Page images

superintended each piece of work, which, therefore, was never with its first editor, Herbert Coleridge, and after his death far removed from the designer's eye. Though accomplished was for some time principal editor during the preliminary period artists are retained by the manufacturers of London, Paris and of the collection of material. The completion of his half-century other capitals, there can no longer be the same relation between of labour was acknowledged in 1900 by a fiandsome testimonial, the designer and his work. Many operations in these modern including the preparation by his friends of a volume of philofactories are carried on by machinery. This, though an economy logical essays specially dedicated to him, An English Miscellany of labour, entails loss of artistic effect. The chisel and the knife (Oxford, 1901), and a considerable donation to the Early English are no longer in such cases guided and controlled by the sensitive Text Society. Dr Furnivall was always an enthusiastic oarsman, touch of the human hand.

and till the end kept up his interest in rowing; with John A decided, if not always intelligent, effort to devise a new Beesley in 1845 he introduced the new type of narrow sculling style in furniture began during the last few years of the 19th boat, and in 1886 started races on the Thames for sculling fours century, which gained the name of " l'art nouveau." Its pioneers and sculling eights. He died on the 2nd of July 1910. professed to be free from all old traditions and to seek inspiration FURSE, CHARLES WELLINGTON (1868-1904), English from nature alone. Happily nature is less forbidding than many painter, born at Staines, the son of the Rev. C. W. Furse, archof these interpretations of it, and much of the “new art " is a deacon of Westminster, was descended collaterally from Sir remarkable exemplification of the impossibility of altogether Joshua Reynolds, and in his short span of life achieved such ignoring traditional forms. The style was not long in degenerat- rare excellence as a portrait and figure painter that he forms an ing into extreme extravagance. Perhaps the most striking con- important link in the chain of British portraiture which extends sequence of this effort has been, especially in England, the from the time when Van Dyck was called to the court of Charles I. revival of the use of oak. Lightly polished, or waxed, the cheap to our own day. His talent was precocious; at the age of seven foreign oaks osten produce very agreeable results, especially he gave indications of it in a number of drawings illustrating when there is applicd to them a simple inlay of boxwood and Scott's novels. He entered the Slade school in 1884, winning the stained holly, or a modern form of pewter. The simplicity of Slade scholarship in the following year, and completed his educathese English forms is in remarkable contrast to the tortured tion at Julian's atelier in Paris. Hard worker as he was, his and ungainly outlines of "continental seekers after a conscious activity was frequently interrupted by spells of illness, for he had and unpleasing “ originality.”

developed signs of consumption when he was still attending the Until a very recent period the most famous collections of Slade school. An important canvas called “Cain" was his first historic furniture were to be found in such French museums as contribution (1888) to the Royal Academy, to the associateship the Louvre, Cluny and the Garde Meuble. Now, however, they of which he was elected in the year of his death. For some years are rivalled, if not surpassed, by the magnificent collections of before he had been a staunch supporter of the New English Art the Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington, and the Club, to the exhibitions of which he was a regular contributor. Wallace collection at Hertford House, London. The latter, in He was married in October 1900 to Katherine, daughter of John conjunction with the Jones bequest at South Kensington, forms Addington Symonds. His fondness for sport and of an open-air the finest of all gatherings of French furniture of the great life found expression in his art and introduced a new, fresh and periods, notwithstanding that in the Bureau du Roi the Louvre vigorous note into portraiture. There is never a suggestion of possesses the most magnificent individual example in existence. the studio or of the fatiguing pose in his portraits. The sitters in America there are a number of admirable collections repre-appear unconscious of being painted, and are generally seen in sentative of the graceful and homely "colonial furniture" the pursuit of their favourite outdoor sport or pastime, in the made in England and the United States during the Queen Anne full enjoyment of life. Such are the “Diana of the Uplands," and Georgian periods.

the " Lord Roberts " and " The Return from the Ride” at the See also the separate articles in this work on particular forms of Tate Gallery; the four children in the “ Cubbing with the York furniture. The literature of the subject has become very extensive, and Ainsty," “ The Lilac Gown,"“ Mr and Mrs Oliver Fishing" and it is needless to multiply here the references to books. Perrot and the portrait of Lord Charles Beresford. Most of these and Chipiez, in their great Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquilé (1882 et seq.), deal with ancient times, and A. de Champeaux, in Le Meuble pictures, and indeed nearly all the work completed in the few (1885), with the middle ages and later period; English furniture is years of Furse's activity, show a pronounced decorative tendency. admirably treated by Percy Macquoid in his History of English His sense of space, composition and decorative design can best Furniture (1905); and Lady Dilke's French Furniture in the 18th be judged by his admirable mural decorations for Liverpool Century (1901), and Luke Vincent Lockwood's Colonial Furniture in

town hall, executed between 1899 and 1902. A memorial exhibiAmerica (1901), should also be consulted.


tion of Furse's paintings and sketches was held at the Burlington FURNIVALL, FREDERICK JAMES (1825-1910), English Fine Arts Club in 1906. philologist and editor, was born at Egham, Surrey, on the 4th FÜRST, JULIUS (1805–1873), German Orientalist, was born of February 1825, the son of a surgeon. He was called to the bar of Jewish parents at Zerkowo in Posen, on the 12th of May 1805. in 1849, but his attention was soon diverted to philological He studied philosophy and philology at Berlin, and oriental studies and social problems. He gave Frederick Denison Maurice literature at Posen, Breslau and Halle. In 1857 he was appointed valuable assistance in the Christian Socialist movement, and was to a lectureship at the university of Leipzig, and he was promoted one of the founders of the Working Men's College. For half a to a professorship in 1864, which he held until his death at Leipzig century he indefatigably promoted the study of early English on the oth of February 1873. Among his writings may be literature, partly by his own work as editor, and still more mentioned Lehrgebäude der aramäischen Idiome (Leipzig, 1835); efficaciously by the agency of the numerous learned societies Librorum sacrorum Veteris Testamenti concordantiae Hebraicae of which he was both founder and director, especially the Early alqueChaldaicae(Leipzig, 1837-1840); Hebräisches und chaldäisches English Text Society (1864), which has been of inestimable Wörterbuch (1851, English translation by S. Davidson 1867); service in promoting the study of early and middle English. Kultur und Literaturgeschichte der Juden in Asien (1849). Fürst He also established and conducted the Chaucer, Ballad, New also edited a valuable Bibliotheca Judaica (Leipzig, 1849-1863), Shakespeare and Wyclif Societies, and at a later period societies and was the author of some other works of minor importance. for the special study of Browning and Shelley. He edited texts From 1840 to 1851 he was editor of Der Orient, a journal devoted for the Early English Text Society, for the Roxburghe Club to the language, literature, history and antiquities of the Jews. and the Rolls Series; but his most important labours were FÜRSTENBERG, the name of two noble houses of Germany. devoted to Chaucer, whose study he as an editor greatly assisted 1. The more important is in possession of a mediatized princiby his “ Six-Text” edition of the Canterbury Tales, and other pality in the district of the Black Forest and the Upper Danube, publications of the Chaucer Society. He was the honorary which comprises the countship of Heiligenberg, about 7 m. to secretary of the Philological Society, and was one of the original the N. of the Lake of Constance, the landgraviates of Stühlingen promoters of the Oxford New English Dictionary. He co-operated and Baar, and the lordships of Jungnau, Trochtelfingen, Hausen

and Möskirch or Messkirch. The territory is discontinuous; | Theresa (b. 1839) and Gabrielle (b 1844), daughters of the and as it lies partly in Baden, paruly in Württemberg, and partly landgrave Johann Egon (1802-1879). in the Prussian province of Sigmaringen, the head of the family From the days of Heinrich of Urach, a relative and notable is an hereditary member of the first chamber of Baden and of supporter of Rudolph of Habsburg, the Fürstenbergs have the chamber of peers in Württemberg and in Prussia. The played a stirring part in German history as statesmen, ecclesirelations of the principality with Baden are defined by the treaty astics and notably soldiers. There was a popular saying that of May 1825, and its relations with Württemberg by the royal “the emperor fights no great battle but a Fürstenberg falls." declaration of 1839. The Slammorl or ancestral seat of the In the Heiligenberg line the following may be more particularly family is Fürstenberg in the Black Forest, about 13 m. N. of noticed. Schaffhausen, but the principal residence of the present repre FRANZ ECON (1625-1682), bishop of Strassburg, was the elder sentatives of the main line is at Donaueschingen.

son of Egon VII., count of Fürstenberg (1588-1635), who served The family of Fürstenberg claims descent from a certain with distinction as a Bavarian general in the Thirty Years' War. Count Unruoch, a contemporary of Charlemagne, but their He began life as a soldier in the imperial service, but on the authentic pedigree is only traceable to Egino II., count of elevation of his friend Maximilian Henry of Bavaria to the Urach, who died before 1136. In 1218 his successors inherited electorate of Cologne in 1650, he went to his court and embraced the possessions of the house of Zähringen in the Baar district the ecclesiastical career. He soon gained a complete ascendancy of the Black Forest, where they built the town and castle of over the weak-minded elector, and, with his brother William Fürstenberg. Of the two sons of Egino V. of Urach, Conrad, Egon (see below), was mainly instrumental in making him the the elder, inherited the Breisgau and founded the line of the tool of the aggressive policy of Louis XIV. of France. Ecclesicounts of Freiburg, while the younger, Heinrich (1215-1284), astical preferments were heaped upon him. As a child he had received the territories lying in the Kinzigthal and Baar, and been appointed to a canonry of Cologne; to these he added from 1250 onward styled himself first lord, then count, of others at Strassburg, Liége, Hildesheim and Spires; he became Fürstenberg. His territories were subsequently divided among also suffragan bishop and dean of Cologne and provost of Hildesseveral branches of his descendants, though temporarily re- heim, and in 1663 bishop of Strassburg. Later he was also united under Count Friedrich III., whose wise, Anna, heiress prince-abbot of Lüders and Murbach and abbot of Stablo and of the last count of Wardenberg, brought him the countship of Malmedy. On the conclusion of a treaty between the emperor Heiligenberg and lordships of Jungnau and Trochtelfingen in and the elector of Cologne, on the uth of May 1674, Franz was 1534. On Friedrich's death (1559) his territories were divided deprived of all his preferments in Germany, and was compelled between his two sons, Joachim and Christof I. Of these the to take refuge in France. He was, however, amnestied with his former founded the line of Heiligenberg, the latter that of brother William by a special article of the treaty of Nijmwegen Kinzigthal. The Kinzigthal branch was again subdivided in (1679), whereupon he returned to Cologne. After the French the 17th century between the two sons of Christof II. (d. 1614), occupation of Strassburg (1681) he took up his residence there the elder, Wratislaw II. (d. 1642), founding the line of Mösskirch, and dicd on the ist of April 1682. the younger, Friedrich Rudolf (d. 1655), that of Stühlingen. His brother William ECON (1629-1704), bishop of Strassburg, The Heiligenberg branch received an accession of dignity by the began his career as a soldier in the French service. He went to elevation of Count Hermann Egon (d. 16/4) to the rank of prince the court of the elector of Cologne at the same time as Franz of the Empire in 1664, but his line became extinct with the Egon, whose zeal for the cause of Louis XIV. of France he shared. death of his son Prince Anton Egon, favourite of King Augustus In 1672 the intrigues of the two Fürstenbergs had resulted in a the Strong and regent of Saxony, in 1716. The heads of both treaty of offensive alliance between the French monarchy and the Mösskirch and Stühlingen lines were now raised to the the electorate of Cologne, and, the brothers being regarded by dignity of princes of the Empire (1716). The Mösskirch branch the Imperialists as the main cause of this disaster, William was died out with Prince Karl Friedrich (d. 1744); the territories seized by imperial soldiers in the monastery of St Pantaleon at of the Stühlingen branch had been divided on the death of Cologne, hurried off to Vienna and there tried for his life. He Count Prosper Ferdinand (1662–1704) between his two sons, was saved by the intervention of the papal nuncio, but was kept Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (1699-1762) and Ludwig August Egon in prison till the signature of the treaty of Nijmwegen (1679). (1705-1759). The first of these was created prince of the Empire As a reward for his services Louis XIV. appointed him bishop on the toth of December 1716, and founded the princely line of Strassburg in succession to his brother in 1682, in 1686 obtained of the Swabian Fürstenbergs; in 1772 he obtained from the for him from Pope Innocent XI. the cardinal's hat, and in 1688 emperor Francis I. for all his legitimate sons and their descendo succeeded in obtaining his election as coadjutor-archbishop of ants the right to bear, instead of the style of landgrave, that of Cologne and successor to the elector Maximilian Henry. At the prince, which had so far been confined to the reigning head of instance of the emperor, however, the pope interposed his veto; the family. Ludwig, on the other hand, founded the family of the canons followed the papal lead, and, the progress of the the landgraves of Fürstenberg, who, since their territories lay Allies against Louis XIV. depriving him of all prospect of in Austria and Moravia, were known as the “cadet line in success, William Egon retired to France. Here he took up his Austria.” The princely line became extinct with the death abode at his abbey of St Germain des Près near Paris, where he of Karl Joachim in 1804, and the inheritance passed to the died on the 10th of April 1704. Bohemian branch of the Austrian cadet line in the person of In the Stühlingen line the most notable was KARL EGON Karl Egon II. (see below). Two years later the principality (1796-1854), prince of Fürstenberg, the son of Prince Karl was mediatized.

Alois of Fürstenberg, a general in the Austrian service, who was In 1909 there were two branches of the princely house of killed at the battle of Loptingen on the 25th of March 1799. Fürstenberg: (1) the main branch, that of Fürstenberg-Donaue- In 1804 he inherited the Swabian principality of Fürstenberg schingen, the head of which was Prince Maximilian Egon (b. and all the possessions of the family except the Moravian estates. 1863), who succeeded his cousin Karl Egon III. in 1896; (2) He studied at Freiburg and Würzburg, and in 1815 accompanied that of Fürstenberg-Königshof, in Bohemia, the head of which Prince Schwarzenberg to Paris as staff-ofñcer. In 1817 he came was Prince Emil Egon (b. 1876), chamberlain and secretary of of age, and in the following year married the princess Amalie legation to the Austro-Hungarian embassy in London (1907). of Baden. By the mediatization of his principality in 1806 the The cadet line of the landgraves of Fürstenberg is now extinct, greater part of his vast estates had fallen under the sovereignty its last representative having been the landgrave Joseph Frie- of the grand-duke of Baden, and Prince Fürstenberg took a drich Ernst of Fürstenberg-Weitra (1860-1896), son of the conspicuous part in the upper house of the grand-duchy. In landgrave Ernst (1816-1889) by a morganatic marriage. He politics he distinguished himself by a liberalism rare in a great was not recognized as ebenbürtig by the family. The landgraves German noble, carrying through by his personal influence with of Fürstenberg were in 190g represented only by the landgravincs his peers the abolition of tithes and feudal dues and stancbly

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

chopped and bruised it heats rapidly. It is given to horses and both offices till his death. In 1805 he brought out an edition of cows in combination with chopped hay or straw. An acre will Pilkington's Lives of the Painters, which, however, did not add produce about 2000 faggots of green two-year-old gorse, weighing much to his reputation. Canova, when on his visit to England, 20 tb each.

was much taken with Fuseli's works, and on returning to Rome This plant is invaluable in mountain sheep-walks. The in 1817 caused him to be elected a member of the first class in rounded form of the furze bushes that are met with in such the Academy of St Luke. Fuseli, after a life of uninterrupted situations shows how diligently the annual growth, as far as it good health, died at Putney Hill on the 16th of April 1825, is accessible, is nibbled by the sheep. The food and shelter at the advanced age of eighty-four, and was buried in the crypt afforded to them in snowstorms by clusters of such bushes is of St Paul's cathedral. He was comparatively rich at his death, of such importance that the wonder is our sheep farmers do not though his professional gains had always appeared to be meagre. bestow more pains to have it in adequate quantity. Young As a painter, Fuseli had daring invention, was original, plants of whin are so kept down by the sheep that they can fertile in resource, and ever aspiring after the highest forms seldom attain to a profitable size unless protected by a fence of excellence. His mind was capable of grasping and realizing for a few years. In various parts of England it is cut for fuel. the loftiest conceptions, which, however, he often spoiled on the The ashes contain a large proportion of alkali, and are a good canvas by exaggerating the due proportions of the parts, and manure, especially for peaty land.

throwing his figures into attitudes of fantastic and over-strained FUSARO, LAGO, a lake of Campania, Italy, $m. W. of Baia, contortion. He delighted to select from the region of the superand I m. S. of the acropolis of Cumae. It is the ancient Acher usio natural, and pitched everything upon an ideal scale, believing palus, separated from the sea on the W. by a line of sandhills. a certain amount of exaggeration necessary in the higher branches It may have been the harbour of Cumae in early antiquity. of historical painting. “Damn Nature! she always puts me In the ist century A.D. an artificial outlet was dug for it at its out," was his characteristic exclamation. In this theory he was S. end, with a tunnel, lined with opus reliculalum and brick, confirmed by the study of Michelangelo's works and the marble under the hill of Torregaveta. This hill is covered with the statues of the Monte Cavallo, which, when at Rome, he used remains of a large villa, which is almost certainly that of Servilius often to contemplate in the evening, relieved against a murky Vatia, described by Seneca (Epist. 55). There are remain of sky or illuminated by lightning. But this idea was by bim other villa's on the shores of the lake. Oyster cultivation is carried out to an excess, not only in the forms, but also in the carried on there.

attitudes of his figures; and the violent and intemperate action See J. Beloch, Campanien (2nd ed., Breslau, 1890). 188. (T. As.) which he often displays destroys the grand effect which many

RUSELI, HENRY (1741-1825), English painter and writer on of his pieces would otherwise produce. A striking illustration art, of German-Swiss family, was born at Zürich in Switzerland of this occurs in his famous picture of “Hamlet breaking from on the 7th of February 1741; he himself asserted in 1745, but his Attendants to follow the Ghost ": Hamlet, it has been said, this appears to have been a mere whim. He was the second looks as though he would burst his clothes with convulsive child in a family of eighteen. His father was John Caspar cramps in all his muscles. This intemperance is the grand defect Füssli, of some note as a painter of portraits and landscapes, of nearly all Fuseli's compositions. On the other hand, his and author of Lives of the Helvetic Painters. This parent paintings are never either languid or cold. His figures are full destined his son for the church, and with this view sent him to of life and earnest ness, and seem to have an object in view the Caroline college of his native town, where he received an which they follow with rigid intensity. Like Rubens he excelled excellent classical education. One of his schoolmates there in the art of setting his figures in motion. Though the lofty and was Lavater, with whom he formed an intimate friendship. terrible was his proper sphere, Fuseli had a fine perception of the

After taking orders in 1761 Fuseli was obliged to leave his ludicrous. The grotesque humour of his fairy scenes, especially country for a while in consequence of having aided Lavater to those taken from A Midsummer-Night's Dream, is in its way not expose an unjust magistrate, whose family was still powerful less remarkable than the poetic power of his more ambitious enough to make its vengeance felt. He first travelled through works. As a colourist Fuseli has but small claims to distinction. Germany, and then, in 1765, visited England, where he supported He scorned to set a palette as most artists do; he mercly dashed himself for some time by miscellaneous writing; there was a bis tints recklessly over it. Not unfrequently he used his paints sort of project of promoting through his means a regular literary in the form of a dry powder, which he rubbed up with his pencil communication between England and Germany. He became with oil, or turpentine, or gold size, regardless of the quantity, in course of time acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom and depending for accident on the general effect. This recklesshe showed his drawings. By Sir Joshua's advice he then devoted ness may perhaps be explained by the fact that he did not paint himself wholly to art. In 1770 he made an art-pilgrimage to in oil till he was twenty-five years of age. Despite these drawItaly, where he remained till 1778, changing his name from backs he possessed the elements of a great painter. Füssli to Fuseli, as more Italian-sounding. Early in 1779 he Fuseli painted more than 200 pictures, but he exhibited only returned to England, taking Zürich on his way. He found a a minority of them. His earliest painting represented “ Joseph commission awaiting him from Alderman Boydell, who was then interpreting the Dreams of the Baker and Butler"; the first organizing his celebrated Shakespeare gallery. Fuseli painted to excite particular attention was the “ Nightmare," exhibited a number of pieces for this patron, and about this time published in 1782. He produced only two portraits. His sketches or an English edition of Lavater's work on physiognomy. He like- designs numbered about 800; they have admirable qualities of wise gave Cowper some valuable assistance in preparing the invention and design, and are frequently superior to his paintings. translation of Homer. In 1788 Fuseli married Miss Sophia His general powers of mind were large. He was a thorough Rawlins (who it appears was originally one of his models, and who master of French, Italian, English and German, and could write proved an affectionate wife), and he soon after became an în all these tongues with equal facility and vigour, though he associate of the Royal Academy. Two years later he was pro- preferred German as the vehicle of his thoughts. His writings moted to the grade of Academician. In 1799 he exhibited a contain passages of the best art-criticism that English literature series of paintings from subjects furnished by the works of can show. The principal work is his series of Ledures in the Milton, with a view to forming a Milton gallery corresponding Royal Academy, twelve in number, commenced in 1801. to Boydell's Shakespeare gallery. The number of the Milton Many interesting anecdotes of Fuseli, and his relations to conpaintings was forty-seven, many of them very large; they were temporary artists, are given in his Life by John Knowles, who also executed at intervals within nine years. This exhibition, which edited his works in 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1831. (W.M.R.) closed in 1800, proved a failure as regards profit. In 1799 also FUSEL OIL (from the Ger. Fusel, bad spirits), the name applied he was appointed professor of painting to the Academy. Four to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, wears afterwards he was chosen keeper, and resigned his pro- which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made fessorship; but he resumed it in 1810, and continued to hold by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and

[ocr errors][merged small]

other material, and which, as they are of higher boiling point of the 16th century. At the time of the English civil war (1642than ethyl alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions 1652) the term “ firelock" was usually employed to distinguish of the distillate. Besides ethyl or ordinary alcohol, and amyl these weapons from the more common matchlock musket. The alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in special value of the firelock in armies of the 17th century lay fusel oil several other bodies of the CnH2n+1OH series, also in the fact that the artillery of the time used open powder barrels certain ethers, and members of the C,H2n+1.CO,H series of for the service of the guns, making it unsafe to allow lighted fatty acids. Normal propyl alcohol is contained in the fusel matches in the muskets of the escort. Further, a military escort oil of the marc brandy of the south of France, and isoprimary was required, not only for the protection, but also for the butyl alcohol in that of beet-root molasses. The chief constituent surveillance of the artillerymen of those days. Companies of of the fusel oil procured in the manufacture of alcohol from "firelocks" were therefore organized for these duties, and out of potatoes and grain, usually known as fusel oil and potato-spirit, these companies grew the "fusiliers ” who were employed in is isoprimary amyl alcohol, or isobutylcarbinol. Ordinary fusel the same way in the wars of Louis XIV. In the latter part of oil yields also an isomeric amyl alcohol (active amyl alcohol) the Thirty Years' War (1643) fusiliers were simply mounted boiling at about 128o. Variable quantities of fusel oil, less or troops armed with the fusil, as carabiniers were with the carbine. greater according to the stage of ripening, exist in commercial But the escort companies of artillery came to be known by the spirits (see SPIRITS).

name shortly afterwards, and the regiment of French Royal Fusel oil and its chief constituent, amyl alcohol, are direct Fusiliers, organized in 1671 by Vauban, was considered the model nerve poisons. In small doses it causes only thirst and headache, for Europe. The general adoption of the flintlock musket and with furred tongue and some excitement. In large doses it is the suppression of the pike in the armies of Europe put an end a convulsent poison. Impure beverages induce all thc graver to the original special duties of fusiliers, and they were subseneurotic and visceral disorders in alcoholism; and, like fusel quently employed to a large extent in light infantry work, oil, furfurol and the essence of absinthe, ate convulsent poisons. perhaps on account of the greater individual aptitude for Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being detached duties naturally shown by soldiers who had never been modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained restricted to a fixed and unchangeable place in the line of battle. in fusel oil. According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the The senior fusilier, regiment in the British service, 'the (7th) higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment), was formed on the point. Richet considers that the fusel oil contained in spirits French model in 1685; the sth foot (now. Northumberland constitutes the chief danger in the consumption of alcoholic | Fusiliers), senior to the 7th in the army, was not at that time beverages. The expert can immediately detect the peculiarly a fusilier regiment. The distinctive head-dress of fusiliers in the virulent characters of the mixed intoxication due to the consump- British service is a fur cap, generally resembling, but smaller tion of spirits containing a large percentage of fusel oil. than and different in details from, that of the Foot Guards.

PUSIBLE METAL, a term applied to certain alloys, generally In Germany the name "susilier” is borne by certain infantry composed of bismuth, lead and tin, which possess the property of regiments and by one battalion in each grenadier regiment. melting at comparatively low temperatures. Newton's fusible FUSION, the term generally applied to the melting of a solid metal (named after Sir Isaac Newton) contains 50 parts of substance, or the change of state of aggregation from the solid bismuth, 31.25 of lead and 18.75 of tin; that of Jean Darcet to the liquid. The term “liquefaction” is frequently employed (1725-1801), 50 parts of bismuth with 25 each of lead and tin; in the same sense, but is often restricted to the condensation and that of Valentin Rose the elder, 50 of bismuth with 28.1 of of a gas or vapour. The converse process of freezing or solidifica. lead and 24-1 of tin. These melt between 91° and 95° C. The tion, the change from the liquid to the solid state, is subject to addition of cadmium gives still greater fusibility; in Wood's the same laws, and must be considered together with susion. metal, for instance, which is Darcet's metal with half the tin The solution of a solid in a foreign liquid, and the deposition or replaced by cadmium, the melting point is lowered to 66°-71° C.; crystallization of a solid from a solution, are so closely related while another described by Lipowitz and containing 15 parts of to the fusion of a pure substance, that it will also be necessary bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium, softens at about to consider some of the analogies which they present. 55° and is completely liquid a little above 60°. By the addition 1. General Phenomena.-There are two chief varieties of the of mercury to Darcel's metal the melting point may be reduced process of fusion, namely, crystalline and amorphous, which are so low as 45°. These fusible metals have the peculiarity of ex- | in many ways distinct, although it is possible to find intermediate panding as they cool; Rose's metal, for instance, remains pasty cases which partake of the characteristics of both. The melting for a considerable range of temperature below its fusing point, of ice may be taken as a typical case of crystalline fusion. The contracts somewhat rapidly from 80° to 55°, expands from 55° passage from rigid solid to mobile liquid occurs at a definite to 35°, and contracts again from 35° to o" For this reason they surface without any intermediate stage or plastic condition, may be used for taking casts of anatomical specimens or making The change takes place at a definite temperature, the fusing or diches from wood-blocks, the expansion on cooling securing freezing point (abbreviated F.P.), and requires the addition sharp impressions. By suitable modification in the proportions of a definite quantity of heat to the solid, which is called the of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt latent heat of fusion. There is also in general a considerable at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for change of volume during fusion, which amounts in the case of example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the ice to a contraction of 9%. Typical cases of amorphous solidifica. melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tion are those of silica, glass, plastic sulphur, pitch, alcohol and tin it is 172°. With tin and lead only in equal proportions it is many organic liquids. In this type the liquid gradually becomes 241°. Such alloys are used for making the fusible plugs inserted more and more viscous as the temperature falls, and ultimately in the furnace-crowns of steam boilers, as a safeguard in the event attains the rigidity characteristic of a solid, without any definite of the water-level being allowed to fall too low. When this freezing point or latent heat. The condition of the substance happens the plug being no longer covered with water is heated remains uniform throughout, if its temperature is uniform; to such a temperature that it melts and allows the contents of there is no separation into the two distinct phases of solid the boiler to escape into the furnace. In automatic fire-sprinklers and liquid, and there is no sudden change of volume at any the orifices of the pipes are closed with fusible metal, which melts temperature. and liberates the water when, owing to an outbreak of fire in A change or transition from one crystalline form to another the room, the temperature rises above a predetermined limit. may occur in the solid state with evolution or absorption of

FUSILIER, originally (in French about 1670, in English about heat at a definite temperature, and is analogous to the change 1680) the name of a soldier armed with a light flintlock musket from solid to liquid, but usually takes place more slowly owing called the fusil; now a regimental designation. Various forms to the small molecular mobility of the solid state. Thus of flintlock small arms had been used in warfare since the middle, rhombic sulphur when heated passes slowly at 95.6° C. into the X1.7


« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »