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'by Magna Carta as reissucd in 1217. Although the former of FRANKS. The name Franks seems to have been given in the these lays stress upon the fact that the sheriff's supervisory 4th century to a group of Germanic peoples dwelling north of powers are universal many men did not attend his tourn. Some the Main and reaching as far as the shores of the North Sea; lords of manors and of hundreds held a court of their own for south of the Main was the home of the Alamanni. The names of view of frankpledge, and in the 13th century it may be fairly some of these tribes have come down to us. On the Tabula said “of all the franchises, the royal rights in private hands, Peutingeriana appear the “Chamavi qui et Pranci," which view of frankpledge is perhaps the commonest.” At the end of should doubtless read “qui et Franci”; these Chamavi the same century the court for the view of frankpledge was apparently dwelt between the Yssel and the Ems. Later, we generally known as the court leet, and was usually, a manorial find them a little farther south, on the banks of the Rhine, in court in private hands. However, the principle of the frank- the district called Hamalant, and it is their customs which were pledge was still enforced. Thus Bracton says every male of brought together in the 9th century in the document known as the age of twelve years, be he free be he serf, ought to be in the Lex Francorum Chamavorum. After the Chamavi we may frankpledge," but he allows for certain exceptions.

mention the Attuarii or Chattuarii, who are referred to by As the word frankpledge denotes, these societies were originally Ammianus Marcellinus (xX. 10, 2): "Rheno exinde transmisso, concerned only with freemen; but the unfree were afterwards regionem pervasit (Julianus) Francorum quos Atthuarios admitted, and during the 13th century the frankpledges were vocant.” Later, the pagus Altuariorum corresponds to the composed chiefly of villains. From petitions presented to parlia- district of Emmerich and Xanten. It should be noted that this ment in 1376 it seems that the view of frankpledge was in active name occurs again in the middle ages in Burgundy, not far operation at this time, but it soon began to fall into disuse, and from Dijon; in all probability a detachment of this people had its complete decay coincides with the new ideas of government settled in that spot in the 5th or 6th century. The Bructeri, introduced by the Tudors. In a formal fashion courts leet for the Ampsivarii and Chatti may also be classed among the Frankish view of frankpledge were held in the time of the jurist Selden, tribes. They are mentioned in a celebrated passage of Sulpicius and a few of these have survived until the present day. Sir F. Alexander, which is cited by Gregory of Tours (Historia FranPalgrave bas asserted that the view of frankpledge was unknown corum, ii. 9). Sulpicius shows the general Arbogast, a barbarian in that part of the country which had been included in the in the service of Rome, seeking to take vengeance on the Franks kingdom of Northumbria. This statement is open to question,(392):" Collecto exercitu, transgressus Rhenum, Bricteros ripae but it is highly probable that the system was not so deeply proximos, pagum etiam quem Chamavi incolunt depopulatus rooted in this part of England as elsewhere. The machinery est, nullo unquam occursante, nisi quod pauci ex Ampsivariis of the frankpledge was probably used by Henry II. when he et Catthis Marcomere duce in ulterioribus collium jugis introduced the jury of presentment; and commenting on this apparuere.” It is evidently this Marcomeres, the chief of these connexion F. W. Maitland says “the duty of producing one's tribes, who is regarded by later historians as the father of the neighbour to answer accusations (the duty of the frankpledges) legendary Faramund (Pharamund) although in fact Marcomeres could well be converted into the duty of telling tales against him." has nothing to do with the Salian Franks. The system of frankpledge prevailed in some English boroughs. The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the Sometimes a court for view of frankpledge, called in some places entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that a mickleton, whereat the mayor or the bailiffs presided, was the term "et Franci” is not a later emendation. The carliest held for the whole borough; in other cases the borough was occurrence of the name in any author is in the Vita Aureliani divided into wards, or into leels, each of which had its separate of Vopiscus (ch. vii.). When, in 241, Aurelian, who was then court.

only a tribune, had just defeated some Franks in the neighbourSee Pollock and Maitiand, History of English Law (1895); G. Waitz, hood of Mainz and was marching against the Persians, his troops Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, Band i.° (1880); and W. Stubbs, sang the following refrain: Constitutional History, vol. i. (1897).

Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos, semel et semel occidimus; FRANKS, SIR AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON (1826–1897), English

Mille Persas, quaerimus. antiquary, was born on the 20th of March 1826, and was educated all these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He early showed century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke inclination for antiquarian pursuits, and in 1851 was appointed a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must assistant in the Antiquities Department of the British Museum. scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they Here, and as director of the Society of Antiquaries, an had in common. Each tribe was politically independent; they appointment he received in 1858, he made himself the first formed no confederations. Sometimes two or three tribes joined authority in England upon medieval antiquities of all descrip- forces to wage a war; but, the struggle over, the bond was broken, tions, upon porcelain, glass, the manufactures of savage nations, and each tribe resumed its isolated life. Waitz holds with some and in general upon all Oriental curiosities and works of art later show of probability that the Franks represent the ancient than the Classical period. In 1866 the British and medieval Istaevones of Tacitus, the Alamanni and the Saxons representing antiquities, with the ethnographical collections, were formed into the Herminones and the Ingaevones. a distinct department under his superintendence; and the Christy Of all these Frankish tribes one especially was to become collection of ethnography in Victoria Street, London, prior to its prominent, the tribe of the Salians. They are mentioned for the amalgamation with the British Muscum collections, was also first time in 358, by Ammianus Marcellinus (xvii. 8, 3), who says under his care. He became vice-president and ultimately that the Caesar Julian “petit primos omnium Francos, videlicet president of the Society of Antiquarics, and in 1878 declined the eos quos consuetudo Salios appellavit.” As to the origin of the principal librarianship of the museum. He retired on his name, it was long held to be derived from the river Yssel or Saal. seventieth birthday, 1896, and died on the 21st of May 1897. It is more probable, however, that it arose from the fact that His ample fortune was largely devoted to the collection of the Salians for a long period occupied the shores of the salt sea.' ceramics and precious objects of medieval art, most of which The Salians inhabited the sea-coast, whereas the Ripuarians became the property of the nation, either by donation in his dwelt on the banks of the river Rhine. lifetime or by bequest at his death. Although chiefly a medieval The Salians, at the time when they are mentioned by antiquary, Franks was also an authority on classical art, especially Ammianus, occupied Toxandria, i.e. the region south of the Roman remains in Britain: he was also greatly interested in Meuse, between that river and the Scheldt. Julian defeated them book-marks and playing-cards, of both of which he formed completely, but allowed them to remain in Toxandria, not, as important collections. He edited Kemble's Horac Ferales, of old, as conquerors, but as focderati of the Romans. They and wrote numerous memoirs on archacological subjects. perhaps paid tribute, and they certainly furnished Rome with Perhaps his most important work of this class is the catalogue

Their legends are connected with the sea, the name Meroveus of his own collection of porcelain.

signifying "sea-born."

soldiers; Salii seniores and Salii juniores are mentioned in the encountered the Alamanni, who, already masters of Alsace, Notitia dignilalum, and Salii appear among the auxilia palotina. were endcavouring to extend their conquests in all directions.

At the end of the 4th century and at the beginning of the 5th, There were numerous battles between the Ripuarians and the when the Roman legions withdrew from the banks of the Rhine, Alamanni; and the memory of one fought at Zülpich has come the Salians installed themselves in the district as an independent down to us. In this battle Sigebert, the king of the Ripuarians, people. The place-names became entirely Germanic; the was wounded in the knee and limped during the remainder of Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered his life-hence his surname Claudus (the Lame). The Ripuarians a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans. The Salians long remained allies of Clovis, Sigebert's son Chloderic fighting were subdivided into a certain number of tribes, each tribe under the king of the Salian Franks at Vouillé in 507. Clovis, placing at its head a king, distinguished by his long hair and however, persuaded Chloderic to assassinate his father, and chosen from the most noble family (Historia Francorum, ii. 9). then posed as Sigebert's avenger, with the result that Chloderic

The most ancient of these kings, reigning over the principal was himself assassinated and the Ripuarians raised Clovis on tribe, who is known to us is Chlodio. According to Gregory the shield and chose him as king. Thus the Salian Franks united of Tours Chlodio dwelt at a place called Dispargum, which it is under their rule all the Franks on the left bank of the Rhine. impossible to identify. Towards 431 he crossed the great Roman During the reigns of Clovis's sons they again turned their eyes road from Bavay to Cologne, which was protected by numerous on Germany, and imposed their suzerainty upon the Franks on forts and had long arrested the invasions of the barbarians. He the right bank. This country, north of the Main and the first then invaded the territory of Arras, but was severely defeated at residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia Hesdin-le-Vieux by Aetius, the commander of the Roman army Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into in Gaul. Chlodio, however, soon took his revenge. He explored which Germany was divided in the roth century—the duchy of the region of Cambrai, seized that town, and occupied all the Franconia (Franken). country as far as the Somme. At this time Tournai became the The Franks were redoubtable warriors, and were generally capital of the Salian Franks.

of great stature. Their fair or red hair was brought forward After Chlodio a certain Meroveus (Merowech) was king of the from the crown of the head towards the forehead, leaving the nape Salian Franks. We do not know if he was the son of Chlodio; of the neck uncovered; they shaved the face except the upper Gregory of Tours simply says that he belonged to Chlodio's stock lip. They wore fairly close breeches reaching to the knee and a -"de hujus stirpe quidam Merovechum regem fuisse adserunt,” | tunic fastened by brooches. Round the waist over the tunic -and then only gives the fact at second hand. Perhaps the was worn a leathern girdle having a broad iron buckle damascened remarks of the Byzantine historian Priscus may refer to Meroveus. with silver. From the girdle hung the single-edged missile axe A king of the Franks having died, his two sons disputed the or francisca, the scramasax or short knife, a poniard and such power. The elder journeyed into Pannonia to obtain support articles of toilet as scissors, a comb (of wood or bone); &c. The from. Attila; the younger betook himself to the imperial court Franks also used a weapon called the framea (an iron lance set at Rome. “I have seen him," writes Priscus; "he was still firmly in a wooden shaft), and bows and arrows. They protected very young, and we all remarked his fair hair which fell upon themselves in battle with a large wooden or wicker shield, the his shoulders.” Aetius welcomed him warmly and sent him centre of which was ornamented with an iron boss (umbo). back a friend and foederatus. In any case, eventually, Franks Frankish arms and armour have been found in the cemeteries fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac which abound throughout northern France, the warriors being (the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila buried fully armed. into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly See J. Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer (Göttingen, 1828); of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name K. Müllenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde (Berlin, 1883-1900); E. von of Mergveus appears among the combatants. Towards 457

Wietersheim, Geschichte der Völkerwanderung, 2nd ed., ed. by F. Meroveus was succeeded by his son Childeric. At first Childeric geschichte, vol. i. (4th ed. revised by Zeumer); R. Schröder, " Pie

Dahn (Leipzig, 1880-1881); G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungswas a faithful foederalus of the Romans, fighting for them Ausbreitung der salischen Franken," in Forschungen zur deutschen against the Visigoths and the Saxons south of the Loire; but Geschichte, vol. xix.;, K. Lamprecht, Fränkische Wanderungen und he soon sought to make himself independent and to extend his Geschichte von der Urzeit bis zu den Karolingern, vol. ii. (Stuttgart, conquests. He died in 481 and was succeeded by his son Clovis, 1896); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de who conquered the whole of Gaul with the exception of the l'ancienne France - l'invasion germanique (Paris, 1891). Also the kingdom of Burgundy and Provence. Clovis made his authority articles Salic Law and GERMANIC Laws, EARLY. (C. Pr.) recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at FRANZ, ROBERT (1815-1892), German composer, was born Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of at Halle on the 28th of June 1815. One of the most gifted of the Ripuarian Franks.

German song writers, he suffered in early life, as many musicians These Ripuarians must have comprised a certain number of have suffered, from the hostility of his parents to a musical Frankish tribes, such as the Ampsivarii and the Bructeri. They career. He was twenty years old when, his father's animosity settled in the 5th century in compact masses on the left bank of conquered, he was allowed to live in Dessau to study organthe Rhine, but their progress was slow. It was not until the playing under Schneider. The two years of dry study under Christian writer Salvian (who was born about 400) had already that famous teacher were advantageous chiefly in making him reached a fairly advanced age that they were able to seize uncommonly intimate with the works of Bach and Handel, his Cologne. The town, however, was recaptured and was not knowledge of which he showed in his editions of the Matthäus definitely in their possession until 463. The Ripuarians sub- Passion, Magnificat, ten cantatas, and of the Messiah and sequently occupied all the country from Cologne to Trier. L'Allegro, though some of these editions have long been a subject Aix-la-Chapelle, Bonn and Zülpich were their principal centres, of controversy among musicians. In 1843 he published his first and they even advanced southward as far as Metz, which appears book of songs, which ultimately was followed by some fifty more to have resisted their attacks. The Roman civilization and the books, containing in all about 250 songs. At Halle, Franz filled Latin language disappeared from the countries which they various public offices, including those of organist to the city, occupied; indeed it seems that the actual boundaries of the conductor of the Sing-akademie and of the Symphony concerts, German and French languages nearly coincide with those of and he was also a royal music-director and master of the music their dominion. In their southward progress the Ripuarians at the university. The first book of songs was warmly praised

The chronicler Fredegarius and the author of the Liber historiae by Schumann and Liszt, the latter of whom wrote a lengthy Francorum make Sunno and Marcomeres his predecessors, but in review of it in Schumann's paper, Die neue Zeitschrift, which reality they were chiefs of other Frankish tribes. The author of the later was published separately. Deafness had begun to make personage is quite legendary. In the Chronicon of Fredegariùs it is itself apparent as early as 1841, and Franz suffered also from a already affirmed that the Franks are descended from the Trojans. nervous disorder, which in 1868 compelled him to resign his

offices. His future was then provided for by Liszt, Dr Joachim, / were first used for bathing purposes in 1707. But the foundation Frau Magnus and others, who gave him the receipts of a concert of Franzensbad as a watering-place really dates from 1793, tour, amounting to some 100,000 marks. Franz died on the 24th when Dr Adler built here the first Kurhaus, and the place of October 1892. On his seventieth birthday he published his received its name after the emperor Francis I. first and only pianoforte piece. It is easy to find bere and there See Dr Loimann, Franzensbad (3rd ed., Vienna, 1900). among his songs gems that are hardly less brilliant than the best FRANZ JOSEF LAND, an arctic archipelago lying E. of of Schumann's. Certainly no musician was ever more thoughtful Spitsbergen and N. of Novaya Zemlya, extending northward and more painstaking. In addition to songs he wrote a setting from about 80° to 82° N., and between 42° and 64° E. It is for double choir of the 117th Psalm, and a four-part Kyrie; described as a lofty glacier-covered land, reaching an extreme he also edited Astorga's Slaba! Maler and Durante's Magnificat. elevation of about 2400 ft. The glaciers front, with a per

FRANZÉN, FRANS MIKAEL (1772-1847), Swedish poet, was pendicular ice-wall, a shore of debris on which a few low plants born 'at Uleåborg in Finland on the 9th of February 1772. are found to grow-poppies, mosses and the like. The islands At thixteen he entered the university of Abo, where he attended are volcanic, the main geological formation being Tertiary or the lectures of H. G. Porthan (1739-1804), a pioneer in the study Jurassic basalt, which occasionally protrudes through the of Finnish history and legend. He graduated in 1789, and ice-cap in high isolated blocks near the shore. A connecting became " eloquentiae docensin 1792. Three years later he island-chain between Franz Josef Land and Spitzbergen is started on a tour through Denmark, Germany, France and probable. The bear and fox are the only land mammals; insects England, returning in 1796 to accept the office of university are rare; but the avifauna is of interest, and the Jackson librarian at Åbo. In 1801 he became professor of history and cxpedition distinguished several new species. ethics, andin 1808 was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. August Petermann expressed the opinion that Baffin may On the cession of Finland to Russia, Franzén removed to Sweden, have sighted the west of Franz Josef Land in 1614, but the where he was successively appointed parish priest of Kumla first actual discovery is due to Julius Payer, a lieutenant in the in the diocese of Strengnäs (1810), minister of the Clara Church Austrian army, who was associated with Weyprecht in the in Stockholm (1824) and bishop of Hernösand (1831). He died second polar expedition fitted out by Count Wilczek on the at Säbrå parsonage on the 14th of August 1847. From the ship “Tegetthof” in 1872. On the 13th of August 1873, the autumn of 1793, when his Till en ung Flicka and Menniskans Tegetthof” being then beset, high land was seen to the northenlete were inserted by Kellgren in the Stockholms post, Franzén west. Later in the season Payer led expeditions to Hochstetter grew in popular favour by means of many minor poems of and Wilczek islands, and after a second winter in the ice-bound singular simplicity and truth, as Till Selma, Den gamle knekten, ship, a difficult journey was made northward through Austria Riddar St Göran, De Små blommorna, Modren vid vaggan, Sound, which was reported to separate two large masses of land, Nyårsmorgonen and Stjernhimmelen. His songs Goda gosse Wilczek Land on the east from Zichy Land on the west, to Cape glaset löm, Sörj ej den gryende dagen förut, Champagnevinct Fligely, in 82° 5' N., where Rawlinson Sound branched away to and Betäringssång were widely sung, and in 1797 he won the prize the north-east. Cape Fligely was the highest latitude attained of the Swedish Academy by his Sång öfver grefve Filip Creus. by Payer, and remained the highest attained in the Old World Henceforth his muse, touched with the academic spirit, grew till 1895. Payer reported that from Cape Fligely land (Rudolf more reflective and didactic. His longer works, as Emili eller Land) stretched north-east to a cape (Cape Sherard Osborn), en cfton i Lappland, and the epics Svante Sture eller mötct vid and mountain ranges were visible to the north, indicating lands Alasira, Kolumbus eller Amerikas uppläckt and Gustaf Adolf i beyond the 83rd parallel, to which the names King Oscar Land Tyskland (the last two incomplete), though rich in beauties of and Petermann Land were given. In 1879 De Bruyne sighted detail, are far inferior to his shorter pieces.

high land in the Franz Josef Land region, but otherwise it The poetical works of Franzén are collected under the title Skalde- remained untouched until Leigh Smith, in the yacht “ Eira," stycken (7 vols., 1824-1861); new ed., Samlade dikter, with

a biography explored the whole southern coast from 42° to 54° E. in 1881 in 2 vols. (1871). His prose writings, Om svenska droitninger (Åbo, and 1892, discovering many islands and sounds, and ascertaining 1798; Örebro, 1823), Skrifter i obunden stil, vol. i. (1835), Predik. that the coast of Alexandra Land, in the extreme west, trended ningar (5 vols., 1841-1845) and Minnesteckningar, prepared for the to north-west and north. Academy (3 vols., 1848-1860), are marked by faithful portraiture and

After Leigh Smith came another pause, and no further mention purity of style. See B. E. Malmström, in the Handlingar of the Swedish Academy (1852, new series 1887), vol.

ii.; S. A. Hollander, is made of Franz Josef Land till 1894. In that year Mr Alfred Minne af F. M. Franzén (Örebro, 1868): F. Cygnaeus, Teckningar Harmsworth (afterwards Lord Northeliffe) fitted out an expedi* F. M. Franzéns lefnod (Helsingfors, 1372); and Gustaf Ljunggren, tion in the ship “ Windward” under the leadership of Mr F. Svenska vitterhelens häfder efter Gustaf III.'s död, vol. ü. (1876). G. Jackson, with the object of establishing a permanent base

FRANZENSBAD, or KAISER-FRANZENSBAD, a town and from which systematic exploration should be carried on for watering-place of Bohemia, Austria, 152 m. W.N.W. of Prague by successive years and, if practicable, a journey should be made rail. Pop. (1900) 2330. It is situated at an altitude of about to the Pole. Mr Jackson and his party landed at “ Elmwood" 1500 ft. between the spurs of the Fichtelgebirge, the Böhmerwald (which was named from Lord Northcliffe's seat in the Isle of and the Erzgebirge, and lies 4 m. N.W. of Eger. It possesses Thanet), near Cape Flora, at the western extremity of Northbrook a large kursaal, several bathing establishments, a hospital for Island, on the 7th of September. After a preliminary reconnaispoor patients and several parks. There are altogether 12 sance to the north, which afterwards turned out to be vitally mineral springs with saline, alkaline and ferruginous waters, important, the summer of 1895 was spent in exploring the coast of which the oldest and most important is the Franzensquelle. to the north-west by a boating expedition. This expedition One of the springs gives off carbonic acid gasapd another contains visited many of the points seen by Leigh Smith, and discovered à considerable proportion of lithia salts. The waters, which land, which it has been suggested may be the Gillies Land have an average temperature between 50-2° F. and 54-5° F., reported by the Dutch captain Gillies in 1797. In 1896 the are used both internally and externally, and are efficacious in Jackson-Harmsworth expedition worked northwards through cases of anaemia, nervous disorders, sexual diseases, specially an archipelago for about 70 m. and reached Cape Richthofen, for women, and heart diseases. Franzensbad is frequently a promontory 700 ft. high, whence an expanse of open' water resorted to as an after-cure by patients from Carlsbad and was seen to the northward, which received the name of Queen Marienbad. Another important part of the cure is the so-called Victoria Sea. To the west, on the opposite side of a wide opening moor or mud-baths, prepared from the peat of the Franzensbad which was called the British Channel, appeared glacier-covered marsh, which is very rich in mineral substances, like sulphates land, and an island lay to the northward. The island was of iron, of soda and of potash, organic acids, salt, &c.

probably the King Oscar Land of Payer. To north and northThe first information about the springs dates from the roth east was the land which had been visited in the reconnaissance century, and an analysis of the waters-was made in 1565. They of the previous year, but beyond it a water-sky appeared in the

supposed position of Petermann Land. Thus Zichy Land PRASCATI, a town and episcopal see of Italy, in the province itself was resolved into a group of islands, and the outlying of Rome, 15 m. S.E. of Rome by rail, and also reached by electric land sighted by Payer was found to be islands also. Meanwhile tramway via Grottaferrata. Pop. (1901) 8453. The town is Nansen, on his southward journey, had approached Franz situated 1056 ft. above the sea-level, on the N. slopes of the outer Josef Land from the north-east, finding only sea at the north crater ring of the Alban Hills, and commands a very fine view end of Wilczek Land, and seeing nothing of Payer's Rawlinson of the Campagna of Rome. The cathedral contains a memorial Sound, or of the north end of Austria Sound. Nansen wintered tablet to Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, whose body near Cape Norway, only a few miles from the spot reached by for some while rested here; his brother, Henry, Cardinal York, Jackson in 1895. He had finally proved that a deep oceanic owned a villa at Frascati. The villas of the Roman nobility, basin lies to the north. On the 17th of June 1896 the dramatic with their beautiful gardens and fountains, are the chief attracmeeting of Jackson and Nansen took place, and in the same tion of Frascati. The earliest in date is the Villa Falconieri, year the “Windward” revisited“ Elmwood” and brought planned by Cardinal Ruffini before 1550; the most important Nansen home, the work of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition of the rest are the Villa Torlonia (formerly Conti), Lancelotti being continued for another year. As the non-existence of land (formerly Piccolomini), Ruffinella (now belonging to Prince to the north had been proved, the attempt to penetrate north- Lancellotti), Aldobrandini, Borghese and Mondragone (now a wards was abandoned, and the last season was devoted to a Jesuit school). The surrounding country, covered with remains survey and scientific examination of the archipelago, especially of ancient villas, is fertile and noted for its wine. Frascati to the west; this was carried out by Messrs Jackson, Armitage, seems to have arisen on the site of a very large ancient villa, R. Koetilitz, H. Fisher and W. S. Bruce.

which, under Domitian at any rate, bclonged to the imperial Further light was thrown on the relations of Franz Josef Land house about the oth century, in which period we find in the and Spitsbergen during 1897 by the discoveries of Captain Liber Pontificalis the names of four churches in Frascalo. Robertson of Dundee, and Wyche's Land was circumnavigated The medieval stronghold of the counts of Tusculum (9.v.), by Mr Arnold Pike and Sir Savile Crossley. The latter voyage which occupied the site of the ancient city, was dismantled by was repeated in the following year by a German expedition the Romans in 1191, and the inhabitants put to the sword or under Dr Th. Lerner and Captain Rüdiger. In August 1898 an mutilated. Many of the fugitives naturally took refuge in expedition under Mr Walter Wellman, an American, landed at Frascati. The see of Tusculum had, however, always had its Cape Tegetthof. Beginning a northward journey with sledges cathedral church in Frascati. For the greater part of the middle at the end of the winter, Wellman met with an accident ages Frascati belonged to the papacy. which compelled him to return, but not before some exploration See G. Tomassetti, La Via Latina nel medio evo (Rome, 1886), had been accomplished, and the eastern extension of the archi 170 seq.; T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, iv. pelago fairly well defined. In June 1899 H.R.H. the duke of (London, 1907).

(T. As.) Abruzzi started from Christiania in his yacht, the “Stella FRASER, ALEXANDER CAMPBELL (1819 ), Scottish Polare," to make the first attempt to force a ship into the newly philosopher, was born at Ardchattan, Argyllsbire, on the 3rd discovered ocean north of Franz Josef Land. The “Stella of September 1819. He was educated at Glasgow and Edinburgh, Polare” succeeded in making her way through the British where, from 1846 10 1856, he was professor of Logic at New Channel to Crown Prince Rudolf Land, and wintered in Teplitz College. He edited the North Brilish Review from 1850 to 1857, Bay, in 81° 33' N. lat. The ship was nearly wrecked in the and in 1856, having previously been a Free Church minister, autumn, and the party had to spend most of the winter on shore, he succeeded Sir William Hamilton as professor of Logic and the duke of Abruzzi suffering severely from frost-bite. In March Metaphysics at Edinburgh University. In 1859 he became 1900 a sledge party of thirteen, under Captain Cagni, started dean of the faculty of arts. He devoted himself to the study northwards. They found no trace of Petermann Land, but with of English philosophers, especially Berkeley, and published a great difficulty crossed the ice to 86° 33' N. lat., 20 m. beyond Collected Edition of the Works of Bishop Berkcley with AnnolaNansen's farthest, and 240 m. from the Pole. The party, with lions, &c. (1871; enlarged 1901), a Biography of Berkeley (1881), the exception of three, returned to the ship after an absence an Annotaled Edition of Locke's Essay (1894), the Philosophy of of 104 days, and the “Stella Polare” returned to Tromsö | Thcism (1896) and the Biography of Thomas Reid (1898). He in September 1900. In 1901-1902 the Baldwin-Ziegler expedi- contributed the article on John Locke to the Encyclopaedia tion also attempted a northward journey from Franz Josef Britannica. In 1904 he published an autobiography entitled Land.

Biographia philosophica, in which he sketched the progress of his See Geographical Journal, vol. xi., February 1898; F. G. Jackson, intellectual development. From this work and from his Gifford A Thousand Days in the Arctic (1899).

lectures we learn objectively what had previously been inferred FRANZOS, KARL EMIL (1848–1904), German novelist, was from his critical works. After a childhood spent in an austerity born of Jewish parentage on the 25th of October 1848 in Russian which stigmatized as unholy even the novels of Sir Walter Scoti, Podolia, and spent his early years at Czortków in Galicia. His he began his college career at the age of fourteen at a time when father, a district physician, died carly, and the boy, after attend Christopher North and Dr Ritchie were lecturing on Moral ing the gymnasium of Czernowitz, was obliged to teach in order Philosophy and Logic. His first philosophical advance was to support himself and prepare for academic study. He studied stimulated by Thomas Brown's Cause and Effect, which introlaw at the universities of Vienna and Graz, but after passing the duced him to the problems which were to occupy his thought. examination for employment in the state judicial service From this point he fell into the scepticism of Hume. In 1836 abandoned this career and, becoming a journalist, travelled Sir William Hamilton was appointed to the chair of Logic and extensively in south-east Europe, and visited Asia Minor and Metaphysics, and Fraser became his pupil. He himself says, Egypt. In 1877 he returned to Vienna, where from 1884 to “I owe more to Hamilton than to any other influence.” It 1886 he edited the Neue illustriertc Zeitung. In 1887 he removed was about this time also that he began his study of Berkeley and to Berlin and founded the fortnightly review Deutsche Dichtung. Coleridge, and deserted his early phenomenalism for the conFranzos died on the 28th of January 1904. His earliest collec- ception of a spiritual will as the universal cause. In the Biotions stories and sketches, Aus Halb-Asien, Land und Leute graphic thiş “ Theistic faith appears in its full development des östlichen Europas (1876) and Die Juden von Barnow (1877) | (see the concluding chapter), and is especially important as depict graphically the life and manners of the races of south- perhaps the nearest approach to Kantian ethics made by original eastern Europe. Among other of his works may be mentioned English philosophy. Apart from the philosophical interest of the short stories, Junge Liebe (1878), Stille Geschichten (1880), the Biographia, the work contains valuable pictures of the Land and the novels Moschko von Parma (1880), Ein Kampf ums of Lorne and Argyllshire society in the early 19th century, of Rochl (1882), Der Präsident (1884), Judith Trachtenberg (1890), university life in Glasgow and Edinburgh, and á history of the Der Wahrheitsucher (1894).

North British Review.

FRASER, JAMES (1818–1885), English bishop, was born at FRASER, SIR WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, Bart. (1826-1898), EngPrestbury, in Gloucestershire, on the 18th of August 1818, and lish politician, author and collector, was born on the roth of was educated at Bridgnorth, Shrewsbury, and Lincoln College, February 1826, the son of Sir James John Fraser, 3rd baronet, a Oxford. In 1839 he was Ireland scholar, and took a first class. colonel of the 7th Hussars, who had served on Wellington's staff In 1840 he gained an Oriel fellowship, and was for some time at Waterloo. He was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, tutor of the college, but did not take orders until 1846. He was Oxford, entered the ist Life Guards in 1847, but retired with a successively vicar of Cholderton, in Wiltshire, and rector of captain's rank in 1852. He then set about entering parliament, Ufton Nervet, in Berkshire; but his subsequent importance was and the ups and downs of his political career were rather remarks largely due to W. K. Hamilton, bishop of Salisbury, who recom- able. He was returned for Barnstaple in 1852, but the election mended him as an assistant commissioner of education. His vas declared void on account of bribery, and the constituency report on the educational condition of thirteen poor-law unions, was disfranchised for two years. At the election of 1857 Sir made in May 1859, was described by Thomas Hughes as “a William, who had meantime been defeated at Harwich, was superb, almost a unique piece of work.” In 1865 he was com- again returned at Barnstaple. He was, however, defeated in missioned to report on the state of education in the United States 1859, but was elected in 1863 at Ludlow. This seat he held for and Canada, and his able performance of this task brought him only two years, when he was again defeated and did not re-enter an offer of the bishopric of Calcutta, which he declined, but in parliament until 1874, when he was returned for Kidderminster, January 1870 he accepted the see of Manchester. The task a constituency he represented for six years, when he retired. He before him was an arduous one, for although his predecessor, was a familiar figure at the Carlton Club, always ready with a James Prince Lee, had consecrated no fewer than 130 churches, copious collection of anecdotes of Wellington, Disraeli and the enormous population was still greatly in advance of the Napoleon III. He died on the 17th of August 1898. He was ecclesiastical machinery. Fraser worked with the utmost an assiduous collector of relics; and his library was sold for energy, and did even more for the church by the liberality and some £20,000. His own books comprise Words on Wellinglon geniality which earned him the title of “the bishop of all de- (1889), Disraeli and his Day (1891), Hic el Ubique (1893), nominations." He was prominent in secular as well as religious Napoleon III. (1896) and the Waterloo Ball (1897). works, interesting himself in every movement that promoted: FRASER, the chief river of British Columbia, Canada, rising health, morality, or education; and especially serviceable as in two branches among the Rocky Mountains near 52° 45' N., the friendly, unofficious counsellor of all classes. His theology 118° 30' W. Length 740 m. It first flows N.W. for about 160 m., was that of a liberal high-churchman, and his sympathies were then rounds the head of the Cariboo Mountains, and flows broad. In convocation he seconded a motion for the disuse of directly S. for over 400 m. to Hope, where it again turns abruptly the Athanasian Creed, and in the House of Lords he voted for and flows W. for 80 m., falling into the Gulf of Georgia at New the abolition of university tests. He died suddenly on the 22nd Westminster. After the junction of the two forks near its of October 1885.

northern extremity, the first important tributary on its southern A biography by Thomas Hughes was published in 1887. and an course is the Stuart, draining Lakes Stuart, Fraser and François. account of his Lancashire life by J. W. Diggle (1889), who also edited one hundred miles lower down the Quesnel, draining a large 2 vols. of University and Parochial Sermons (1887).

lake of the same name, flows in from the east at a town also so FRASER, JAMES BAILLIE (1783-1856), Scottish traveller named. Farther on the Fraser receives from the west the and author, was born at Reelick in the county of Inverness on Chilcotin, and at Lytton, about 180 m. from the sea, the Thompthe i1th of June 1783. He was the eldest of the four sons of son, its largest tributary, flows in from the east, draining a series Edward Satchell Fraser of Reelick, all of whom found their way of mountain lakes, and receiving at Kamloops the North to the East, and gave proof of their ability. In early life he Thompson, which flows through deep and impassable canyons. went to the West Indies and thence to India. In 1815 he made Below Hope the Lillooet flows in from the north. The Fraser a tour of exploration in the Himalayas, accompanied by his is a typical mountain stream, rapid and impetuous through all brother William (d. 1835). When Reza Kuli Mirza and Nejeff its length, and like most of its tributaries is in many parts not Kuli Mirza, the exiled Persian princes, visited England, he was navigable even by canoes. On its southern course between appointed to look after them during their stay, and on their Lytton and Yale, while bursting its way through the Coast return he accompanied them as far as Constantinople. He was Range, it flows through majestic canyons, which, like those afterwards sent to Persia on a diplomatic mission by Lord of the Thompson, were the scene of many tragedies during the Glenelg, and effected a 'most remarkable journey on horseback days of the gold-rush to the Cariboo district. At Yale, about through Asia Minor to Teheran. His health, however, was So m. from its mouth, it becomes navigable, though its course impaired by the exposure. In 1823 he married a daughter is still very rapid. In the Cariboo district, comprised within the of Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee, a sister of the great bend of the river, near Tête Jaune Cache, are many valuable historian Patrick Fraser Tytler. He died at Reelick in January gold deposits. With its tributaries the Fraser drains the whole 1856. Fraser is said to have displayed great skill in water province from 54° to 49° N., except the extreme south-eastern colours, and several of his drawings have been engraved; and corner, which is within the basin of the Columbia and its tributary the astronomical observations which he took during some of the Kootenay. bis journeys did considerable service to the cartography of Asia. FRASERBURGH, a police burgh and seaport, on the N. coast The works by which he attained his literary reputation were of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891), 7466; (1901), 9105. accounts of his travels and fictitious tales illustrative of Eastern It is situated 471 m. by rail N. of Aberdeen, from which there life. In both he employed a vigorous and impassioned style, is a branch line, of which it is the terminus, of the Great North which was on the whole wonderfully effective in spite of minor of Scotland railway. It takes its name from Sir Alexander faults in taste and flaws in structure.

Fraset, the ancestor of Lord Saltoun, whose seat, Philorth Fraser's earliest writings are: Journal of a Tour through Part of House, lies 2 m. to the south. Sir Alexander obtained for it the Himela Mountains and to the Sources of the Jumna and the Ganges in 1613 a charter as a burgh of royalty, and also in 1592 a charter (1820); A Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan in the Years 1821 for the founding of a university. This latter project, however, and 1822, including some Accouni of the Countries to the North-East

was not carried out, and all that remains of the building inof Persia (1825); and Travels and Adventures in the Persian Provinces on he Southern Banks of the Caspian Sea (1826). His romances

tended for the college is a three-storeyed tower. The old castle include The Kuzeilbask, Tale of Khorasan (1828), and its sequel, of the Frasers on Kinnaird Head now contains a lighthouse, The Persian Adventurer (1830); Allee Neemroo (1842); and The Dark and close by is the Wine Tower, with a cave below. The Falcon (1844). He also wrote An Historical and Descriptive Account town cross is a fine structure standing upon a huge hexagon, of Persia (1834): A Winter's Journey (Tatar) from Constantinople surmounted by a stone pillar 12 ft. high, ornamented by the Mesopotamia and Assyris (1842); and Military Memoirs of Cold royal and Fraser arms. The port is one of the leading stations James Skinner (1851).

of the herring fisbery in the north of Scotland and ibe head

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