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superintended each piece of work, which, therefore, was never far removed from the designer's eye. Though accomplished artists are retained by the manufacturers of London, Paris and other capitals, there can no longer be the same relation between the designer and his work. Many operations in these modern factories are carried on by machinery. This, though an economy of labour, entails loss of artistic effect. The chisel and the knife are no longer in such cases guided and controlled by the sensitive touch of the human hand. A decided, if not always intelligent, effort to devise a new style in furniture began during the last few years of the 19th century, which gained the name of “l'art nouveau.” Its pioneers professed to be free from all old traditions and to seek inspiration from nature alone. Happily nature is less forbidding than many of these interpretations of it, and much of the “new art” is a remarkable exemplification of the impossibility of altogether ignoring traditional forms. The style was not long in degenerating into extreme extravagance. Perhaps the most striking consequence of this effort has been, especially in England, the revival of the use of oak. Lightly polished, or waxed, the cheap foreign oaks often produce very agreeable results, especially when there is applicd to them a simple inlay of boxwood and stained holly, or a modern form of pewter. The simplicity of these English forms is in remarkable contrast to the tortured and ungainly outlines of continental seekers after a conscious and unpleasing “originality.” Until a very recent period the most famous collections of historic furniture were to be found in such French museums as the Louvre, Cluny and the Garde Meuble. Now, however, they are rivalled, if not surpassed, by the magnificent collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington, and the Wallace collection at Hertford House, London. The latter, in conjunction with the Jones bequest at South Kensington, forms the finest of all gatherings of French furniture of the great periods, notwithstanding that in the Bureau du Roi the Louvre possesses the most magnificent individual example in existence. In America there are a number of admirable collections representative of the graceful and homely “colonial furniture ” made in England and the United States during the Queen Anne and Georgian periods. See also the separate articles in this work on particular forms of furniture. The literature of the subject has become very extensive, and it is needless to multiply here the references to books. Perrot and Chipiez, in their great Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquité (1882 et seq.), deal with ancient times, and A. de Champeaux, in Le Meuble (1885), with the middle ages and later period; English furniture is admirably treated by Percy Macquoid in his History of English Furniture (1905); and Lady £ French Furniture in the 18th Century (1901), and Luke Vincent Lockwood's Colonial Furniture in America (1901), should also be consulted. (J.P.-B.)

FURNIVALL, FREDERICK JAMES (1825-1910), English philologist and editor, was born at Egham, Surrey, on the 4th of February 1825, the son of a surgeon. He was called to the bar in 1849, but his attention was soon diverted to philological studies and social problems. He gave Frederick Denison Maurice valuable assistance in the Christian Socialist movement, and was one of the founders of the Working Men's College. For half a century he indefatigably promoted the study of early English literature, partly by his own work as editor, and still more efficaciously by the agency of the numerous learned societies of which he was both founder and director, especially the Early English Text Society (1864), which has been of inestimable service in promoting the study of early and middle English. He also established and conducted the Chaucer, Ballad, New Shakespeare and Wyclif Societies, and at a later period societies for the special study of Browning and Shelley. He edited texts for the Early English Text Society, for the Roxburghe Club and the Rolls Series; but his most important labours were devoted to Chaucer, whose study he as an editor greatly assisted by his “Six-Text” edition of the Canterbury Tales, and other publications of the Chaucer Society. He was the honorary secretary of the Philological Society, and was one of the original promoters of the Oxford New English Dictionary. He co-operated

with its first editor, Herbert Coleridge, and after his death was for some time principal editor during the preliminary period of the collection of material. The completion of his half-century of labour was acknowledged in 1900 by a fiandsome testimonial, including the preparation by his friends of a volume of philological essays specially dedicated to him, An English Miscellany (Oxford, 1901), and a considerable donation to the Early English Text Society. Dr Furnivall was always an enthusiasticoarsman, and till the end kept up his interest in rowing; with John Beesley in 1845 he introduced the new type of narrow sculling boat, and in 1886 started races on the Thames for sculling fours and sculling eights. He died on the 2nd of July 1910. FURSE, CHARLES WELLINGTON (1868–1904), English painter, born at Staines, the son of the Rev. C. W. Furse, archdeacon of Westminster, was descended collaterally from Sir Joshua Reynolds, and in his short span of life achieved such rare excellence as a portrait and figure painter that he forms an important link in the chain of British portraiture which extends from the time when Van Dyck was called to the court of Charles I. to our own day. His talent was precocious; at the age of seven he gave indications of it in a number of drawings illustrating Scott's novels. He entered the Slade school in 1884, winning the Slade scholarship in the following year, and completed his educatlon at Julian's atelier in Paris. Hard worker as he was, his activity was frequently interrupted by spells of illness, for he had developed signs of consumption when he was still attending the Slade school. An important canvas called “Cain” was his first contribution (1888) to the Royal Academy, to the associateship of which he was elected in the year of his death. For some years before he had been a staunch supporter of the New English Art Club, to the exhibitions of which he was a regular contributor. He was married in October 190o to Katherine, daughter of John Addington Symonds. His fondness for sport and of an open-air life found expression in his art and introduced a new, fresh and vigorous note into portraiture. There is never a suggestion of the studio or of the fatiguing pose in his portraits. The sitters appear unconscious of being painted, and are generally seen in the pursuit of their favourite outdoor sport or pastime, in the full enjoyment of life. Such are the “Diana of the Uplands,” the “Lord Roberts” and “The Return from the Ride” at the Tate Gallery; the four children in the “Cubbing with the York and Ainsty,” “The Lilac Gown,” “Mr and Mrs Oliver Fishing” and the portrait of Lord Charles Beresford. Most of these pictures, and indeed nearly all the work completed in the few years of Furse's activity, show a pronounced decorative tendency. His sense of space, composition and decorative design can best be judged by his admirable mural decorations for Liverpool town hall, executed between 1899 and 1902. A memorial exhibition of Furse's paintings and sketches was held at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1906. FURST, JULIUS (1805–1873), German Orientalist, was born of Jewish parents at Zerkowo in Posen, on the 12th of May 1805. He studied philosophy and philology at Berlin, and oriental literature at Posen, Breslau and Halle. In 1857 he was appointed to a lectureship at the university of Leipzig, and he was promoted to a professorship in 1864, which he held until his death at Leipzig on the 9th of February 1873. Among his writings may be mentioned Lehrgebäude der aramäischen Idiome (Leipzig, 1835); Librorum sacrorum Veteris Testamenti concordantiae Hebraicae atque Chaldaicae(Leipzig, 1837-1840); Hebräisches und chaldäisches Wörterbuch (1851, English translation by S. Davidson 1867); Kultur und Literaturgeschichte der Juden in Asien (1849). Fürst also edited a valuable Bibliotheca Judaica (Leipzig, 1849-1863), and was the author of some other works of minor importance. From 1840 to 1851 he was editor of Der Orient, a journal devoted to the language, literature, history and antiquities of the Jews. FURSTENBERG, the name of two noble houses of Germany. 1. The more important is in possession of a mediatized principality in the district of the Black Forest and the Upper Danube, which comprises the countship of Heiligenberg, about 7 m. to the N. of the Lake of Constance, the landgraviates of Stühlingen and Baar, and the lordships of Jungnau, Trochtelfingen, Hausen and Möskirch or Messkirch. The territory is discontinuous; and as it lies partly in Baden, partly in Württemberg, and partly in the Prussian province of Sigmaringen, the head of the family is an hereditary member of the first chamber of Baden and of the chamber of peers in Württemberg and in Prussia. The relations of the principality with Baden are defined by the treaty of May 1825, and its relations with Württemberg by the royal declaration of 1839. The Slammart or ancestral seat of the family is Fürstenberg in the Black Forest, about 13 m. N. of Schaffhausen, but the principal residence of the present representatives of the main line is at Donaueschingen. The family of Fürstenberg claims descent from a certain Count Unruoch, a contemporary of Charlemagne, but their authentic pedigree is only traceable to Egino II., count of Urach, who died before 1136. In 1218 his successors inherited the possessions of the house of Zähringen in the Baar district of the Black Forest, where they built the town and castle of Fürstenberg. Of the two sons of Egino V. of Urach, Conrad, the elder, inherited the Breisgau and founded the line of the counts of Freiburg, while the younger, Heinrich (1215-1284), received the territories lying in the Kinzigthal and Baar, and from 1250 onward styled himself first lord, then count, of Fürstenberg. His territories were subsequently divided among several branches of his descendants, though temporarily reunited under Count Friedrich III., whose wife, Anna, heiress of the last count of Wardenberg, brought him the countship of Heiligenberg and lordships of Jungnau and Trochtelfingen in 1534. On Friedrich's death (1559) his territories were divided between his two sons, Joachim and Christof I. Of these the former founded the line of Heiligenberg, the latter that of Kinzigthal. The Kinzigthal branch was again subdivided in the 17th century between the two sons of Christof II. (d. 1614), the elder, Wratislaw II. (d. 1642), founding the line of Mösskirch, the younger, Friedrich Rudolf (d. 1655), that of Stühlingen. The Heiligenberg branch received an accession of dignity by the elevation of Count Hermann Egon (d. 1674) to the rank of prince of the Empire in 1664, but his line became extinct with the death of his son Prince Anton Egon, favourite of King Augustus the Strong and regent of Saxony, in 1716. The heads of both the Mösskirch and Stühlingen lines were now raised to the dignity of princes of the Empire (1716). The Mösskirch branch died out with Prince Karl Friedrich (d. 1744); the territories of the Stühlingen branch had been divided on the death of Count Prosper Ferdinand (1662–1704) between his two sons, Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (1699-1762) and Ludwig August Egon (1705–1759). The first of these was created prince of the Empire on the Ioth of December 1716, and founded the princely line of the Swabian Fürstenbergs; in 1772 he obtained from the emperor Francis I. for all his legitimate sons and their descendants the right to bear, instead of the style of landgrave, that of prince, which had so far been confined to the reigning head of the family. Ludwig, on the other hand, founded the family of the landgraves of Fürstenberg, who, since their territories lay in Austria and Moravia, were known as the “cadet line in Austria.” The princely line became extinct with the death of Karl Joachim in 1804, and the inheritance passed to the Bohemian branch of the Austrian cadet line in the person of Karl Egon II. (see below). Two years later the principality was mediatized. In 1909 there were two branches of the princely house of Fürstenberg: (1) the main branch, that of Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen, the head of which was Prince Maximilian Egon (b. 1863), who succeeded his cousin Karl Egon III. in 1896; (2) that of Fürstenberg-Königshof, in Bohemia, the head of which was Prince Emil Egon (b. 1876), chamberlain and secretary of legation to the Austro-Hungarian embassy in London (1907). The cadet line of the landgraves of Fürstenberg is now extinct, its last representative having been the landgrave Joseph Friedrich Ernst of Fürstenberg-Weitra (1860-1896), son of the landgrave Ernst (1816–1889) by a morganatic marriage. He was not recognized as ebenbürtig by the family. The landgraves of Fürstenberg were in 1909 represented only by the landgravines

Theresa (b. 1839) and Gabrielle (b 1844), daughters of the landgrave Johann Egon (1802-1879). From the days of Heinrich of Urach, a relative and notable supporter of Rudolph of Habsburg, the Fürstenbergs have played a stirring part in German history as statesmen, ecclesiastics and notably soldiers. There was a popular saying that “the emperor fights no great battle but a Fürstenberg falls.” In the Heiligenberg line the following may be more particularly noticed. FRANz Econ (1625–1682), bishop of Strassburg, was the elder son of Egon VII., count of Fürstenberg (1588-1635), who served with distinction as a Bavarian general in the Thirty Years' War. He began life as a soldier in the imperial service, but on the elevation of his friend Maximilian Henry of Bavaria to the electorate of Cologne in 1650, he went to his court and embraced the ecclesiastical career. He soon gained a complete ascendancy over the weak-minded elector, and, with his brother William Egon (see below), was mainly instrumental in making him the tool of the aggressive policy of Louis XIV. of France. Ecclesiastical preferments were heaped upon him. As a child he had been appointed to a canonry of Cologne; to these he added others at Strassburg, Liége, Hildesheim and Spires; he became also suffragan bishop and dean of Cologne and provost of Hildesheim, and in 1663 bishop of Strassburg. Later he was also prince-abbot of Lüders and Murbach and abbot of Stablo and Malmedy. On the conclusion of a treaty between the emperor and the elector of Cologne, on the 11th of May 1674, Franz was deprived of all his preferments in Germany, and was compelled to take refuge in France. He was, however, amnestied with his brother William by a special article of the treaty of Nijmwegen (1679), whereupon he returned to Cologne. After the French occupation of Strassburg (1681) he took up his residence there and died on the 1st of April 1682. His brother WILLIAM Egon (1629–1704), bishop of Strassburg, began his career as a soldier in the French service. He went to the court of the elector of Cologne at the same time as Franz Egon, whose zeal for the cause of Louis XIV. of France he shared. In 1672 the intrigues of the two Fürstenbergs had resulted in a treaty of offensive alliance between the French monarchy and the electorate of Cologne, and, the brothers being regarded by the Imperialists as the main cause of this disaster, William was seized by imperial soldiers in the monastery of St Pantaleon at Cologne, hurried off to Vienna and there tried for his life. He was saved by the intervention of the papal nuncio, but was kept in prison till the signature of the treaty of Nijmwegen (1679). As a reward for his services Louis XIV. appointed him bishop of Strassburg in succession to his brother in 1682, in 1686 obtained for him from Pope Innocent XI. the cardinal's hat, and in 1688 succeeded in obtaining his election as coadjutor-archbishop of Cologne and successor to the elector Maximilian Henry. At the instance of the emperor, however, the pope interposed his veto; the canons followed the papal lead, and, the progress of the Allies against Louis XIV. depriving him of all prospect of success, William Egon retired to France. Here he took up his abode at his abbey of St Germain des Près near Paris, where he died on the 10th of April 1704. In the Stühlingen line the most notable was KARL EGoN (1796–1854), prince of Fürstenberg, the son of Prince Karl Alois of Purstenberg, a general in the Austrian service, who was killed at the battle of Loptingen on the 25th of March 1799. In 1804 he inherited the Swabian principality of Fürstenberg and all the possessions of the family except the Moravian estates. He studied at Freiburg and Würzburg, and in 1815 accompanied Prince Schwarzenberg to Paris as staff-officer. In 1817 he came of age, and in the following year married the princess Amalie of Baden. By the mediatization of his principality in 1806 the greater part of his vast estates had fallen under the sovereignty of the grand-duke of Baden, and Prince Fürstenberg took a conspicuous part in the upper house of the grand-duchy. In politics he distinguished himself by a liberalism rare in a great German noble, carrying through by his personal influence with his peers the abolition of tithes and feudal dues and stanchly chopped and bruised it heats rapidly. It is given to horses and cows in combination with chopped hay or straw. An acre will produce about 20oo faggots of green two-year-old gorse, weighing 20 lb each. This plant is invaluable in mountain sheep-walks. The rounded form of the furze bushes that are met with in such situations shows how diligently the annual growth, as far as it is accessible, is nibbled by the sheep. The food and shelter afforded to them in snowstorms by clusters of such bushes is of such importance that the wonder is our sheep farmers do not bestow more pains to have it in adequate quantity. Young plants of whin are so kept down by the sheep that they can seldom attain to a profitable size unless protected by a fence for a few years. In various parts of England it is cut for fuel. The ashes contain a large proportion of alkali, and are a good manure, especially for peaty land. FUSARO, LAGO, a lake of Campania, Italy, } m. W. of Baia, and 1 m. S. of the acropolis of Cumae. It is the ancient Acherusia palus, separated from the sea on the W. by a line of sandhills. It may have been the harbour of Cumae in early antiquity. In the 1st century A.D. an artificial outlet was dug for it at its S. end, with a tunnel, lined with opus reticulatum and brick, under the hill of Torregaveta. This hill is covered with the remains of a large villa, which is almost certainly that of Servilius Vatia, described by Seneca (Epist. 55). There are remains of other villas on the shores of the lake. Oyster cultivation is carried on there. See J. Beloch, Campanien (2nd ed., Breslau, 1890), 188. (T. As.) FUSELI, HENRY (1741–1825), English painter and writer on art, of German-Swiss family, was born at Zürich in Switzerland on the 7th of February 1741; he himself asserted in 1745, but this appears to have been a mere whim. He was the second child in a family of eighteen. His father was John Caspar Füssli, of some note as a painter of portraits and landscapes, and author of Lives of the Helvetic Painters. This parent destined his son for the church, and with this view sent him to the Caroline college of his native town, where he received an excellent classical education. One of his schoolmates there was Lavater, with whom he formed an intimate friendship. After taking orders in 1761 Fuseli was obliged to leave his country for a while in consequence of having aided Lavater to expose an unjust magistrate, whose family was still powerful enough to make its vengeance felt. He first travelled through Germany, and then, in 1765, visited England, where he supported himself for some time by miscellaneous writing; there was a sort of project of promoting through his means a regular literary communication between England and Germany. He became in course of time acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom he showed his drawings. By Sir Joshua's advice he then devoted himself wholly to art. In 1770 he made an art-pilgrimage to Italy, where he remained till 1778, changing his name from Füssli to Fuseli, as more Italian-sounding. Early in 1779 he returned to England, taking Zürich on his way. He found a commission awaiting him from Alderman Boydell, who was then organizing his celebrated Shakespeare gallery. Fuseli painted a number of pieces for this patron, and about this time published an English edition of Lavater's work on physiognomy. He likewise gave Cowper some valuable assistance in preparing the translation of Homer. In 1788 Fuseli married Miss Sophia Rawlins (who it appears was originally one of his models, and who proved an affectionate wife), and he soon after became an associate of the Royal Academy. Two years later he was promoted to the grade of Academician. In 1799 he exhibited a series of paintings from subjects furnished by the works of Milton, with a view to forming a Milton gallery corresponding to Boydell's Shakespeare gallery. The number of the Milton paintings was forty-seven, many of them very large; they were executed at intervals within nine years. This exhibition, which closed in 18oo, proved a failure as regards profit. In 1799 also he was appointed professor of painting to the Academy. Four "ears afterwards he was chosen keeper, and resigned his professorship; but he resumed it in 1810, and continued to hold


both offices till his death. In 1805 he brought out an edition of Pilkington's Lives of the Painters, which, however, did not add much to his reputation. Canova, when on his visit to England, was much taken with Fuseli's works, and on returning to Rome in 1817 caused him to be elected a member of the first class in the Academy of St Luke. Fuseli, after a life of uninterrupted good health, died at Putney Hill on the 16th of April 1825, at the advanced age of eighty-four, and was buried in the crypt of St Paul's cathedral. He was comparatively rich at his death, though his professional gains had always appeared to be meagre. As a painter, Fuseli had a daring invention, was original, fertile in resource, and ever aspiring after the highest forms of excellence. His mind was capable of grasping and realizing the loftiest conceptions, which, however, he often spoiled on the canvas by exaggerating the due proportions of the parts, and throwing his figures into attitudes of fantastic and over-strained contortion. He delighted to select from the region of the supernatural, and pitched everything upon an ideal scale, believing a certain amount of exaggeration necessary in the higher branches of historical painting. “Damn Nature! she always puts me out,” was his characteristic exclamation. In this theory he was confirmed by the study of Michelangelo's works and the marble statues of the Monte Cavallo, which, when at Rome, he used often to contemplate in the evening, relieved against a murky sky or illuminated by lightning. But this idea was by him carried out to an excess, not only in the forms, but also in the attitudes of his figures; and the violent and intemperate action which he often displays destroys the grand effect which many of his pieces would otherwise produce. A striking illustration of this occurs in his famous picture of “Hamlet breaking from his Attendants to follow the Ghost”: Hamlet, it has been said, looks as though he would burst his clothes with convulsive cramps in all his muscles. This intemperance is the grand defect of nearly all Fuseli's compositions. On the other hand, his paintings are never either languid or cold. His figures are full of life and earnestness, and seem to have an object in view which they follow with rigid intensity. Like Rubens he excelled in the art of setting his figures in motion. Though the lofty and terrible was his proper sphere, Fuseli had a fine perception of the ludicrous. The grotesque humour of his fairy scenes, especially those taken from A Midsummer-Night's Dream, is in its way not less remarkable than the poetic power of his more ambitious works. As a colourist Fuseli has but small claims to distinction. He scorned to set a palette as most artists do; he merely dashed his tints recklessly over it. Not unfrequently he used his paints in the form of a dry powder, which he rubbed up with his pencil with oil, or turpentine, or gold size, regardless of the quantity, and depending for accident on the general effect. This recklessness may perhaps be explained by the fact that he did not paint in oil till he was twenty-five years of age. Despite these drawbacks he possessed the elements of a great painter. Fuseli painted more than 200 pictures, but he exhibited only a minority of them. His earliest painting represented “Joseph interpreting the Dreams of the Baker and Butler”; the first to excite particular attention was the “Nightmare,” exhibited in 1782. He produced only two portraits. His sketches or designs numbered about 8oo; they have admirable qualities of invention and design, and are frequently superior to his paintings. His general powers of mind were large. He was a thorough master of French, Italian, English and German, and could write in all these tongues with equal facility and vigour, though he preferred German as the vehicle of his thoughts. His writings contain passages of the best art-criticism that English literature can show. The principal work is his series of Lectures in the Royal Academy, twelve in number, commenced in 1801. Many interesting anecdotes of Fuseli, and his relations to contemporary artists, are given in his Life by John Knowles, who also edited his works in 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1831. (W. M.R.) FUSELOIL (from the Ger. Fusel, bad spirits), the name applied to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and other material, and which, as they are of higher boiling point than ethyl alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions of the distillate. Besides ethyl or ordinary alcohol, and amyl alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in fusel oil several other bodies of the C.H. 11 OH series, also certain ethers, and members of the C.H. H.CO.H series of fatty acids. Normal propyl alcohol is contained in the fusel oil of the marc brandy of the south of France, and isoprimary butyl alcohol in that of beet-root molasses. The chief constituent of the fusel oil procured in the manufacture of alcohol from potatoes and grain, usually known as fusel oil and potato-spirit, is isoprimary amyl alcohol, or isobutylcarbinol. Ordinary fusel oil yields also an isomeric amyl alcohol (active amyl alcohol) boiling at about 128°. Variable quantities of fusel oil, less or greater according to the stage of ripening, exist in commercial spirits (see SPIRITs). Fusel oil and its chief constituent, amyl alcohol, are direct nerve poisons. In small doses it causes only thirst and headache, with furred tongue and some excitement. In large doses it is a convulsent poison. Impure beverages induce all the graver neurotic and visceral disorders in alcoholism; and, like fusel oil, furfurol and the essence of absinthe, are convulsent poisons. Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained in fusel oil. According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point. Richet considers that the fusel oil contained in spirits constitutes the chief danger in the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The expert can immediately detect the peculiarly virulent characters of the mixed intoxication due to the consumption of spirits containing a large percentage of fusel oil. FUSIBLE METAL, a term applied to certain alloys, generally composed of bismuth, lead and tin, which possess the property of melting at comparatively low temperatures. Newton's fusible metal (named after Sir Isaac Newton) contains 50 parts of bismuth, 31.25 of lead and 18.75 of tin; that of Jean Darcet (1725-1801), 50 parts of bismuth with 25 each of lead and tin; and that of Walentin Rose the elder, 50 of bismuth with 28.1 of lead and 24.1 of tin. These melt between 91° and 95°C. The addition of cadmium gives still greater fusibility; in Wood's metal, for instance, which is Darcet's metal with half the tin replaced by cadmium, the melting point is lowered to 66°-71°C.; while another described by Lipowitz and containing 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead. 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium, softens at about 55° and is completely liquid a little above 60°. By the addition of mercury to Darcet's metal the melting point may be reduced so low as 45°. These fusible metals have the peculiarity of expanding as they cool; Rose's metal, for instance, remains pasty for a considerable range of temperature below its fusing point, contracts somewhat rapidly from 80° to 55°, expands from 55° to 35°, and contracts again from 35° to o”. For this reason they may be used for taking casts of anatomical specimens or making clichés from wood-blocks, the expansion on cooling securing sharp impressions. By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°. With tin and lead only in equal proportions it is 241°. Such alloys are used for making the fusible plugs inserted in the furnace-crowns of steam boilers, as a safeguard in the event of the water-level being allowed to fall too low. When this happens the plug being no longer covered with water is heated to such a temperature that it melts and allows the contents of the boiler to escape into the furnace. In automatic fire-sprinklers the orifices of the pipes are closed with fusible metal, which melts and liberates the water when, owing to an outbreak of fire in the room, the temperature rises above a predetermined limit. FUSILIER, originally (in French about 1670, in English about 1680) the name of a soldier armed with a light flintlock musket called the fusil; now a regimental designation. Various forms of flintlock small arms had been used in warfare since the middle

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of the 16th century. At the time of the English civil war (1642– 1652) the term “firelock" was usually employed to distinguish these weapons from the more common matchlock musket. The special value of the firelock in armies of the 17th century lay in the fact that the artillery of the time used open powder barrels for the service of the guns, making it unsafe to allow lighted matches in the muskets of the escort. Further, a military escort was required, not only for the protection, but also for the surveillance of the artillerymen of those days. Companies of “firelocks” were therefore organized for these duties, and out of these companies grew the “fusiliers” who were employed in the same way in the wars of Louis XIV. In the latter part of the Thirty Years' War (1643) fusiliers were simply mounted troops armed with the fusil, as carabiniers were with the carbine, But the escort companies of artillery came to be known by the name shortly afterwards, and the regiment of French Royal Fusiliers, organized in 1671 by Vauban, was considered the model for Europe. The general adoption of the flintlock musket and the suppression of the pike in the armies of Europe put an end to the original special duties of fusiliers, and they were subsequently employed to a large extent in light infantry work, perhaps on account of the greater individual aptitude for detached duties naturally shown by soldiers who had never been restricted to a fixed and unchangeable place in the line of battle, The senior fusilier regiment in the British service, the (7th) Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment), was formed on the French model in 1685; the 5th foot (now Northumberland Fusiliers), senior to the 7th in the army, was not at that time a fusilier regiment. The distinctive head-dress of fusiliers in the British service is a fur cap, generally resembling, but smaller than and different in details from, that of the Foot Guards. In Germany the name “fusilier” is borne by certain infantry regiments and by one battalion in each grenadier regiment. FUSION, the term generally applied to the melting of a solid substance, or the change of state of aggregation from the solid to the liquid. The term “liquefaction” is frequently employed in the same sense, but is often restricted to the condensation of a gas or vapour. The converse process of freezing or solidification, the change from the liquid to the solid state, is subject to the same laws, and must be considered together with fusion, The solution of a solid in a foreign liquid, and the deposition or crystallization of a solid from a solution, are so closely related to the fusion of a pure substance, that it will also be necessary to consider some of the analogies which they present. 1. General Phenomena.-There are two chief varieties of the process of fusion, namely, crystalline and amorphous, which are in many ways distinct, although it is possible to find intermediate cases which partake of the characteristics of both. The melting of ice may be taken as a typical case of crystalline fusion. The passage from rigid solid to mobile liquid occurs at a definite surface without any intermediate stage or plastic condition. The change takes place at a definite temperature, the fusing or freezing point (abbreviated F.P.), and requires the addition of a definite quantity of heat to the solid, which is called the latent heat of fusion. There is also in general a considerable change of volume during fusion, which amounts in the case of ice to a contraction of 9%. Typical cases of amorphoussolidification are those of silica, glass, plastic sulphur, pitch, alcohol and many organic liquids. In this type the liquid gradually becomes more and more viscous as the temperature falls, and ultimately attains the rigidity characteristic of a solid, without any definite freezing point or latent heat. The condition of the substance remains uniform throughout, if its temperature is uniform; there is no separation into the two distinct phases of solid and liquid, and there is no sudden change of volume at any temperature. A change or transition from one crystalline form to another may occur in the solid state with evolution or absorption of heat at a definite temperature, and is analogous to the change from solid to liquid, but usually takes place more slowly owing to the small molecular mobility of the solid state. Thus rhombic sulphur when heated passes slowly at 95.6°C. into the 2a

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