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Maccabees it is named Gennesar; while in the Gospels it is Blennius and Clarias; and there is a great affinity between them usually called Sea of Galilee, though once it is called Lake of and the fish of the East African lakes and streams. There are cight Gennesaret (Luke v. 1) and twice Sca of Tiberias (John
vi. 1, species of Chromis, most of which hatch their eggs and raise their
in the buccal cavities of the males. The Chromis simonis is xxi, 1). The modern Arabic name is Bahr Tubariya, which is popularly supposed to be the fish from which Peter took the picce often rendered “ Lake of Tiberias." Pliny refers to it as the of money (Matt. xvii. 27). Clarias macracanthus (Arab. Burbur) is Lake of Taricheae.
the coracinus of Josephus. It was found by Lortet in the springs
of 'Ain el-Madawwera, 'Ain et-Tineh and 'Ainet-Tabighah,on the lake Like the Dead Sea it is a “rift " lake, being part of the great shore where muddy, and in Lake Hulch. It is a scaleless, snake-like fault that formed the Jordan-Araba depression. Deposits show fish, often nearly 5 ft. long, which resembles the C. anguillafts of that originally it formed part of the great inland sea that filled Egypt. From the absence of scales it was lield by the Jews to be this depression in Pleistocene times. The district on each side of unclean, and some commentators suppose it to be the serpent of the lake has a number of hot springs, at least one of which is crested, eared, and little--gulls and pelicans frequent the lake. beneath the sea itself, and has always shown indications of On its shores are tortoises, mud-turtles, crayfish and innumerable volcanic and other subterranean disturbances. It is especially sand-hoppers; and at varying depths in the lake several species of liable to earthquakes. The water of the sea, though slightly Melania, Melanopsis, Neritina, Corbicula and Unio have been found. brackish and not very clear, is generally used for drinking. The Antiquitics.---The principal sites of interest round the lake may shores are for the greater part formed of fine gravel; some yards be enumerated from north to west and from south to east. from the shore the bed is uniformly covered with fine greyish Kerazeh, the undoubted site of Chorazin, stands on a rocky spur mud. The temperature in summer is tropical, but after noon 900 ft. above the lake, 2 m. north of the shore. Foundations and falls about 10° F. owing to strong north-west winds. This range scattered stones cover the slopes and the flat valley below. On of temperature affects the water to a depth of about 49 ft.; the west is a rugged gorge. In the middle of the ruins are the below that depth the water is uniformly about 59° F. The sea is scattered remains of a synagogue of richly ornamental style built set deep in bills which rise on the east side to a height of about of black basalt. A small spring occurs on the north. Tell Hum 2000 ft. Sudden and violent storms (such as are described in (as the name is generally spelt, though Talhūm would probably be Matt. viii. 23, xiv. 22, and the parallel passages) are often pro- preferable for several reasons) is an important ruin on the shore, duced by the changes of temperature in the air resulting from south of the last-mentioned site. The remains consist of foundathese great differences of level.
tions and piles of stones (in spring concealed by gigantic thistles) The Sea of Galilee is best seen from the top of the western preci- extending about half a mile along the shore. The foundations of pices. It presents a desolate appearance. On the north the hills a fine synagogue, measuring 75 ft. by 57, and built-in white and indented with small bays. The ground is here covered with limestone, have been excavated. A conspicuous building has black basalt. On the west the plateau known as Sahel el-Ahma been erected close to the water, from the fragments of the Tell terminates in precipices 1700 ft. above the lake, and over these the Hum synagogue. Since the 4th century Tell Hum has been black rocky tops called the Horns of Hattin objects. On the south is a broad valley through which the Jordan site of Capernaum. Some modern geographers question this
are conspicuous pointed out by all the Christian writers of importance as the flows. On the east are furrowed and rugged slopes, rising to the for heat ().
through a narrow gorge between lower hills. A marshy plain, Minyeh is a ruined site at the north end of the plain of Gen2} m. long and 15 broad. called el-Batihah, exists immediatcly east nesareth, 2ļ m. from the last, and close to the shore. There plain called el-Ghuweir, formed by the junction of three large valleys arc extensive ruins on flat ground, consisting of mounds and It measures 3 m, along the shore, and is 1 m. wide. This plain, foundations. Masonry of well-dressed stones has also been here naturally fertile, but now almost uncultivated, is supposed to be discovered in course of excavation. Near the ruins are remains of the plain of Gennesareth, described by Josephus (B. J
.. 10,8). On an old khân, which appears to have been built in the middle ages. the east the hills approach in one place within 40 ft. of the water. This is another suggested identification for Capernaum; but all but there is generally a width of about of a mile from the hills to the beach. On the west the flat ground at the foot of the hills has an
the remains belong to tbc Arab period. Between Tell Hum and average width of about 200 yds. A few scattered palms dot the Minych is Tell 'Orcimeh, the site of a forgotten Amorite city. western shores, and a palm grove is to be found near Kefr Härib South of the supposed plain of Gennesareth is Mejdel, commonly on the south-east. The hot baths south of Tiberias include seven springs, the largest of which has a temperature of 137° F. In these supposed to represent the New Testament town of Magdala. springs a distinct rise in temperature was observed in 1837, when
A few lotus trces and some rock-cut tombs are here found beside Tiberias and Şased were destroyed by an earthquake. The plain a miserable mud hamlet on the hill slope, with a modern tombof Gennesareth, with its environs, is the best watered part of the lake house (kubbeh). Passing beneath rugged cliffs a recess in the bills basin. North of this plain are the five springs of et-Tabighah, the is next reached, where stands Tubariya, the ancient Tiberias or reservoir by 'Ali
, son of Dhahr
containing 3000 inhabitants,
more than half of whom are aqueduct. 52 ft. above the lake. The Tabighah springs, though Jews. The walls, flanked with round towers, but partly destroyed abundant, are warm and brackish. At the north end of the plain
is by the earthquake of 1837, were built by Dhahr el-Amir, as was 'Ain et-Tineh (" spring of the fig-tree"), also a brackish spring the court-house. The two mosques, now partly ruinous, were with a good stream; south of the plain is 'Ain el-Bardeh ("the cold spring"), which is sweet, but scarcely lower in temperature than erected by his sons. There are remains of a Crusaders' church, the others. One of the most important springs is 'Ain el-Madaw- and the tomb of the celebrated Maimonides is shown in the town, wera (“the round spring"), situated i m. from the south end of the while Rabbi Aqiba and Rabbi Meir lie buried outside. The plain and half a mile from the shore. The water rises in a circular ruins of the ancient city, including granite columns and traces of of 73° F. The bottom is of loose sand, and the fish called coracinus a sea-wall with towers, stretch southwards a mile beyond the by Josephus (B.J. iii. 10, 8) is here found (see below). Dr Tristram modern town. An aqueduct in the cliff once brought water a was the first explorer to identify this fish, and on account of its distance of 9 m. from the south. presence suggested the identification of the "round spring" with the fountain of Capharnaum, which, according to Josephus, watered
Kerak, at the south end of the lake, is an important site on a the plain of Gennesareth. There is, however, a difficulty in this peninsula surrounded by the water of the lake, by the Jordan, identification; there are no ruins at 'Ain el-Madawwera.
and by a broad water ditch, while on the north-west a narrow Fauna and Flora.-For half the year the hillsides are bare and neck of land remains. The plateau thus enclosed is partly steppe-like, but in spring are clothed with a subtropical vegetation. artificial, and banked up 50 or 60 ft. above the water. A ruined Olcanders flourish round the lake, and the large papyrus grows at citadel remains on the north-west, and on the east was a bridge *Ain et-Tīn as well as at the mouth of the Jordan. The lake swarms with fish, which are caught with nets by a gild of fishermen, whose over the Jordan; broken pottery and fragments of sculptured boats are the only representatives of the many ships and boats stone strew the site. The ruin of Kerak answers to the descripwhich plied on the lake as late as the 10th century. Fishing was a tion given by Josephus of the city of Tarichcae, which lay 30 lucrative industry at an early date, and the Jews ascribed the laws stadia from Tiberias, the hot baths being between the two cities. regulating it to Joshua, Thé fish, which were classed as clean and unclean, the good and bad of the parable (Matt. xiii. 47, 48), belong Tarichcae was situated, as is Kerak, on the shore below the to the genera Chromis, Barbus, Capoeta, Discognathus, Nemachilus, I cliffs, and partly surrounded by water, while before the city was a
plain (the Ghor). Pliny further informs us that Taricheae was at | mainly indebted for the success of his works. In 1581, while The south end of the Sea of Galilee. Sinn en-Nabrch, a ruin on a watching a lamp set swinging in the cathedral of Pisa, he observed spur of the hills close to the last-mentioned sile, represents the that, whatever the range of its oscillations, they were invariably ancient Sennabris, where Vespasian (Josephus, B.J. iii. 9, 7) executed in equal times. The experimental verification of this fixed his camp, advancing from Scythopolis (Beisen) on Tarichcae fact led him to the important discovery of the isochronism of the and Tiberias. Sennabris was 30 sladia (rom Tiberias, or about pendulum. He at first applied the new principle to pulsethe distance of the ruin now existing.
mcasurement, and more than fifty years later turned it to account The eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee have been less fully in the construction of an astronomical clock. Up to this time he explored than the western, and the sites are not so perfectly was entirely ignorant of mathematics, his father having carefully recovered. The site of Hippos, one of the cities of Decapolis, is held him aloos from a study which he rightly apprehended would fixed by Clermont-Ganneau at Khurbet Susieh. Kalat el-Hosn lead to his total alienation from that of medicine. Accident, ("castle of the stronghold ") is a ruin on a rocky spur opposite however, frustrated this purpose. A lesson in geometry, given by Tiberias. Two large ruined buildings remain, with traces of an Ostilio Ricci to the pages of the grand-ducal court, chanced, old street and fallen columns and capitals. A strong wall once tradition avers, to have Galileo for an unscen listener; his surrounded the town; a narrow neck of land exists on the cast attention was riveted, his dormant genius was roused, and he where the rock has been scarped. Rugged valleys enclose the threw all his energies into the new pursuit thus unexpectedly site on the north and south; broken sarcophagi and rock-cut presented to him. With Ricci's assistance, he rapidly mastered tombs are found beneath the ruin. This site is not identified; the ihe elements of the science, and eventually extorted his father's suggestion that it is Gamala is doubtful, and not borne out by reluctant permission to exchange Hippocrates and Galen for Josephus (Wor, iv. 1, 1), who says Gamala was over against Euclid and Archimedes. In 1585 he was withdrawn from the Taricheae. Kersa, an insignificant ruin north of the last, is university, through lack of means, before he had taken a degree, thought to represent the Gerasa or Gergesa of the 4th century, and returned to Florence, where his family habitually resided. situated cast of the lake; and the projecting spur of hill south of We next hear of him as lecturing before the Florentine Academy this ruin is conjectured to be the place where the swine “ran on the site and dimensions of Dante's Inferno; and he shortly violently down a steep place” (Matt. viii. 32).
afterwards published an essay descriptive of his invention of the (C. R. C.; C. W. W.; R. A. S. M.) hydrostatic balance, which rapidly made his name known GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642), Italian astronomer and throughout Italy. His first patron was the Marchese Guidubaldo experimental philosopher, was born at Pisa on the 15th of del Monte of Pesaro, a man equally eminent in science, and February 1564. His father, Vincenzio, was an impoverished influential through family connexions. At the Marchese's descendant of a noble Florentine house, which had exchanged request he wrote, in 1588, a treatise on the centre of gravity in the surname of Bonajuti for that of Galilei, on the election, in solids, which obtained for him, together with the title of "the 1343, of one of its members, Tommaso de' Bonajuti, to the college Archimedes of his time,” the honourable though not lucrative of the twelve Buonuomini. The family, which was ninctecn post of mathematical lecturer at the Pisan university. During times represented in the signoria, and in 1445 gave a gonfalonier the ensuing two years (1589-1591) he carried on that remarkable to Florence, flourished with the republic and declined with its fall. series of experiments by which he established the first principles Vincenzio Galilci was a man of better parts than fortune. He was of dynamics and earned the undying hostility of bigoted Aristoa competent mathematician, wrote with considerable ability on telians. From the leaning tower of Pisa he afforded to all the the theory and practice of music, and was especially distinguished professors and students of the university ocular demonstration amongst his contemporaries for the grace and skill of his perform of the falsehood of the Peripatetic dictum that heavy bodies fall ance upon the lute. By his wife, Giulia Ammannati of Pescia, he with velocities proportional to their weights, and with unanswer. had three sons and four daughters.
able logic demolished all the time-honoured maxims of the schools From his earliest childhood Galileo, the eldest of the family, regarding the motion of projectiles, and elemental weight or was remarkable for intellectual aptitude as well as for mechanical | levity. But while he convinced, he failed to conciliate his invention. His favourite pastime was the construction of original adversaries. The keen sarcasm of his polished rhetoric was not and ingenious toy-machines; but his application to literary calculated to soothe the susceptibilities of men already smarting studies was equally conspicuous. In the monastery of Vallom- under the deprivation of their most cherished illusions. He seems, brosa, near. Florence, where his education was principally con- in addition, to have compromised his position with the grand. ducted, he not only made himself acquainted with the best ducal family by the imprudent candour with which he condemned Latin authors, but acquired a fair command of the Greek tongue, a machine for clearing the port of Leghorn, invented by Giovanni thus laying the foundation of his brilliant and elegant style. de' Medici, an illegitimate son of Cosmo 1. Princely favour From one of the monks he also received instruction in logic; but being withdrawn, private rancour was free to show itself. He the subtleties of the scholastic science were thoroughly distasteful was publicly hissed at his lecture, and found it prudent to resign to him. A document published by F. Selmi in 1864 proves that his professorship and withdraw to Florence in 1591. Through he was at this time so far attracted towards a religious life as to the death of his father in July of that year family cares and have joined the novitiate; but his father, who had other designs responsibilities devolved upon him, and thus his nomination to for him, scized the opportunity of an attack of ophthalmia to the chair of mathematics at the university of Padua, secured by withdraw him permanently from the care of the monks. Having the influence of the Marchese Guidubaldo with the Venetian had personal experience of the unremunerative character both of scnate, was welcome both as affording a relief from pecuniary music and of mathematics, he desired that his son should apply embarrassment and as opening a field for scientific distinction. himself to the cultivation of medicine, and, not without some His residence at Padua, which extended over a period of straining of his slender resources, placed him, before he had eighteen years, from 1592 to 1610, was a course of uninterrupted completed his eighteenth year, at the university of Pisa. He prosperity. His appointment was three times renewed, on each accordingly matriculated there on the 5th of November 1581, and occasion with the expressions of the highest esteem on the part of immediately entered upon attendance at the lectures of the the governing body, and his yearly salary was progressively raised celebrated physician and botanist, Andrea Cesalpino.
from 180 to 1000 florins. His lectures were attended by persons The natural gifts of the young student seemed at this time of the highest distinction from all parts of Europe, and such was equally ready to develop in any direction towards which choice the charm of his demonstrations that a hall capable of containing or hazard might incline them. In musical skill and invention hc 2000 people had eventually to be assigned for the accommodation already vied with the best professors of the art in Italy; his of the overflowing audiences which they attracted. His invention personal taste would have led him to choose painting as his of the proportional compass or sector-an implement still used in profession, and one of the most eminent artists of his day, geometrical drawing--dates from 1597; and about the same Lodovico Cigoli, owned that to his judgment and counsel he was time he constructed the first thermometer, consisting of a bulb
and tube filled with air and water, and terminating in a vessel of | by the Venetian senate with the appointment for life to his water. In this instrument the results of varying atmospheric professorship, at an unprecedentedly high salary. His discovery pressure were not distinguishable from the expansive and con- of the “ Medicean Stars” was acknowledged by his nomination tractive effects of heat and cold, and it became an efficient (July 12, 1610) as philosopher and mathematician extraordinary measure of temperature only when Rinieri, in 1646, introduced to the grand-duke of Tuscany. The emoluments of this office, the
improvement of hermetically sealing the liquid in glass. The which involved no duties save that of continuing his scientific substitution, in 1670, of mercury for water completed the modern labours, were fixed at 1000 scudi; and it was the desire of thermometer.
increased leisure, rather than the promptings of local patriotism, Galileo seems, at an early period of his life, to have adopted the which induced him to accept an offer the original suggestion of Copernican theory of the solar system, and was deterred from which had indeed come from himself. Before the close of 1610 avowing his opinions-as is proved by bis letter to Kepler of the memorable cycle of discoveries begun in the previous year August 4, 1597—by the fear of ridicule rather than of persecu- was completed by the observation of the ansated or, as it tion. The appearance, in September 1604, of a new star in the appeared to Galilco, triple form of Saturn (the ring-formation was constellation Serpentarius afforded him indeed an opportunity, first recognized by Christiaan Huygens in 1655), of the phases of of which he eagerly availed himself, for making an onslaught upon Venus, and of the spots upon the sun. As regards sun-spots, the Aristotelian axiom of the incorruptibility of the heavens; however, Johann Fabricius of Osteel in Friesland can claim but he continued to conform his public teachings in the main to priority of publication, if not of actual detection. In the spring Ptolemaic principles, until the discovery of a novel and potent of 1611 Galileo visited Rome, and exhibited in the gardens of the implement of research in the shape of the telescope (q.v.) placed Quirinal Palace the telescopic wonders of the heavens to the most at his command startling and bitherto unsuspected evidence as eminent personages at the pontifical court. Encouraged by the to the constitution and mutual relations of the heavenly bodies. flattering reception accorded to him, he ventured, in his Lellers Galileo was not the original inventor of the telescope. That on the Solar Spots, printed at Rome in 1613, to take up a more honour must be assigned to Johannes Lippershey, an obscure decided position towards that doctrine on the establishment of optician of Middleburg, who, on the 2nd of October 1608, which, as he avowed in a letter to Belisario Vinta, secretary to the petitioned the states-general of the Low Countries for exclusive grand-duke," all his life and being henceforward depended." rights in the manufacture of an instrument for increasing the Even in the time of Copernicus some well-meaning persons, apparent size of remote objects. A rumour of the new invention, especially those of the reformed persuasion, had suspected a which reached Venice in June 1609, sufficed to set Galileo on the discrepancy between the new view of the solar system and certain track; and after one night's profound meditation on the principles passages of Scripture-a suspicion strengthened by the antiof refraction, he succeeded in producing a telescope of threcfold Christian inferences drawn from it by Giordano Bruno; but the magnifying power. Upon this first attempt he rapidly improved, question was never formally debated until Galileo's brilliant until he attained to a power of thirty-two, and his instruments, of disclosures, enhanced by his formidable dialectic and enthusiastic which he manufactured hundreds with his own hands, were soon zeal, irresistibly challenged for it the attention of the authorities. in request in every part of Europe. Two lenses only—a plano-Although he had no desire to raise the theological issue, it must be convex and a plano-concave-were needed for the composition of admitted that, the discussion once set on foot, he threw himself each, and this simple principle is that still employed in the con into it with characteristic impetuosity, and thus helped to struction of opera-glasses. Galileo's direction of his new instru- precipitate a decision which it was his interest to avert. In ment to the heavens formed an era in the history of astronomy. December 1647 a Bencdictine monk named Bencdetto Castelli, Discoveries followed upon it with astounding rapidity and in at that time professor of mathematics at the university of Pisa, bewildering variety. The Sidereus Nuncius, published at Venice wrote to inform Galileo of a recent discussion at the grandearly in 1610, contained the first-fruits of the new mode of ducal table, in which he had been called upon to defend the investigation, which were sufficient to excite learned amazement Copernican doctrine against theological objections. This task on both sides of the Alps. The mountainous configuration of Castelli, who was a steady friend and disciple of the Tuscan the moon's surface was there first described, and the so-called astronomer, seems to have discharged with moderation "phosphorescence" of the dark portion of our satellite attributed and success. Galileo's answer, written, as he said himself, to its true cause-namely, illumination by sunlight reflected currente calamo, was an exposition of a formal theory as to the from the earth. All the time-worn fables and conjectures relations of physical science to Holy Writ, still further developed regarding the composition of the Milky Way were at once dis- in an elaborate apology addressed by him in the following year sipated by the simple statement that to the eye, reinforced by(1614) to Christina of Lorraine, dowager grand-duchess of the telescope, it appeared as a congeries of lesser stars, while the Tuscany. Not satisfied with explaining adverse texts, he met grcat nebulae were equally declared to be resolvable into similar his opponents with unwise audacity on their own ground, and elements. But the discovery which was at once perceived to be endeavoured to produce scriptural confirmation of a system most important in itself, and most revolutionary in its effects, which seemed to the ignorant many an incredible paradox, and 10 was that of Jupiter's satellites, first seen by Galileo on the 7th of the scientific few a beautiful but daring innovation. The rising January 1610, and by him named Sidera Medicea, in honour of the agitation on the subject, fomented for their own purposes by the grand-dukc of Tuscany, Cosmo II., who had been his pupil, and rabid Aristotelians of the schools, was heightened rather than was about to become his employer. An illustration is, with the allayed by these manifestoes, and on the fourth Sunday of the general run of mankind, more powerful to convince than an following Advent found a voice in the pulpit of Santa Maria argument; and the cogency of the visible plea for the Coper- Novella. Padré Caccini's denunciation of the new astronomy nican theory offered by the miniature system, then first disclosed was indeed disavowed and strongly condcmncd by his superiors; to view, was recognizable in the triumph of its advocates as well nevertheless, on the 5th of February 1615, another Dominican as in the increased acrimony of its opponents.
monk named Lorini laid Galileo's letter to Castelli before the In September 1610 Galileo finally abandoned Padua for Inquisition. Florence. His rescarches with the telescope had been rewarded Cardinal Robert Bellarmin was at that time by far the most
The word telescope, from ride, far, okoreiv, to view, was invented influential member of the Sacred College. He was a man of vast by Demiscianus, an eminent Greek scholar, at the request of Prince learning and upright piety, but, although personally friendly to Cesi, president of the Lyncean Academy. It was uscd by Galileo as Galileo, there is no doubt that he saw in his scientific teachings a carly as 1612, but was not introdučed into England until much later. danger to religion. The year 1615 seems to have been a period of In 1655 the word telescope was inserted and explained in Bagwell's suspense. Galileo received, as the result of a conference between Mysteries of Astronomy, frunk or cylinder being the terms until then Cardinals Bellarmin and Del Monte, a semi-official warning to ordinarily employed.
* Leonardo da Vinci, more than a hundred years earlier, had come avoid theology, and limit himself to physical reasoning. “Write to the same conclusion.
freely," he was told by Monsignor Dini," but keep outside the
sacristy." Unfortunately, he had already committed himself to marked distinction with which he was received on his visit of dangerous ground. In December he repaired personally to Rome, congratulation to Rome in 1624 encouraged him to hope for the full of confidence that the weight of his arguments and the vivacity realization of his utmost wishes. He received every mark of of his eloquence could not fail to convert the entire pontifical private favour. The pope admitted him to six long audiences in court to his views. He was cordially received, and eagerly the course of two months, wrote an enthusiastic letter to the listened to, but his imprudent ardour served but to injure his grand-duke praising the great astronomer, not only for his cause. On the 24th of February 1616 the consulting theologians distinguished learning, but also for his exemplary piety, and of the Holy Office characterized the two propositions that the granted a pension to his son Vincenzio, which was afterwards sun is immovable in the centre of the world, and that the earth has transferred to himself, and paid, with some irregularities, to the a diurnal motion of rotation--the first as “ absurd in philosophy, end of his life. But on the subject of the decree of 1616, the and formally heretical, because expressly contrary to Holy revocation of which Galileo had hoped to obtain through his Scripture," and the second as open to the same censure in personal influence, he found him inexorable. Yet there seemed philosophy, and at least erroneous as to faith.” Two days later reason to expect that it would at least be interpreted in a liberal Galileo was, by command of the pope (Paul V.), summoned spirit, and Galileo's friends encouraged his imprudent confidence to the palace of Cardinal Bellarmin, and there officially ad-by eagerly retailing to him every papal utterance which it was monished not thenceforward to "hold, teach or defend the possible to construe in a favourable sense. To Cardinal Hohencondemned doctrine. This injunction he promised to obey. zollern, Urban was reported to have said that the theory of the On the 5th of March the Congregation of the Index issued a decree earth's motion had not been and could not be condemned as reiterating, with the omission of the word “heretical," the censure heretical, but only as rash; and in 1630 the brilliant Dominican of the theologians, suspending, usque corrigatur, the great work of monk Tommaso Campanella wrote to Galileo that the pope had Copernicus, De revolulionibus orbium coelestium, and absolutely cxpressed to him in conversation his disapproval of the prohiprohibiting a treatise by a Carmelite monk named Foscarini, bitory decree. Thus, in the full anticipation of added renown, which treated the same subject from a theological point of view. and without any misgiving as to ulterior consequences, Galileo At the same time it was given to be understood that the new sct himself, on his return to Florence, to complete his famous theory of the solar system might be held ex hypothesi, and the but ill-starred work, the Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del trivial verbal alterations introduced into the Polish astonomer's mondo. Finished in 1630, it was not until January 1632 that it book in 1620, when the work of revision was completed by Cardinal emerged from the presses of Landini at Florence. The book Gaetani, confirmed this interpretation. This edict, it is essential was originally intended to appear in Rome, but unexpected to observe, the responsibility for which rests with a disciplinary obstacles interposed. The Lincean Academy collapsed with the congregation in no sense representing the church, was never death of Prince Federigo Cesi, its founder and president; an confirmed by the pope, and was virtually repealed in 1757 under outbreak of plague impeded communication between the various Benedict XIV.
Italian cities; and the imprimatur was finally extorted, rather Galileo returned to Florence three months later, not ill-pleased, than accorded, under the pressure of private friendship and as his letters testify, with the result of his visit to Rome. He powerful interest. A tumult of applause from every part of brought with him, for the refutation of calumnious reports Europe followed its publication; and it would be difficult to find circulated by his enemies, a written certificate from Cardinal in any language a book in which animation and elegance of style Bellarmin, to the effect that no abjuration had been required of or are so happily combined with strength and clearness of scientific penance imposed upon him. During a prolonged audience he had exposition. Three interlocutors, named respectively Salviati, received from the pope assurances of private esteem and personal Sagredo, and Simplicio, take part in the four dialogues of which protection; and he trusted to his dialectical ingenuity to find the the work is composed. The first-named expounds the views of means of presenting his scientific convictions under the trans- the author; the second is an eager and intelligent listener; the parent veil of an hypothesis. Although a sincere Catholic, he third represents a well-meaning but obtuse Peripatetic, whom the seems to have laid but little stress on the secret admonition of the others treat at times with undisguised contempt. 'Salviati and Holy Office, which his sanguine temperament encouraged him Sagredo took their names from two of Galileo's early friends, the gradually to dismiss from his mind. He preserved no written former a learned Florentine, the latter a distinguished Venetian memorandum of its terms, and it was represented to him, accord- gentleman; Simplicio ostensibly derived his from the Cilician ing to his own deposition in 1633, solely by Cardinal Bellarmin's commentator of Aristotle, but the choice was doubtless instigated certificate, in which, for obvious reasons, it was glossed over rather by a sarcastic regard to the double meaning of the word. There than expressly recorded. For seven years, nevertheless, during were not wanting those who insinuated that Galileo intended to which he led a life of studious retirement in the Villa Segni at depict the pope himself in the guise of the simpleton of the party; Bellosguardo, near Florence, he maintained an almost unbroken and the charge, though preposterous in itself, was supported by silence. At the end of that time he appeared in public with his certain imprudences of expression, which Urban was not per. Saggiatore, a polemical treatise written in reply to the Libra mitted to ignore. astronomica of Padre Grassi (under the pseudonym of Lotario It was at once evident that the whole tenor of this remarkable Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano. The work was in flagrant contradiction with the edict passed sixteen subject in debate was the nature of comets, the conspicuous years before its publication, as well as with the author's personal appearance of three of which bodies in the year 1618 furnished pledge of conformity to it. The ironical submission with which it the occasion of the controversy. Galileo's views, although opened, and the assumed indetermination with which it closed, erroneous, since he held comets to be mere atmospheric emana were hardly intended to mask the vigorous assertion of Copertions reflecting sunlight after the evanescent fashion of a halo nican principles which formed its substance. It is a singular or a rainbow, were expressed with such triumphant vigour, and circumstance, however, that the argument upon which Galileo embellished with such telling sarcasms, that his opponent did not mainly relied as furnishing a physical demonstration of the truth venture upon a reply. The Saggiatore was printed at Rome in of the new theory rested on a misconception. The ebb and flow October 1623 by the Academy of the Lincei, of which Galileo was of the tides were, hc asserted, a visible proof of the terrestrial a member, with a dedication to the new pope, Urban VIII., and double movement, since they resulted from inequalities in the notwithstanding some passages containing a covert defence of absolute velocities through space of the various parts of the Copernican opinions, was received with acclamation by ecclesi- eanh's surface, due to its rotation. To this notion, which took astical, no less than by scientific authorities.
its rise in a confusion of thought, he attached capital importance, Everything seemed now to promise a close of unbroken and he treated with scorn Kepler's suggestion that a certain prosperity to Galileo's career. Maffeo Barberini, his warmest occult attraction of the moon was in some way concerned in the friend and admirer in the Sacred College, was, by the election of phenomenon. The theological censures which the book did not the 8th of August 1623, seated on the pontifical throne; and the fail to incur were not slow in making themselves felt. Towards