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the institutions of the present to approximate more closely to
those of the past, and devised for the new French constitution a
body of reforms which reflected the opinions he had formed upon the democracy at Rome and in ancient France. But these were dreams which did not hold him long, and he would have been scandalized had he known that his name was subsequently used as the emblem of a political and religious party. He died at Massy (Seine-et-Oise) on the 12th of September 1889. Throughout his historical career—at the École Normale and the Sorbonne and in his lectures delivered to the empress Eugénie—his sole aim was to ascertain the truth, and in the defence of truth his polemics against what he imagined to be the blindness and insincerity of his critics sometimes assumed a character of harshness and injustice. But, in France at least, these critics were the first to render justice to his learning, his talents and his disinterestedness. See Paul Guiraud, Fustel de Coulanges (1896); H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, Deux Manières d'écrire l'histoire: critique de Bossuet, d'Augustin Thierry et de Fustel de Coulanges (1896); and Gabriel Monod, Portraits et souvenirs (1897). (C. B.") FUSTIAN, a term which includes a variety of heavy woven cotton fabrics, chiefly prepared for men's wear. It embraces plain twilled cloth called jean, and cut fabrics similar to velvet, known as velveteen, moleskin, corduroy, &c. The term was once applied to a coarse cloth made of cotton and flax; now, fustians are usually of cotton and dyed various colours. In the reign of Edward III. the name was given to a woollen fabric. The name is said to be derived from El-Fustat, asuburb of Cairo, where it was first made; and certainly a kind of cloth has long been known under that name. In a petition to parliament, temp. Philip and Mary, “fustian of Naples” is mentioned. In the 13th and 14th centuries priests’ robes and women's dresses were made of fustian, but though dresses are still made from some kinds the chief use is for labourers’ clothes. FUSTIC (Fr. fustoc, from Arab. fustuq, Gr. rioråkm, pistachio) YELLow WooD or OLD FUSTIC, a dye-stuff consisting of the wood of Chlorophora tinctoria, a large tree of the natural order Moraceae, growing in the West Indies and tropical America. Fustic occurs in commerce in blocks, which are brown without, and of a brownish-yellow within. It is sometimes employed for inlaid work. The dye-stuff termed young fustic or Zante fustic, and also Venetian sumach, is the wood of Rhus cotinus (fustet, or smoke tree), a southern European and Asiatic shrub of the natural order Anacardiaceae, called by Gerarde “red sumach,” and apparently the “coccygia” and “cotinus” of Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiii. 41, xvi. 30). Its colouring matter is fisetin, CisB10Os, which was synthesized by S. von Kostanecki (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 384). (See DYEING.) FUTURES, a term used in the produce markets for purchases or sales of commodities to be completed at a future date, as opposed to cash or “spot” transactions, which are settled immediately. See MARKET, and (for a detailed discussion of the question as affecting cotton) CoTToN: Marketing and Supply. FUX, JOHANN JOSEPH (1660-1741), Austrian musician, was born at Hirtenfeld (Styria) in 1660. Of his youth and early training nothing is known. In 1696 he was organist at one of the principal churches of Vienna, and in 1698 was appointed by the emperor Leopold I. as his “imperial court-composer,” with a salary of about £6 a month. At the court of Leopold and of his successors Joseph I. and Charles VI., Fux remained for the rest of his life. To his various court dignities that of organist at St Stephen's cathedral was added in 1704. He married the daughter of the government secretary Schnitzbaum. As a proof of the high favour in which he was held by the art-loving Charles VI., it is told that at the coronation of that emperor as king of Bohemia in 1723 an opera, La Constanza e la Fortezza, especially composed by Fux for the occasion, was given at Prague in an open-air theatre. Fux at the time was suffering from gout, but the emperor had him carried in a litter all the
way from Vienna, and gave him a seat in the imperial box.
Fux died at Vienna on the 13th of February 1741. His life, although passed in the great world, was eventless, and his only
troubles arose from the intrigues of his Italian rivals at court. Of the numerous operas which Fux wrote it is unnecessary to speak. They do not essentially differ from the style of the Italian opera seria of the time. Of greater importance are his sacred compositions, psalms, motets, oratorios and masses, the celebrated Missa Canonica amongst the latter. It is an all but unparalleled tour de force of learned musicianship, being written entirely in that most difficult of contrapuntal devices— the canon. As a contrapuntist and musical scholar generally, Fux was unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries, and his great theoretical work, the Gradus ad Parnassum, long remained by far the most thorough treatment of counterpoint and its various developments. The title of the original Latin edition is Gradus ad Parnassum sive manuductio ad compositionem musicae regularem, methoda nova ac certa nondum ante lam exacta ordine in lucem edita, claborata a Joanne Josepho Fux (Vienna, 1715). It was translated into most European languages during the 18th century, and is still studied by musicians interested in the history of their art. The expenses of the publication were defrayed by the emperor Charles VI. Fux's biography was published # Ludwig von Köchel (Vienna, 1871). It is based on minute original research and contains, amongst other valuable materials, a complete catalogue of the composer's numerous works. FUZE or FUSE, an appliance for firing explosives in blasting operations, military shells, &c. (see BLASTING and AMMUNITION, $Shell). The spelling is not governed by authority, but modern convenience has dictated the adoption of the “z” by military engineers as a general rule, in order to distinguish this sense from that of melting by heat (see below). The word, according to the New English Dictionary, is one of the forms in which the Lat. fusus, spindle, has been adapted through Romanic into English, the ordinary fuze taking the shape of a spindle-like tube. Similarly the term “fusee” (Fr. fusée, spindle full of tow, Late Lat...fusata) is applied to a coned spindle sometimes used in the wheel train of watches and spring clocks to equalize the action of the mainspring (see WATCH); and the application of the same term to a special kind of match may also be due to its resemblance to a spindle. Again, in heraldry, another form, “fusil,” derived through the French from a Late Lat. diminutive (fusillus or fusellus) of this same fusus, is used of a bearing, an elongated lozenge. According to other etymological authorities, however (see Skeat, Etym. Dict, 1898), “fuze” or “fuse,” and “fusee" in the sense of match, are all forms derived through the Fr. fusil, from Late Lat. focile, steel for striking fire from a flint, from Lat. focus, hearth. The Fr. fusil and English “fusil” were thus transferred to the “firelock,” i.e. the light musket of the 17th century (see FusiLIER). In electrical engineering a “fuse” (always so spelled) is a safety device, commonly consisting of a strip or wire of easily fusible metal, which melts and thus interrupts the circuit of whichitforms part, whenever that circuit, through some accident or derangement, is caused to carry a current larger than that for which it is intended. In this sense the word must be connected with fusus, the past participle of Lat. fundere, to pour, whence comes the verb “fuse,” to melt by heat, often used figuratively in the sense of blend, mix. FYNE, LOCH, an inlet of the sea, Argyllshire, Scotland. From the head, 6 m. above Inveraray, to the mouth on the Sound of Bute, it has a south-westerly and then southerly trend and is 44 m. long, its width varying from 1 m. to 6 m. It receives the Fyne, Shira, Aray and many other streams, and, on the western side, gives off Lochs Shira, Gair, Gilp (with Ardrishaig, the Crinan Canal and Lochgilphead) and East Tarbert (with Tarbert village). The glens debouching on the lake are Fyne, Shira, Aray, Kinglas and Hell's Glen. The coast generally is picturesque and in many parts well wooded. All vessels using the Criman Canal navigate the loch to and from Ardrishaig, and there are daily excursions during the season, as far up as Inveraray. There are ferries at St Catherine's and Otter, and piers at Tarbert, Ardrishaig, Kilmory, Crarae, Furnace, Inveraray, Strachur and elsewhere. The industries comprise granite quarrying at Furnace and Crarae, distilling at Ardrishaig, gunpowder-making at Furnace and Kilfinan, and, above all, fishing. Haddock, whiting and codling are taken, and the famous “Loch Fyne herrings” command the highest price in the market. FYRD, the name given to the English army, or militia, during the Anglo-Saxon period (see ARMY, 60). It is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 605.The ealdorman, or sheriff, of the shire was probably charged with the duty of calling out and leading the fyrd, which appears always to have retained a local character, as during the time of the Danish invasions we read of the fyrd of Kent, of Somerset and of Devon. As attendance at the fyrd was included in the trinoda necessitas it was compulsory on all holders of land; but that it was not confined to them is shown by the following extract from the laws of Ine, king of the West Saxons, dated about 690, which prescribes the penalty for the serious offence of neglecting the fyrd: “If a gesithcund man owning land neglect the fyrd, let him pay 12o shillings, and forfeit his land; one not owning land 60 shillings; a ceorlish man 30 shillings as fyrdwile.” The fyrd was gradually superseded by the gathering of the thegns and their retainers, but it was occasionally called out for defensive purposes even after the Norman Conquest. FYT, JOHANNES (1609–1661), Belgian animal painter, was born at Antwerp and christened on the 19th of August 1609. He was registered apprentice to Hans van den Berghe in 1621. Professionally van den Berghe was a restorer of old pictures rather than a painter of new ones. entered the gild of St Luke as a master, and from that time till his death in 1661 he produced a vast number of pictures in which the bold facility of Snyders is united to the powerful effects of Rembrandt, and harmonies of gorgeoustone are not less conspicuous than freedom of touch and a true semblance of nature. There never was such a master of technical processes as Fyt in the rendering of animal life in its most varied forms. He may have been less correct in outline, less bold in action than Snyders, but he was much more skilful and more true in the reproduction of the coat of deer, dogs, greyhounds, hares and monkeys, whilst in realizing the plumage of peacocks, woodcocks, ducks, hawks, and cocks and hens, he had not his equal, nor was any artist even of the Dutch school more effective in relieving his compositions with accessories of tinted cloth, porcelain ware, vases and fruit. He was not clever at figures, and he sometimes trusted for these to the co-operation of Cornelius Schut or Willeborts, whilst his architectural backgrounds were sometimes executed by Quellyn. “Silenus amongst Fruit and Flowers,” in the Harrach collection at Vienna, “Diana and her Nymphs with the Produce of the Chase,” in the Belvedere at Vienna, and “Dead Game and Fruit in front of a Triumphal Arch,” belonging to Baron von Rothschild at Vienna, are specimens of the co-operation respectively of Schut, Willeborts and Quellyn. They are also Fyt's masterpieces. The earliest dated work of the master is a cat grabbing at a piece of dead poultry near a hare and birds, belonging to Baron Cetto at Munich, and executed in 1644. The latest is a “Dead Snipe
At twenty Johannes Fyt.
with Ducks,” of 1660, sold with the Jäger collection at Cologne in 1871. Great power is shown in the bear and boar hunts at Munich and Ravensworth castle. A “Hunted Roedeer with Dogs in the Water,” in the Berlin Museum, has some of the life and more of the roughness of Snyders, but lacks variety of tint and finish. A splendid specimen is the Page and Parrot near a table covered with game, guarded by a dog staring at a monkey, in the Wallace collection. With the needle and the brush Fyt was equally clever. He etched 16 plates, and those representing dogs are of their kind unique. FYZABAD, or FAIZABAD, a city, district and division of British India in the United Provinces. The city stands on the left bank of the river Gogra, 78 m. by rail E. of Lucknow. Pop. (1901) 75,085. To the E. of Fyzabad, and now forming a suburb, is the ancient site of Ajodhya (q.v.). Fyzabad was founded about 1730 by Sa'adat Ali Khan, the first nawab wazir of Oudh, who built a hunting-lodge here. It received its present name in the reign of his successor; and Shuja-ud-daula, the third nawab, laid out a large town and fortified it, and here he was buried. It was afterwards the residence of the Begums of Oudh, famous in connexion with the impeachment of Warren Hastings. When the court of Oudh was removed to Lucknow in 1775 all the leading merchants and bankers abandoned the place. At the census of 1869 Fyzabad contained only 37,804 inhabitants; but it is now again advancing in prosperity and population. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, the cantonment contained two regiments of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and a light field battery of artillery-all natives. Owing to their threatening demeanour after the Meerut massacre, many of the European women and children were sheltered by one of the great landholders of Oudh, and others were sent to less disturbed parts of the country. The troops rose, as was anticipated, and although they at first permitted their officers to take boats and proceed towards Dinapur, a message was afterwards sent to arebel force lower down the riverto intercept the fugitives. Of four boats, one, having passed the rebels unnoticed, succeeded in reaching Dinapur safely. Of those in the other three boats, one alone escaped. Fyzabad is now a station for European as well as for native troops. It is the headquarters of a brigade in the 8th division of the northern army. There is a government college. Sugar-refining and trade in agricultural produce are important. The DISTRICT of FYzABAD, lying between the two great rivers Gogra and Gumti, has an area of 1740 sq. m. It is entirely alluvial and well wooded, and has a good climate. Pop. (1901) 1,225,374, an increase of .7% in the decade. The district is traversed throughout its length by the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway from Lucknow to Benares, with a branch to Allahabad. Tanda, with a population in 1901 of 19,853, has the largest production of cotton goods in Oudh. The DIVISION or FYzABAD has an area of 12,113 sq. m., and comprises the six districts of Fyzabad, Gonda, Bahraich, Sultanpur, Partabgarh and Bara Banki. Pop. (1901) 6,855,991, an increase of 2% in the decade.
The form of this letter which is familiar to us is an invention of the Romans, who had previously converted the third symbol of the alphabet into a representative ofak-sound (see C). Throughout the whole of Roman history C remained as the symbol for G in the abbreviations C and Cn. for the proper names Gaius and Gnaeus. According to Plutarch (Roman Questions, 54, 59) the symbol for G was invented by Spurius Carvilius Ruga about 293 B.C. This probably means that he was the first person to spell his cognomen RVGA instead of RVCA. G came to occupy the seventh place in the Roman alphabet which had earlier been taken by Z, because between 450 B.C. and 350 B.C. the z-sounds of Latin passed into r, names like Papisius and Fusius in that period becoming Papirius and Furius (see Z), so that the letter 3 had become superfluous. According to the late writer Martianus Capella 2 was removed from the alphabet by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 B.C. To Claudius the insertion of G into the alphabet is also sometimes ascribed. In the earliest form the difference from C is very slight, the lower lip of the crescent merely rising up in a straight line C, but C and G are found also in republican times. In the earliest Roman inscription which was found in the Forum in 1899 the form is S written from right to left, but the hollow at the bottom lip of the crescent is an accidental pit in the stone and not a diacritical mark. The unvoiced sound in this inscription is represented by K. The use of the new form was not firmly established till after the middle of the 3rd century B.C. In the Latin alphabet the sound was always the voiced stop (as in gig) in classical times. Later, before e, g passed into a sound like the English y, so that words begin indifferently with g or j; hence from the Lat. generum (accusative) and Ianuarium we have in Ital. genero and Gennajo, Fr. gendre and janvier. In the ancient Umbrian dialect g had made this change between vowels before the Christian era, the inhabitant of Iguvium (the modern Gubbio) being in the later form of his native speech Iuvins, Lat. Iguvinus. In most cases in Mid. Eng. also g passed into a y sound; hence the old prefix ge of the past participle appears only as y in yelept and the like. But ng and gg took a different course, the g becoming an affricate dg (dzh), as in singe, ridge, sedge, which in English before 15oo were senge, rigge, segge, and in Scotch are still pronounced sing, rig, seg. The affricate in words like gaol is of French origin (geóle), from a Late Lat. gabiola, out of caveola, a diminutive of the Lat. cavea. The composite origin of English makes it impossible to lay down rules for the pronunciation of English g; thus there are in the language five words Gill, three of which have the ghard, while two have it soft: viz. (1) gill of a fish, (2) gill, a ravine, both of which are Norse, and (3) Gill, the surname, which is mostly Gaelic=White; and (4) gill a liquid measure, from O. Fr. gelle, Late Lat. gella in the same sense, and (5) Gill, a girl's name, shortened from Gillian, Juliana (see Skeat's Elymological Dictionary). No one of these words is of native origin; otherwise the initial g would have changed to y, as in Eng. yell from the O. Eng. gellan, giellan. (P. GI.) GABBR0, in petrology, a group of plutonic basic rocks, holocrystalline and usually rather coarse-grained, consisting essentially of a basic plagioclase felspar and one or more ferromagnesian minerals (such as augite, hornblende, hypersthene and olivine). The name was given originally in north Italy to certain coarsely crystalline dark green rocks, some of which are true gabbros, while others are serpentines. The gabbros are the plutonic or deep-seated representatives of the dolerites, basalts and diabases (also of some varieties of andesite) with which they agree closely in mineral composition, but not in minute structure. Of their minerals felspar is usually the most abundant, and is principally labradorite and bytownite, though anorthite occurs in some, while oligoclase and orthoclase have been found in others.
The felspar is sometimes very clear and fresh, its crystals being for the most part short and broad, with rather irregular or rounded outlines. Albite twinning is very frequent, but in these rocks it is often accompanied by pericline twinning by which the broad or narrow albite plates are cut transversely by many thin, bright and dark bars as seen in polarized light. Equally characteristic of the gabbros is the alteration of the felspars to cloudy, semi-opaque masses of saussurite. These are compact, tough, devoid of cleavage, and have a waxy lustre and usually a greenish-white colour. When this substance can be resolved by the microscope it proves to consist usually of zoisite or epidote, with garnet and albite, but mixed with it are also chlorite, amphibole, serpentine, prehnite, sericite and other minerals. The augite is usually brown, but greenish, violet and colourless varieties may occur. Hypersthene, when present, is often strikingly pleochroic in colours varying from pink to bright green. It weathers readily to platy-pseudomorphs of bastite which are soft and yield low polarization colours. The olivine is colourless in itself, but in most cases is altered to green oryellow serpentine, often with bands of dark magnetite granules along its cleavages and cracks. Hornblende when primary is often brown, and may surround augite or be perthitically intergrown with it; original green hornblende probably occurs also, though it is more frequently secondary. Dark-brown biotite, although by no means an important constituent of these rocks, occurs in many of them. Quartz is rare, but is occasionally seen intergrown with felspar as micropegmatite. Among the accessory minerals may be mentioned apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, picotite and garnet.
A peculiar feature, repeated so constantly in many of the minerals of these rocks as to be almost typical of them, is the occurrence of small black or dark brown enclosures often regularly arranged parallel to certain crystallographic planes. Reflection of light from the surfaces of these minute enclosures produces a shimmering or Schiller. In augite or hypersthene the effect is that the surface of the mineral has a bronzy sub-metallic appearance, and polished plates seen at a definite angle yield a bright coppery-red reflection, but polished sections of the felspars may exhibit a brilliant play of colours, as is well seen in the Labrador spar, which is used as an ornamental or semi-precious stone. In olivine the blackenclosures are not thin laminae, but branching growths resembling pieces of moss. The phenomenon is known as “schillerization ”; its origin has been much discussed, some holding that it is secondary, while others regard these enclosures as original.
In many gabbros there is a tendency to a centric arrangement of the minerals, the first crystallized forming nuclei around which the others grow. Thus magnetite, apatite and picotite, with olivine, may be enclosed in augite, hornblende, and hypersthene, sometimes with a later growth of biotite, while the felspars occupy the interspaces between the clusters of ferromagnesian minerals. In some cases there are borders around olivine consisting of fibrous hornblende or tremolite and rhombic pyroxene (kelyphitic or ocellar structures); spinels and garnet may occur in this zone, and as it is developed most frequently where olivine is in contact with felspar it may be due to a chemical resorption at a late stage in the solidification of the rock. In some gabbros and norites reaction rims of fibrous hornblende are found around both hypersthene and diallage where these are in contact with felspar. Typical orbicular structure such as characterizes some granites and diorites is rare in the gabbros, though it has been observed in a few instances in Norway, California, &c.
In a very large number of the rocks of this group the plagioclase felspar has crystallized in large measure before the pyroxene; and is enveloped by it in '' manner exactly as occurs in the diabases. When these rocks become fine-grained '. pass gradually into ophitic diabase and dolerite; only very rarely does olivine enclose felspar in this way. A fluxion structure or flow banding also can be observed in some of the rocks of this series, and is characterized by the occurrence of parallel sinuous bands of dark colour, rich in ferromagnesian minerals, and of lighter shades in which felspars predominate. These basic holocrystalline rocks form a large and numerous class which can be subdivided into many groups according to their mineral composition; if we take it that typical gabbro consists of plagioclase
(Norway and Sweden) and are sometimes mined as sources of the metal.
Chemically the gabbros are typical rocks of the basic subdivision and show the characters of that group in the clearest way. They have low silica, much iron and magnesia, and the abundance of lime distinguishes them in a marked fashion from both the granites and the peridotites. A few analyses of well-known gabbros are cited here.
and #: or diallage, norite of plagioclase and
biotite-bearing gabbro and norite, when they contain these ingredients in addition to the normal minerals plagioclase, augite and hypersthene... We may recognize also quartz-gabbro and quartz-norite (containing primary, quartz or micropegmatite) and orthoclase-gabbro (with a little orthoclase). The name eucrite has been given to gabbros in which the felspar is '' anorthite; many of ti' also contain hypersthene or enstatite and olivine, while allivalites are anorthite-olivine rocks in which the two minerals occur in nearly £ proportions; harrisites have preponderating olivine, anorthite felspar and a little pyroxene. In areas of gabbro there are often masses consisting nearly entirely of a single mineral, for example, felspar rocks (anorthosites), augite or hornblende rocks (pyroxenites and hornblendites) and olivine rocks (dunites or peridotites). Segregations of iron ores, such as ilmenite, usually with pyroxene or olivine, occur in association with some gabbro and anorthosite masses. - - - Some gabbros are exceedingly coarse-grained and consist of individual crystals several inches in length; such a type often form dikes or veins in serpentine or gabbro, and may be called gabbropegmatite. Very fine-grained gabbros, on the other hand, have been distinguished as beerbachites. Still more common is the occurrence of sheared, foliated or schistose forms of gabbro. In these the minerals have a parallel arrangement, the felspars are often broken down by pressure into a mosaic of irregular grains, while greenish fibrous or bladed amphibole takes the place of pyroxene and olivine. The diallage may be present as rounded or oval crystals around which the crushed felspar has flowed (augen-gabbro); or the whole rock may have a well-foliated structure (hornblende-schists and £ Very often a mass of normal gabbro with typical igneous character passes at its margins or along localized zones into foliated rocks of this kind, and every transition can be found between the different types. Some authors believe that the development of saussurite from felspar is also dependent on pressure rather than on weathering, and an analogous change may affect the olivine, replacing it by talc, chlorite, actinolite and garnet. Rocks showing changes of £e latter type have been descri from Switzerland under the name allalinites. Rocks of the gabbro group, though perhaps not so common nor occurring in so great masses as granites, are exceedingly widespread. In Great Britain, for example, there are areas of gabbro in Shetland, Aberdeenshire, and other parts of the Highlands, Ayrshire, the lizard (Cornwall), Carrock Fell (Cumberland) and St David's (Wales). Most of these occur along with troctolites, norites, serpentine and peridotite. In Skye an interesting £ gabbros is found in the Cuillin Hills; here also peridotites occur and there are sills and dikes of olivine-dolerite, while a great series of basaltic lavas and ash beds marks the site of volcanic outbursts in early Tertiary time. In this case it is clearly seen that the gabbros are the deep-seated and slowly crystallized representatives of the basalts which were poured out at the surfaces, and the dolerites which consolidated in fissures. The older gabbros of Britain, such as those of the Lizard, Aberdeenshire and Ayrshire, are often more or less foliated and show a tendency to pass into hornblende-schists and amphibolites. In Germany gabbros are well known in the Harz Mountains, Saxony, the enwald and the Black Forest. Many outcrops of similar rocks have been traced in the northern zones of the Alps, often with serpentine and hornblende-schist. They occupy considerable tracts of country in Norway and Sweden, as for instance in the vicinity of Bergen. The Pyrenees, Ligurian Alps, Dauphinéand # are other European localities for gabbro. In Canada great portions of the eastern portion of the Dominion are formed of gabbros, norite, anorthosite and allied rock types. In the United States gabbros and norites occur near Baltimore and near Peekskill on the Hudson river. As a rule each of these occurrences contains a diversity of pet phical types, which appear also in certain of the others; but there is often a well-marked individu#bout the rocks of the various districts in which gabbros are ound. From an economic standpoint gabbros are not of great importance. They are used locally for building and for road-metal, but are too dark in colour, too tough and difficult to dress, to be popular as building stones, and, though occasionally polished, are not to compared for beauty with the serpentines and the granites. Segregations of iron ores are found in connexion with many of them
I. Gabbro, Radanthal, Harzburg; II. Gabbro, Penig, Saxony; III. Troctolite, Coverack, Cornwall; IV. Anorthosite, mouth of the Seine river, Bad Vermilion lake, Ontario, Canada. GABEL, KRISTOFFER (1617–1673), Danish statesman, was born at Glückstadt, on the 6th of January 1617. His father, Wulbern, originally a landscape painter and subsequently recorder of Glückstadt, was killed at the siege of that fortress by the Imperialists in 1628. Kristoffer is first heard of in 1639, as overseer and accountant at the court of Duke Frederick. When the duke ascended the Danish throne as Frederick III., Gabel followed him to Copenhagen as his private secretary and man of business. Gabel, who veiled under a mysterious reticence considerable financial ability and uncommon shrewdness, had great influence over theirresolute king. During the brief interval between King Charles X.'s first and second attack upon Denmark, Gabel was employed in several secret missions to Sweden; and he took a part in the intrigues which resulted in the autocratic revolution of 1660 (see DENMARK: History). His services on this occasion have certainly been exaggerated; but if not the originator of the revolution, he was certainly the chief intermediary between Frederick III. and the conjoined Estates in the mysterious conspiracy which established absolutism in Denmark. His activity on this occasion won the king's lifelong gratitude. He was enriched, ennobled, and in 1664 made governor of Copenhagen. From this year must be dated his open and official influence and power, and from 1660 to 1670 he was the most considerable personage at court, and very largely employed in financial and diplomatic affairs. When Frederick III. died, in February 1670, Gabel's power was at an end. The new ruler, Christian V., hated him, and accusations against him poured in from every quarter. When, on the 18th of April 1670, he was dismissed, nobody sympathized with the man who had grown wealthy at a time when other people found it hard to live. He died on the 13th of October 1673. See Carl Frederik Bricka, Dansk. Biograf. Lex. art “Gabel ” (Copenhagen, 1887, &c.); Danmarks Riges Historie (Copenhagen, 1897-1005), vol. v. GABELENTZ, HANS CONON WON DER (1807–1874), German linguist and ethnologist, born at Altenburg on the 13th of October 1807, was the only son of Hans Karl Leopold von der Gabelentz, chancellor and privy-councillor of the duchy of Altenburg. From 1821 to 1825 he attended the gymnasium of his native town, where he had Matthiae (the eminent Greek scholar) for teacher, and Hermann Brockhaus and Julius Löbe for schoolfellows. Here, in addition to ordinary school-work, he carried on the private study of Arabic and Chinese; and the latter language continued especially to engage his attention during his undergraduate course, from 1825 to 1828, at the universities of Leipzig and Göttingen. In 1830 he entered the public service of the duchy of Altenburg, where he attained to the rank of privy-councillor in 1843. Four years later he was chosen to fill the post of Landmarschall in the grand-duchy of Weimar, and in 1848 he attended the Frankfort parliament, and represented the Saxon duchies on the commission for drafting an imperialconstitution for Germany. In November of the same year he became president of the Altenburg ministry, but he resigned office in the following August. From 1851 to 1868 he was president of the second chamber of the duchy of Altenburg; but in the latter year he withdrew entirely from public life, that he might give undivided attention to his learned researches. He died on his estate of Lemnitz, in Saxe-Weimar, on the 3rd of September 1874. In the course of his life he is said to have learned no fewer than eighty languages, thirty of which he spoke with fluency and elegance. But he was less remarkable for his power of acquisition than for the higher talent which enabled him to turn his knowledge to the genuine advancement of linguistic science. Immediately after quitting the university, he followed up his Chinese researches by a study of the Finno-Ugrian languages, which resulted in the publication of his Elements de la grammaire mandchoue in 1832. In 1837 he became one of the promoters, and a joint-editor, of the Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, and through this medium he gave to the world his Versuch einer mordwinischen Grammatik and other valuable contributions. His Grundzüge der syrjänischen Grammatik appeared in 1841. In conjunction with his old school friend, Julius Löbe,
he brought out a complete edition, with translation, glossary.
and grammar, of Ulfilas's Gothic version of the Bible (1843-1846); and from 1847 he began to contribute to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft the fruits of his researches into the languages of the Swahilis, the Samoyedes, the Hazaras, the Aimaks, the Formosans and other widely-separated tribes. The Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde (1852) contain Dyak, Dakota, and Kiriri grammars; to these were added in 1857 a Grammatik u.Wörterbuch der Kassia's prache, and in 186o a treatise in universal grammar (Uber das Passivum). In 1864 he edited the Manchu translations of the Chinese Sse-shu, Shu-king and Shi-king, along with a dictionary; and in 1873 he completed the work which constitutes his most important contribution to philology, Die melanesischen Sprachen nach ihrem grammatischen Bau und ihrer Verwandschaft unler sich und mit den malaiisch-polynesischen Sprachen untersucht (1860-1873) It treats of the language of the Fiji Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, &c., and shows their radical affinity with the Polynesian class. He also contributed most of the linguistic articles in Pierer's Conversations-Lexicon. GABELLE (French, from the Med. Lat. gabulum, gablum, a tax, for the origin of which see GAVELKIND), a term which, in France, was originally applied to taxes on all commodities, but was gradually limited to the tax on salt. In process of time it became one of the most hated and most grossly unequal taxes in the country, but, though condemned by all supporters of reform, it was not abolished until 1790. First imposed in 1286, in the reign of Philip IV., as a temporary expedient, it was made a permanent tax by Charles V. . Repressive as a state monopoly, it was made doubly so from the fact that the government obliged every individual above the age of eightyears to purchase weekly a minimum amount of salt at a fixed price. When first instituted, it was levied uniformly on all the provinces in France, but for the greater part of its history the price varied in different provinces. There were five distinct groups of provinces, classified as follows: (a) the Pays de grandes gabelles, in which the tax was heaviest; (b) the Pays de petites gabelles, which paid a tax of about half the rate of the former; (c) the Pays de salines, in which the tax was levied on the salt extracted from the salt marshes; (d) the Pays rédimés, which had purchased redemption in 1549; and (e) the Pays exempts, which had stipulated for exemption on entering into union with the kingdom of France. Greniers d sel (dating from 1342) were established in each province, and to these all salt had to be taken by the producer on penalty of confiscation. The grenier fixed the price which it paid for the salt and then sold it to retail dealers at a higher rate. See J. J. Clamagéran, Histoire de l'impôt en France (1876); A. Gasquet, Précis des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (1885); Necker, Compte rendu (1781). GABERDINE, or GABARDINE, any long, loose over-garment, reaching to the feet and girt round the waist. It was, when made of coarse material,commonly worn in the middle ages by pilgrims, beggars and almsmen. The Jews, conservatively attached to the loose and flowing garments of the East, continued to wear the long upper garment to which the name “gaberdine” could
be applied, long after it had ceased to be a common form as worn by non-Jews, and to this day in some parts of Europe, e.g. in Poland, it is still worn, while the tendency to wear the frockcoat very long and loose is a marked characteristic of the race. The fact that in the middle ages the Jews were forbidden to engage in handicrafts also, no doubt, tended to stereotype a form of dress unfitted for manual labour. The idea of the “gaberdine” being enforced by law upon the Jews as a distinctive garment is probably due to Shakespeare's use in the Merchant of Venice, I.iii. 113. The mark that the Jews were obliged to wear generally on the outer garment was the badge. This was first enforced by the fourth Lateran Council of 1215. The “badge’” (Lat. rota; Fr. rouelle, wheel) took generally the shape of a circle of cloth worn on the breast. It varied in colour at different times. In France it was of yellow, later of red and white; in England it took the form of two bands or stripes, first of white, then of yellow. In Edward I.'s reign it was made in the shape of the Tables of the Law (see the Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. “Costume.” and “Badge"). The derivation of the word is obscure. It apparently occurs first in O. Fr. in the forms gauverdine, galvardine, and thence into Ital as gavardina, and Span, gabardina, a form which has influenced the English word. The New English Dictionary suggests a connexion with the O.H. Ger. wallevart, pilgrimage. Skeat (Etym. Dict., 1898) refers it to Span. gaban, coat, cloak; cabaña, hut, cabin. GABES, a town of Tunisia, at the head of the gulf of the same name, and 70 m. by sea S.W. of Sfax. It occupies the site of the Tacape of the Romans and consists of an open port and European quarter and several small Arab towns built in an oasis of date palms. This oasis is copiously watered by a stream called the Wad Gabes. The European quarter is situated on the right bank of the Wad near its mouth, and adjacent are the Arab towns of Jara and Menzel. The houses of the native towns are built largely of dressed stones and broken columns from the ruins of Tacape. Gabes is the military headquarters for southern
Tunisia. The population of the oasis is about 20,ooo, including some 1500 Europeans. There is a considerable export trade in dates.
Gabes lies at the head of the shat country of Tunisia and is intimately connected with the scheme of Commandant Roudaire to create a Saharan sca by making a channel from the Mediterranean to these shats (large salt lakes below the level of the sea). Roudaire proposed to cut a canal through the belt of high ground between Gabes and the shats, and fixed on Wad Melah, a spot 1om. N. of Gabes, for the sea end of the channel (see SAHARA). The company formed to execute his project became simply an agricultural concern and by the sinking of artesian wells created an oasis of olive and palm trees.
The Gulf of Gabes, the Syrtis Minor of the ancients, is a semicircular shallow indentation of the Mediterranean, about 50 m. across from the Kerkenna Islands, opposite Sfax on its northern shore, to Jerba Island, which lies at its southern end. The waters of the gulf abound in fish and sponge.
GABII, an ancient city of Latium, between 12 and 13 m. E. of Rome, on the Via Praenestina, which was in early times known as the Via Gabina. The part played by it in the story of the expulsion of the Tarquins is well known; but its importance in the earliest history of Rome rests upon other evidence-the continuance of certain ancient usages which imply–a period of hostility between the two cities, such as the adoption of the cinctus Gabinus by the consul when war was to be declared. We hear of a treaty of alliance with Rome in the time of Tarquinius Superbus, the original text of which, written on a bullock's skin, was said by Dionysius of Halicarnassus to be still extant in his day. Its subsequent history is obscure, and we only hear of it again in the 1st century B.C. as a small and insignificant place, though its desolation is no doubt exaggerated by the poets. From inscriptions we learn that from the time of Augustus or Tiberius onwards it enjoyed a municipal organization. Its baths
were well known, and Hadrian, who was responsible for much of
the renewed prosperity of the small towns of Latium, appears to have been a very liberal patron, building a senate-house (Curia