archangel are widely in North America. After being unhaired the darkest wools morc silky and of a smoky bluish colour and are the most valuable. are the most valuable, although many people prefer the bright, These are scarce and consequently dear. The white foxes that are lighter brown tones.. Used for collars, cuffs, boas, muffs, trimmings. dyed smoke and celestial blue are brilliant and totally unlike the coat linings and carriage aprons, and is of a most durable nature, in browner shades of this fox. Value 345. to 1955. addition to having a rich and good appearance.

Value 10s. to Fox, COMMON.—The variation of size and quality is considerable,

and the colour is anything from grey to red. In Great Britain the BROADTAIL.-See Lambs, below,

animal is now only regarded for the sport it provides. On the CARACAL.-A small lynx from India, the sur very poor, seldom European continent, however, some hundreds of thousands of skins, imported.

principally German, Russian and Norwegian, are sold, annually CARACUL.-See Goals and Lambs, below.

lor hoine use, and for dyeing and exportation, chiefly to the United Cat, Civet:-Size 9X44 in., short, thick and dark underwool States. The qualities do not compare with those species found in with silky black top hair with irregular and unique white markings. North America and the Arctic circle. The Asiatic, African and It is similar to skunk, but is much lighter in weight, softer and less South American varicties are, with the exception of those taken in full, without any disagreeable odour. Used for coat linings it is the mountains, poorly furred and usually brittle and therefore of no very warm and durable. A few come from China, but the fur is great service. No commercial value can be quoted. yellowish-grey, slightly spotted and worth little. Value is. Id. Fox, Cross.-Size 20 X7 in., are about as large as the silver and to Is. Id.

generally have a pale yellowish or orange tone with some silvery Cat, House, &c.-18X9 in., mostly black and dark brown, points and a darkish cross marking on the shoulders. Some are very imported from Holland, Bavaria, America and Russia, where they similar to the pale red fox from the North-West of America and a are reared for their coats. The best, from Holland, are used for coat few are exceptionally large. The darkest and best come from linings. Although in colour, weight and warmth they are excellent, Labrador and Hudson Bay, and the ordinary sorts from the north. the fur is apt to become loose and to fall off with friction of wear. west of the United States and, as with silver and other kinds, the The black are known as genet, although the true genet is a spotted quality is inferior when taken from warmer latitudes. Value jos. 6d. wild cat. Wild sorts of the tabby order are coarser, and not so good

to 60s. and silky in effect as when domestically reared. Value of the Fox, GREY.-Size 27 X10 in. Has a close dark drab underwool black sorts 2d. to 3s. Wild od. to 14s. Some small wild cats, very with yellowish grizzly, grey, regular and coarse top hair. The poor fiat fur of a pale fawn colour with yellow spots, are imported majority used for the trade come from Virginia and the southern from Australia and used for linings. Value $}d. to is. id.

and western parts of the United States. Those from the west are CHEETAH:-Size of a small leopard and similar in colour, but has larger than the average, with more fur of a brighter tone. The sur black spots in lieu of rings. Only a few are now imported, which are is fairly serviceable for carriage rugs, the leather being stout, but its used for mats. Value 28. 6d. to 18s.

harshness of quality and nondescript colour does not contribute to CHINCHILLA, PERUVIAN and BOLIVIAN.-Size 12X7 in., fur i to make it a lavourite. Value 9d. to 4s. 9d. 1} in. deep... Delicate blue-grey with black shadings, one of nature's Fox, JAPANESE.-See Fox, Red, and Raccoon, below. most beautiful productions, though not a durable one. Used for Fox, Kır.--Size 20 X6 in. The underwool is short and soft, as ladies' coats, stoles, mulls, hats and trimmings. Yearly becoming is also the top hair, which is of very pale grey mixed with some scarcer and most costly. Value 8s. 60. to 56s. 8d.

yellowish-white hair. It is the smallest of Toxes, and is found in CHINCHILLA, LA PLATA, incorrectly named and known in the trade Canada and the northern section of the United States. It is similar as" bastard chinchilla," size 9X4 in., in a similar species, but owing in colour and quality to the prairie fox and to many kinds from the to lower altitudes and warmer climatic conditions of habitation warmer zones, such as from Turkey, eastern Asia and elsewhere, is smaller, with shorter and less beautiful sur, the underwool colour Value is. 3d. to ss. d. being darker and the top colour less pure. Used exactly as the Fox, RED.-Size 24 X8 in., though a few kinds are much larger. better kind, and the picked skins are most effective. As with the The underwool is long and soft and the hair plentiful and strong. best sort it is not serviceable for constant wear. Value 4s. 2d. to It is found widely in ihe northern parts of America and in smaller

numbers south of the United States, also in China, Japan and CHINCHILLONE.-Size 13X8in., obtained also from South America. Australia. The colours vary from pale yellowish to a dark red, Fur is longer and weaker and poorer and yellower than chinchilla. some being very brilliant. Those of Kamschatka are rich and fine in Probably a crossbred animal, very limited importation. Value quality., Farther north, especially near the sea, the fur is coarse. 3s. 6. to 16s. 8d.

Where the best coloured skins are not used for carriage rugs they are DEER, CHINESE and East INDIAN.-Small, light, pelted skins, extensively dyed, and badger and other white hairs are inserted the majority of which are used for mats. Reindeer and other to resemble silver lox. They are also dyed a sable colour. The varieties are of little interest for use other than trophy mats. skins, being the strongest of foxes', both in the fur and pelt, are Thousands are taken for the leather trade. Value of Chinese is. 2d. serviceable. The preparations in imitation of the natural black and to Is. 6d. each.

silver sorts are very good and attractive. Value is. to 41s. Dog.-The only dogs that are used in the sur trade in civilized Fox, SILVER. Size 30 X 10 in. Underwool close and fine. Top countries are those imported from China, which are heavy and hair black to silvery, 3 in. long. The sur upon the necks usually coarse, and only used in the cheaper trade, chiefly for rugs. Value runs dark, almost black, and in some cases the sur is black halfway 6d. to is.

down the length of the skin, in rarer cases three-quarters of the Dog WOLF:-See Wolf. below.

length and, in the most exceptional instances, the whole length, ERMINE.-Size 12 X2} in. Underwool short and even with a shade and when this is the case they are known as “ Natural Black Foxes longer top hair. Pelt light and close in texture, and durable. In and fetch enormous prices. The even silvery sorts are highly the height of winter the colour is pure white with exception of the esteemed, and the fur is one of the most effective and precious. tip of tail, which is quite black. Supplies are obtained from Siberia The finest are taken in Labrador. The farther south they are found, and America. Best are from Ishim in Siberia. Used for cloak the poorer and coarser the sur. The brush has invariably a white linings, stoles, muffs and trimmings, also for embellishment of tip. 'Value [1 to £320. British state, parliamentary and legal robes. When this fur is 'Fox, White.---Size 20x7 in. Animals of this species are generally symmetrically spotted with black lamb pieces it is styled miniver, small in size and inhabit the extreme northern sections of Hudson in which form it is used at the grand coronation functions of British Bay, Newfoundland, Greenland, Labrador and Siberia. The sovereigns. Value is. 3d. to 8s. 6d.

Canadian are silky in nature and inclined to a creamy colour, while FISHER.-Size 30 X12 in., tail 12 to 18 in. long, the largest of the the Siberian are more woolly and rather whiter. Those taken in martens; has a dark shaded deep underwool with fine, glossy, dark central Asia near or in Chinese territory are poorer and yellowish. and strong top hair 2 in. or more long. Best obtained Irom British The underwool in all sorts is generally of a bluish-grey tone, but the America. The tails are almost black and make up most handsomely top hair in the depth of winter is usually full enough in quantity to

27s. 6d.

hide any such variation. Those skins in which the underwool is , look well. Generally the colours are yellowish or brown. Some are quite white are rare and much more expensive. In summer speci- dark brown as in the swamp, which being strong are suitable for mens of this species, as with other white furred animals, have slightly motor coats, The rock wallabies are soft and woolly and often of a discoloured coats. The skins that are not perfectly white are dyed pretty bluish tone, and make moderately useful carriage rugs and jet black, dark or light smoke, violet-blue, blue-grey, and also in perambulator aprons. The redder and browner sorts are also good imitation of the drab shades of the natural blue. Value 18s. to 66s. for rugs as they are thick in the pelt. On the European continent

Genet. --Size 10 X4 in. The genet proper is a small white spotted many of these are dyed. The best of the lighter weights are frecat sound in Europe, but the quantity is too small to be of commercial quently insufficiently strong in the hair to stand the friction of wear interest. The name has been adopted for the black cats used so in a coat lining. Value, kangaroo 3d. to zs., wallaby 14d. to 58. 3d., much in the trade. (See Cats, above.) Value is. to 6s. 6d.

wallaroo is. to gs. 6d. GOATS.-Size varies greatly: The European, Arabian and East Kids.-See Goals, above. Indian kinds are seldom used for rugs, the skins are chiefly dressed KOLINSKY.-Size 12X25 in. Is one of the marten tribe. The as leather for books and furniture, and the kids for boots and gloves, underwool is short and rather weak, but regular, as is also the top and the finer wool and hair are woven into various materials. Many hair; the colour is usually yellow.. They have been successfully from Russia are dyed black for floor and carriage rugs: the hair is dyed and used as a substitute for sable. They are found in Siberia, brittle, with poor underwool and not very durable: the cost, however, Amoor, China and Japan, but the best are from Siberia. They are is small. The Chinese export thousands of similar skins in black, light in weight and therefore suitable for linings of coats. The tails grey and white, usually ready dressed and made into rugs of two are used for artists' * sable" brushes. The sur has often been skins cach. A great many are dyed black and brown, in imitation designated as red or Tatar sable. Value is. 6d. to 4s. 6d. of bear, and are used largely in the western parts of the United LAMBS.-- The sorts that primarily interest the fur trade in Europe States and Canada for sleigh and carriage rugs. Many are used for and America are those from south Russia, Persia and Afghanistan, their leather. Thousands of the kids are also dyed black and worked which are included under the following wholesale or retail cominto cross-shaped pieces, in which shape they are largely exported mercial terms: Persian lamb, broadtail, astrachan, Shiraz, Bokharan to Germany, France, Great Britain and America, and sold by the and caracul lamb. With the public the general term astrachan is an retail as caracal, kid or caracul. The grey ones are in good demand old one, embracing all the above curly sorts; the flatter kinds, as broad. for motor coats. The word caracul has been adopted from the tail and caracul lamb, have always been named separately. The Turkish and significs black-eared. See also Lambs, caracul. Value Persian lambs, size 18X9 in., are the finest and the best of them. of Chinese white 3s. 6d. to 6s. 6d.; grey, 4sto 6s. 9d.

When dressed and dyed they should have regular, close and bright The Angora from the heights of central Asia Minor has curly, curl, varying from a small to a very large one, and if of equal site, Aleccy, silky, white wool, 4 to 7 in. long. The fur is not used in Great regularity, lightness and brightness, the value is comparatively a Britain, as formerly, and the greater quantity, known as mohair, matter of fancy. Those that are dull and loose, or very coarse and is now imported for purposes of weaving. This species of goat was flat in the curl, are of far less market value. some years since introduced into Cape Colony, but its wool is not All the above enumerated lambs are naturally a rusty black or so good as the Asiatic breed. Good business, however, is done with brown, and with very few exceptions are dyed a jet black. Lustre. the product, but chiefly for leather. Value 45. to 128. 6.

however, cannot be imparted unless the wool was originally of a The Mongolian goat has a very soft silk underwool, and after the silky nature. Broadtails, size 10X5 in., are the very young of the long top hair is removed it is dressed and imported and erroncously Persian sheep, and are killed before the wool has time to develop named mouflon. The colour is a light lawn, but it is so pale that it beyond the flat wavy state which can be best compared to a piece lends itself to be dyed any colour. It was popular some years since of moiré silk. They are naturally exceedingly light in weight, and in the cheaper trade, but it is not now much seen in England. Value those that are of an even pattern, possessing a lustrous sheen, are 25. to 6s.

costly. There is, notwithstanding, a great demand for these from The Tibet goat is similar to the Angora in the fineness of its wool, the fashionable world, as not only are they very effective, but being and many are used in the making of cashmere shawls. The Tibet so flat in the wool the figure of the wearer can be shown as perfectly lamb so largely imported and used for children's wear is often inis as in a garment made of silk. It cannot be regarded as an economical called Tibet goat. Value 3s. to 75. 6d.

fur, as the pelt is too delicate to resist hard wear. GUANACO. -Size 30 X 15 in. is a species of goat found in Patagonia and other parts of South America. It has a very long neck and

Persian Lamb price 125. 6d. to 25s. exceedingly soft woolly fur of a light reddish-fawn colour with very

Broadtail

35s. white Aanks. It is usually imported in small quantities, native Astrachan, Shiraz and Bokharan lambs, size 22 by 9 in., are of a dressed, and ready made into rugs. The dressing is hard and coarser, looser curl, and chiefly used for coat linings, while the brittle. If the skins are dressed in Europe they afford a very com Persians are used for outside of garments, collars, cuffs, stoles, muffs, fortable rug, though a very marked one in effect. They have a hats and trimmings and gloves. The so-called caracul lambs, size similar wool to the vicuna, but coarser and redder; both are largely 12 X6 in., are the very young of the astrachan sheep, and the pick used in South America. Value Is. to 4s. 6d.

of them are almost as effective as broadtails, although less fine in the HAMSTER.-Size 8X31 in. A destructive rodent, is found in texture. See also remarks as to caracul kid under Goals, above. great numbers in Russia and Germany. The fur is very flat and poor,

Astrachan of a yellowish pale brown with a little marking of black. Being

to price is.

Caracul Lamb of a light weight it is used for linings. Value 3d. to is.

2s, 6d

Tos. 6d.

Shiraz HARE.-Size 24X9 in. The common hare of Europe does not

Bokharan much interest the furrier, the fur being chiefly used by makers of

Is. 6d hatters' felt. The white hares, however, of Russia, Siberia and other Grey lambs, size 24 X10 in., are obtained from the Crimea and known regions in the Arctic circle are very largely used in the cheaper trade in the trade as crimmers. They are of a similar nature to the of Europe, America and the British

colonies. The fur is of the caracul lambs, but looser in curl, ranging from a very light to a whitest when killed in winter, and that upon the flanks of the animal dark grey. The best are the pale bluish greys, and are chiefly used is very much longer than that upon its back. The Alanks are usually for ladies' coats, stoles, muffs and hats. Price 2s. to 6s. Mongolian cut off and made into muffs and stoles. The hair is, however, brittle lambs, size 24 X 15 in., are of a short wavy loose curl, creamy white and is not at all durable. This fur is dyed jet black and various shades of brown and grey, and manufactured into articles for the being ready-made into cross-shaped coats or linings. They are used

colour, and are usually exported (som China dressed, the majority small drapers and for exportation. The North American hares principally for linings of good evening wraps for ladies. Price is. are also dyed black and brown and used in the same way. Value io 2s. 6d. Slink lambs come from South America and China. The of white ad. to 5d.

former are very small and generally those that are stillborn. They JACKAL.--Size 2 to 3 ft. long: Is found in India and north and have a particularly thin pelt with very close wool of minute curl. south Africa. Indian are light brown and reddish, those from the The China sorts are much larger. The smallest are used for glove Cape are dark grey and rather silvery: Few are imported. Fur linings and the others for opera cloak linings. Price 1s. to 6s. 6d. generally poor and harsh, only suitable for carriage rugs. Value LEOPARD.-Size 3 to 6 ft. long. There are several kinds, the chief is. to 35. 6d.

being the snow or ounce, Chinese, Bengal, Persian, East Indian and JAGUAR.--Size 7 to io st. long. Is found in Mexico and British African. The first variety inhabit the Himalayas and are beautifully Honduras. The markings are an irregular ring formation with a covered with a deep soft sur quite long compared to the flat harsh spot in the centre. Leopards have rings only and cheetahs solid hair of the Bengal sort. The colours are pale orange and white

with spots. Suitable only for hearthrugs. Supply very limited. Value very dark markings, a strong contrast making a fine effect. Most 55. to 453.

artists prize these skins above all others. The Chinese are of a KALUGA.-Sce Souslik, below.

medium orange brown colour, but full in sur. The East Indian are KANGAROO.-The sizes vary considerably, some being huge, less full and not so dark. The Bengal are dark and medium in colour, others quite small. The larger varieties, viz. the red and the great, short and hard hair, but useful for floor rugs, as they do not hold the do not usually

interest furriers, the fur being harsh and poor without dust like the fuller and softer hair of the kinds previously named. underwool. They are tanned for the leather trade. The sorts used They are also used for drummers' aprons and saddle cloths in the for carriage aprons, coat linings and the outside of motor coats Indian army. The African are small with pale lemon colour grounds include: blue kangaroo, bush kangaroo, bridled kangaroo, wallaroo, very closely marked with black spots on the skin, the strong conyellow kangaroo, rock wallaby, swamp wallaby and short-tailed trast making a pleasing effect. Occasionally, where something very wallaby. Many of the swamp sort are dyed to imitate skunk and marked is wanted, skating jackets and carriage aprons are made

IOS.

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38. 6d.

from the softest and Aattest of skins, but usually they are made into The Russian species is dark but fat and poor in quality, and the settee covers, floor rugs and foot muffs. Value 2s. to 405.

Chinese and Japanese are so pale that they are invariably dyed. Lion. --Size 5 to 6 ft. long. These skins are found in Africa, These, however, are of very inferior nature. Value of American Arabia and part of India, and are every year becoming scarcer. 35. 34. to 408., Japanese 3d. to 28. 3d. They are only used for foor rugs, and the males are more highly Nole. -Size 3 X2in. Moles are plentiful in the British Isles esteemed on account of the set-off of the mane. Value, lions' [10 and Europe, and owing to their lovely velvety coats of exquisite to {100; lionesses' (5 to {25.

blue shade and to the dearness of other furs are much in demand. Lynx.-Size 45 X 20 in. The underwool is thinner than fox, but Though the fur is cheap in itself, the expense of dressing and working the top hair is fine, silky and flowing, 4 in. long, of a pale grey, up these little skins is considerable, and they possess the unique slightly mottled with fine streaks and dark spots. "The fur upon the charm of an exceptional colour with little weight of pelt; the quality flanks is longer and white with very pronounced markings of dark of resistance to friction is, however, so slight as to make them expenspots, and this part of the skin is generally worked separately from sive in wear. The best are the dark blue from the Fen district of the rest and is very effective for gown trimmings. Where the colour Cambridgeshire in England. Value fd, to ad. is of a sandy and reddish hue the value is far less than where it is MONGOLIAN LAMBS.-Sce Lambs, above. of a bluish tone. They inhabit North America as far south as MONKEY, BLACK.---Size 18 X 10 in. Among the species of monkeys California, also Norway and Sweden. Those from the Hudson Bay only one interests to any extent the fur trade, and that is the black district and Sweden are the best and are very similar. Those taken monkey taken on the west coast of Africa (Colobus satanas). The in Central Asia are mostly used locally. For attire the skins manu- hair is very long, very black and bright with no underwool, and the factured in Europe are generally dyed black or brown, in which white pelt of the base of the hair, by reason of the great contrast of state it has a similar appearance to dyed fox, but having less thick colour, is very noticeable. The skins were in 1850 very fashionable underwool and finer hair flows freely. The finest skins when dyed in England for stoles, muffs and trimmings, and in America also as black are used very largely in America in place of the dyed black recently as 1890. They are now mostly bought for Germany and fox so fashionable for mourning wear in Great Britain and France. the continent. Value 6d. to is. 6d. The British Hussar busbies are made of the dark brown lynx, and it MOUFLON.-Size 30 X 15 in. Is a sheep found in Russia and is the free silky easy movement of the fur with the least disturbance Corsica and now very little in demand, and but few are imported in the atmosphere that gives it such a pleasing effect. It is used into

Great Britain. Many Mongolian goats with the long hairs for rugs in its natural state and also in Turkey as trimmings for pulled out are sold as mouffon. Value 4s. to 1os. 6d. garments. Value 135. 6d. to 56s.

MUSK-Ox.--Size 6X3 ft. These animals have a dense coat of Lynx CAT or BAY Lynx.- Is about half the size and depth of sur fine, long brown wool, with very long dark brown hair on the head, of a lynx proper, and inhabits the central United States. It is a Aanks and tail, and, in the centre, a peculiar pale oval marking. flat and reddish fur compared to the lynx and is suitable for cheap There is no other fur that is so thick, and it is eminently suitable carriage aprons. A few come from Canada and are of better quality for sleighing rugs, for which purpose it is highly prized in Canada. Value 5s. to 158.

The musk-ox inhabits the north part of Greenland and part of MARMOT. --Size 18 X 12 in. Is a rodent and is found in considerable Canada, but in very limited numbers. Value 1os. to 1308. numbers in the south of Prussia. The fur is a yellowish brown and MUSQUASH or MUSK-RAT, BROWN and BLACK RUSSIAN.---Size rather harsh and brittle and has no underwool. Since, however, the value of all good furs has advanced, dyers and manufacturers from Canada and the United States, similar in habit to the English

12 X8 in. A very prolific rodent of the amphibious class obtained have made very successful efforts with this fur. The Viennese have vole, with a fairly thick and even brown underwool and rather been particularly successful, and their method has been to dye the strong top dark hair of medium density. It is a very useful sur for skins a good brown and then not put in the dark stripes, which men's coat linings and ladies' driving or motoring coats, being exist in sable and mink, until the garment or article is finished, thus warm, durable and not too heavy. If the colour were less motley obtaining as perfectly symmetrical effects as if the articles were and the joins between the skins could be made less noticeable, it made of small skins instead of large ones. Marinots are also found would be largely in demand for stoles, ties and muffs. As it is, this in North America, Canada and China: the best, however, come from fur is only used for these smaller articles for the cheaper trade. It Russia. It should always be a cheap fur, having so few good qualities has, however, of fater years been" unhaired," the underwool clipped to recommend it. Value 9d. to 25. 6d.

very even and then dyed seal colour, in which way very useful and MARTEN, AMERICAN. --See Sable, below.

attractive garments are supplied at less than half the cost of the MARTEN, BAUM. --Size 16X5 in. Is sometimes called the pine cheaper sealskins. They do not wear as well, however, as the pelt marten, and is found in quantity in the wooded and mountainous and the wool are not of a strength comparable to those of sealskin. districts of Russia, Norway, Germany and Switzerland. It possesses with care, however, such a garment lasts sufficiently long to warrant a thick underwool with strong top hair, and ranges from a pale to a the present outlay. Value 5 d. to Is. 9d. dark bluish brown. The best, from Norway, are very durable and There is a so-called black variety found in Delaware and New of good appearance and an excellent substitute for American sable. Jersey, but the number is very small compared to the brown species. The tails when split into two or three, with small strips of narrow | 'They are excellent for men's coat linings and the outside of ladies' tape so as to separate the otherwise dense fur, formerly made very coats, for stoles, muffs, collars and cuffs. Value 10d. to 38. 7d. handsome sets of trimmings, ties and muffs, and the probabilities The Russian musquash is very small

, 7X4 in., and is limited in are, as with

other fashions, such use will have its period of revival. numbers compared to the brown. Only a lew thousands are imValue 6s, to 855.

ported to London. It is of a very pretty silvery-blue shade of even MARTEN, BLACK.--See Skunk, below.

wool with very little silky top hair, having silvery-white sides and MARTEN, JAPANESE.-Size 16 X5 in. Is of a woolly nature with altogether a very marked effect. The odour, however, even after rather coarse top hair and quite yellow in colour. It is dyed for dressing is rather pungent of musk, which is generally an objection. the cheap trade for boas and muffs, but it is not an attractive sur Value 4s. to 6s. 6d. at the best of times. It lacks a silky, bright and fresh appearance, NUTRIA.-Size 20 X 12 in. Is a rodent known in natural history and therefore is unlikely to be in great demand,

except where economy as the coypu, about half the size of a beaver, and when unhaired has is an object. Value 6s. 6d. to 18s. 6d.

not more than half, generally less, the depth of fur, which is also MARTEN, STONE.-Size and quality similar to the baum; the not so close. Formerly the fur was only used for hatters' felt, but colour, however, of the underwool is a stony white and the top hair with the rise in prices of furs these skins have been more carefully is very dark, almost black. They live in rocky and stony districts. removed and with improved dressing, unhairing and silvering Skins of a pale bluish tone are generally used in their natural state processes--the best provides a very effective and suitable fur for for stoles, boas and muffs, but the less clear coloured skins are dyed ladies' coats, capes, stoles, muffs, hats and gloves, while the lower in beautiful shades similar in density to the dark and valuable sables qualities make very useful, light-weighted and inexpensive linings from Russia, and are the most effective skins that can be purchased for men's or women's driving coats. It is also dyed scalskin colour, at a reasonable price. The tails have also been worked, in the but its woolly nature renders it less effective than the more silky manner

cxplained with regard to the baum marten, as sets of trim- musquash. They are obtained from the northern part of South mings and in other forms. Stone martens are found in Russia, America. Value is. 6d. to 6s. 6d. Bosnia, Turkey, Greece, Germany, the Alps and France. The OCELOT.-Size 36X13 in. ls of the nature of a leopard and Bosnian and the French arc the best in colour. The Asiatic sorts are prettily marked with stripes and oblong spots. Only a few are now less woolly, but being silky are useful when dyed. There are many imported from South America for carriage aprons or mats. The from Afghanistan and India which are too poor to interest the numbers are very limited. Value is. to 25. 60. European markets. Value 7s.6d. to 26s.

O POSSUM, AMERICAN.-Size 18 X 10 in. Is a marsupial, a class MINK.-Size 16X5 in. is of the amphibious class and is found with this exception not met with out of Australia. The underwool throughout North America and in Russia, China and Japan. The is of a very close frizzy nature, and nearly white, with long bluish underwool is short, close and even, as is also the top hair, which is grey mixed with some black top hair. It only found in the central very strong. The best skins are very dark and are obtained from sections of the United States. About 1870 in England it was dyed Nova Scotia. In the central states of America the colour is a good dark brown or black and used for boas, muffs and trimmings, but brown, but in the north-west and south-west the

fur is coarse and until recently has been neglected on the continent. With, however, generally pale. It is very durable for linings, and is an economical recent experiments in brown and skunk coloured dyes, it bids fair substitute for sable for coats, capes, boas and trimmings. Values to become a popular fur. Value 2 d. to 5s.6d. have greatly increased, and the fur possessing good qualities as to OPOSSUM, AUSTRALIAN. --Size 16X8 m. Is a totally different colour and durability will doubtless always be in good request. nature of fur to the American. Although it has wool and top hair,

the latter is so sparse and fine that the coat may be considered as coats, che sur outside. The poorer qualities are extensively bought one of close even wool. The colour varies according to the district and made up in a similar way for Austria-Hungary and Germany. of origin, from a blue grey to yellow with reddish tones. Those These make excellent linings for coats or lootsacks for open driving from the neighbourhood of Sydney are light clear blue, while those in very cold climates. The worst coloured skins are dyed black or from Victoria are dark iron grey and stronger in the wool. These brown and are used for British military busbies, or caps, stoles, animals are most prolific and evidently increasing in numbers. boas, muffs and coachmen's capes. The best skins come from the Their fur is pretty, warm and as yet inexpensive, and is useful for northern parts of the United States. A smaller and poorer species rugs, coat linings, stoles, muffs, trimmings and perambulator aprons. inhabits South America, and a very few are found in the north of The worst coloured ones are frequently dyed black and brown. India, but these do not interest the European trade. From Japan The most pleasing natural grey come from Adelaide. The reddest a similar animal is obtained in smaller quantities with very good are the cheapest. Value 3 d. to 3s. 6d.

but longer fur, of yellowish motley light-brown shades. It is more OPOSSUM, RINGTAILED.-Size 7X4 in. Has a very short close and often imported and sold as Japanese fox, but its resemblance to dark grey wool, some being almost black. There are but a few the fur of the American raccoon is so marked as to surely identify thousands imported, and being so flat they are only of use for coat it. When dyed dark blue or skunk colour it is good-looking and is linings, but they are very warm and light in weight. Value 6d. sold widely in Europe. Raccoon skins are also frequently unhaired, to tod.

and if the underwool is of good quality the effect is similar to beaver. Opossum, TASMANIAN (grey and black).—Size 20 X 10 in. Is of a It is the most useful fur for use in America or Russia, having a full similar description, but darker and stronger in the wool and larger. quantity of fur which will retain heat. Value 10d. to 26s. Besides these there are some very rich brown skins which were SABLE, AMERICAN and CANADIAN, -Size 17 X 5 in. The skins are sormerly in such request in Europe, especially Russia, that undue sold in the trade sale as martens, but as there are many that are of a killing occurred until 1899, when the government stopped for a time very dark colour and the majority are almost as silky as the Russian the taking of any of this class. They are excellent for carriage sable, the retail trade has for generations back applied the term of aprons, being not only very light in weight and warm, but handsome. sable to this fur. The prevailing colour is a medium brown, and Value 28. 6. to 8s. 6d.

many are quite yellow.' The dyeing of these very pale skins has OTTER, River.-The size varies considerably, as does the under been for so long well executed that it has been possible to make wool and the top hair, according to the country of origin. There very good useful and effective articles of them at a moderate price are few rivers in the world where they do not live. But it is in the compared to Russian sable. The finest skins are found in the East colder northern regions that they are found in the greatest numbers Main and the Esquimaux Bay, in the Hudson's Bay Company's and with the best sur or underwool, the top hair, which, with the districts, and the poorest in Alaska. They are not found very lar exception of the scarce and very rich dark brown specimens they south of the northern boundary of the United States. The best have in common with most aquatic animals, is pulled out before the skins are excellent in quality, colour and effect, and wear well. skins are manufactured. Most of the best river otter comes from Value 27s. 3d. to 2905. Canada and the United States and averages. 36 X 18 in. in size. Skins SABLE, CHINESE and JAPANESE.-Size 14X41 in. These are from Germany and China are smaller, and shorter in the wool. The similar to the Amur skins previously referred to, but of much poorer colours of the under wools of river otters vary, some being very quality and generally only suitable for linings. The very palest dark, others almost yellow. Both as a fur and as a pelt it is extremely skins are dyed and made by the Chinese into

mandarins coats, in strong, but owing to its short and close wool it is usually made up which form they are found in the London trade sales, but being for the linings, collars and cuffs of men's coats. A large number of overdressed they are inclined to be loose in the hair and the colour skins, after unhairing, is dyed scal colour and used in America. of the dye is not good. The Japanese kind are imported raw, but Those from hot climates are very poor in quality. Value 28s. 10 1188. are few in numbers, very pale and require dyeing. Value 155. to

OTTER, SEA.--Size 50 X 25 in. Possesses pne of the most beautiful 150s. of coats. Unlike other aquatic animals the skin undergoes no process Sable, Russian.-Size 15 X5 in. These skins belong to a species of unhairing, the fur being of a rich dense silky wool with the softest of marten, very similar to the European and American, but much and shortest of water hairs. The colours vary from pale grey brown more silky in the nature of their fur. They have long been known to a rich black, and many have even or uneven sprinkling of white " sables," doubtless owing to the density of colour to which or silvery-white hairs. The blacker the wool and the more regular many of them attain, and they have always been held in the highest the silver points, the more valuable the skin. Sea otters are, un esteem by connoisseurs as possessing a combination of rare qualities. fortunately, decreasing in numbers, while the demand is increasing. The underwool is close, fine and very soft, the top hair is regular, The fur is most highly esteemed in Russia and China; in the latter fine, silky and Aowing, varying from it to 24 in. in depth. In country it is used to trim mandarins' state robes. In Europe and colour they range from a pale stony or yellowish shade to a rich

dark America it is much used for collar, long facings and cuffs of a gentle brown, almost black with a bluish tone. The pelts are exceedingly man's coat; such a set may cost from (200 to £600, and in all prob- fine and close in texture and, although of little weight, are very ability will soon cost more. Taking into consideration the size, durable, and articles made of them produce a sensation of warmth it is not so costly as the natural black fox, or the darkest Russian immediately they are put upon the body, sable, which is now the most expensive of all. The smaller and young The Yakutsk, Okhotsk and Kamschatka sorts are good, the last sea otters of a grey or brown colour are of small value compared to being the largest and fullest surred, but of less density of colour than the large dark and silvery ones. Value (10 to £220. A single skin the others. Many from other districts are pale or yellowish brown, has been known to fetch £400.

and those from Saghalien are poor in quality. The snost valuable OUNCE.See Leopard, above.

are the darkest from Yakutsk in Siberia, particularly those that have PERSIAN LAMBS.-See Lambs, above.

silvery hairs evenly distributed over the skin. These however are PLATYPUS.-Size 12X8 in. One of the most singular of iur. exceedingly scarce, and when a number are required to match for bearing animals, being the link between bird and beast. It has sur la large garment, considerable time may be necessary to collect them. similar to otter, is of aquatic habits, being web-footed with spurs of This class of skin is the most expensive fur in the world, reckoning a cock and the bill of a duck. The skins are not obtained in any values by a square foot unit. numbers, but being brought over by travellers as curiosities and The Amur skins are paler, but often of a pretty bluish stony tone used for muffs, collars and cuffs, &c., they are included here for with many frequently interspersed silvery hairs. The quality reference. Value 2s. to 3s. 6d.

too is lower, that is, the fur is not so close or deep, but they are very Pony or TATAR foal.-Size 36X20 in.. These skins are of effective, particularly for close-fitting garments, as they possess the comparatively recent importation to the civilized world. They are least appearance of bulk. The paler skins from all districts in Siberia obtained from the young of the numerous herds of wild horses that are now cleverly coloured or "topped," that is, just the tips of the roam over the plains of Turkestan. The coat is usually a 'shade of hair are stained dark, and it is only an expert who can detect them brown, sometimes greyish, fairly bright and with a suggestion of from perfectly natural shades. If this colouring process is properly waviness. Useful for motor coats. Value 3s. to 1os. 6d.

executed it remains fairly fast. Notwithstanding the seported PUMA.-Size 41 X3 ft. is a native of South America, similar to rights of the Russian imperial authorities over some regions with a lion in habits and colour of coat. The hair and pelt is, however, of respect to these and other valuable fur-bearing animals, there are in less strength, and only a few are now used for foor rugs. Value addition to the numbers regularly sent to the trade auction sales Ss. to 10s.

in London many good parcels of raw skins to be easily bought direct, Raccoon.-Size 20X12 in. Is an animal varying considerably provided price is not the first consideration. Value 25$. to 980s. in size and in quality and colour of fur, according to the part of SEAL, FUR.--Sizes range from 24X 15 in. to 55 X25 in., the width North America in which it is found. In commoo parlance, it may being taken at the widest part of the skin after preparation. The be described as a species of wild dog with close affinity to the bear. centre of the skin between the fins is very narrow and the skins taper The underwool is i to if in. deep, pale brown, with long top hairs at each end, particularly at the tail. The very small pups are of a of a dark and silvery.grey mixture of a grizzly type, the best having beautiful quality, but too tiny to make into garments, and, as the aim a bluish tone and the cheapest a yellowish or reddish brown: A of a good furrier is to avoid all lateral or cross seams, skins are limited number of very dark and black sorts exist and are highly selected that are the length of the garment that is to be made. The valued for trimmings.' The very finest skins are chiefly used for most useful skins for coats are the large pups 42 in. long, and the stoles and muffs, and the general run for coachmen's capes and quality is very good and uniform. The largest skins, known in the carriage rugs, which are very handsome when the tails, which are trade as wigs," which range up to 8 ft. in length, are uneven and marked with rings of dark and light fur alternately, are lest on. weak in the fur, and hunters do not seek to obtain them. The supply Raccoons are used in enormous quantities in Canada for men's of the best sort is chiefly from the North Pacific, viz. Pribilor

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