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of a fishery district. During the herring season (June to Sep. certain proportion of the scholars of highest standing in cach tember) the population is increased by upwards of 10,000 per- class (only in classical courses, usually and with few exceptions sons. The fleei numbers more than 700 boats, and the annual only in graduating classes). More recent honorary societies value of the catch execeds £200,000. The harbour, origin of similar character among schools of science and engineering ally constructed as a refuge for British ships of war, is one are Sigma Xi and Tau Bcla Pi. of the best on the east coast, and has been improved by the In 1825, at Union College, Kappa Alpha was organized, widening of the piers and the extension of the breakwaters. copying in style of badge, membership restrictions and the like, It has an area of upwards of eight acres, is easy of access, and its predecessor. In 1827 two other similar societies, Sigma Phi affords anchorage for vessels of every size.

and Della Phi, were founded at the same place. In 1831 Sigma FRASERVILLE (formerly Rivière du Loup en Bas), a town Phi placed a branch at Hamilton College and in 1832 Alpha and watering-place in Temiscouata county, Quebec, Canada, Delta Phi originated there. In 1833 Psi Upsilon, a fourth 107 m. (by water) north-east of Quebec, on the south shore of society, was organized at Union. In 1835 Alpha Delta Phi the St Lawrence river, and at the mouth of the Rivière du Loup, placed a chapter at Miami University, and in 1839 Bela Thela Pi at the junction of the Intercolonial and Temiscouata railways. originated there, and so the system spread. These fraternities, It contains a convent, boys' college, hospital, several mills, it will be observed, were all undergraduate societies among the and is a favourite summer resort on accouni of the angling and male students. In 1910 the total number of men's general shooting, and the magnificent scenery. Pop. (1901) 4569. fraternities was 32, with 1068 living chapters, and owning

FRATER, Frater House or FRATERY, a term in architec- property worth many millions of dollars. In 1864 Thelo Xi, ture for the hall where the members of a monastery or friary the first professional fraternity restricting its membership to met for meals or refreshment. The word is by origin the same as students intending to engage in the same profession, was organ"refectory." The older forms, such as freitur, fraytor and the ized. There were in 1910 about 50 of these organizations like, show the word to be an adaptation of the O.Fr. frailour, with some 400 chapters. In addition there are about 100 a shortened form of refraitour, from the Med. Lat. refcctorium. local societies or chapters acting as independent units. Some The word has been confused with frater, a brother or friar, of the older of these, such as Kappa Kappa Kappa at Dartmouth, and hence sometimes confined in meaning to the dining-hall | IK A at Trinity, Phi Nu Thela at Wesleyan and Delta Psi at of a friary, while “refectory” is used of a monastery.

Vermont, are permanent in character, but the majority of them FRATERNITIES, COLLEGE, a class of student societies are purely temporary, designed to maintain an organization peculiar to the colleges and universitics of the United States and until the society becomes a chapter of one of the general fraCanada, with certain common characteristics, and mostly ternities. In 1870 the first women's society or "sorority," named from two or three letters of the Greek alphabet; hence the Kappa Alpha Theta, was organized at De Pauw University. they are frequently called " Greek Letter Societies." They are There were in 1910, 17 general sororities with some 300 active organized on the lodge system, and each fraternity comprises chapters. a number of affiliated lodges of which only one of any one It is no exaggeration to say that these apparently insignificant fraternity is connected with the same institution. The lodges, organizations of irresponsible students have modified the college called " chapters,” in memory of the convocations of monks of life of America and have had a wide influence. Members join medieval times, are usually designated by Greek letters also in the impressionable years of their youth; they retain for their They are nominally secret, with one exception (Delta Upsilon). organizations a peculiar loyalty and affection, and freely contriEach chapter admits members from the lowest or freshman bute with money and influence to their advancement. class, and of course loses its members as the students depart Almost universally the members of any particular chapter from college, consequently each chapter has in it at the same (or part of them) live together in a lodge or chapter house. time members of all the four college classes and frequently those | The men's fraternities own hundreds of houses and rent as many pursuing postgraduate studies. Where the attendance at a more. The fraternities form a little aristocracy within the college is large the 'material from which fraternity members college community. Sometimes the line of separation is invisible, may be drawn is correspondingly abundant, and in some of the sometimes sharply marked. Sometimes this condition militates large colleges (e.g. at Cornell University and the University of against the college discipline and sometimes it assists it. ConMichigan) there are chapters of over twenty fraternities. All dicts' not infrequently occur between the fraternity and nonthe fraternities aim to be select and to pick their members from fraternity element in a college. the mass of incoming students. Where, however, the material It can readily be understood how young men living together in to select from is not abundant and the rival fraternities are the intimate relationship of daily contact in the same house, numerous, care in selection is impossible, and the chapters at any having much the same tastes, culture and aspirations would form one college are apt to secure much the same general type of men. among themselves enduring friendships. In addition each Many of the fraternities have, however, on account of a persistent fraternity has a reputation to maintain, and this engenders an selection of men of about the same tastes at different colleges, esprit du corps which at times places loyalty to fraternity acquired a distinct character and individuality; for instance, interests above loyalty to college interest or the real advantage Alpha Delta Phi is literary.

of the individual. At commencements and upon other occasions The first of these fraternities was the Phi Bela Kappa, founded the former members of the chapters return to their chapter at the College of William and Mary at Williamsburg, Virginia, houses and help to foster the pride and loyalty of the underin 1776. It was a little social club of five students: John graduates. The chapter houses are commonly owned by corporaHeath, Richard Booker, Thomas Smith, Armistead Smith and tions made up of the alumni. This brings the undergraduates John Joncs. Its badge was a square silver medal displaying into contact with men of.mature age and often of national fame, the Greek letters of its name and a few symbols. In 1779 it who treat their membership as a serious privilege. authorized Elisha Parmelee, one of its members, to establish The development of this collegiate aristocracy has led to "meetings" or chapters at Yaleand Harvard, these chapters being jealousy and bitter animosity among those not selected for authorized to establish subordinate branches in their respective membership. Some of the states, notably South Carolina and states. In 1781 the College of William and Mary was closed, its Arkansas, have by legislation, either abolished the fraternities at buildings being occupied in turn by the British, French and state-controlled institutions or seriously limited the privileges American troops, and the society ceased to exist. The two of their members. The constitutionality of such legislation has branches, however, were established-that at Yale in 1780 and never been tested. Litigation has occasionally arisen out of that at Harvard in 1781. Chapters were established at Dartmouth attempts on the part of college authorities to prohibit the in 1787, at Union in 1817, at Bowdoin in 1824 and at Brown in 1830. fraternities at their several institutions. This, it has been held, This society changed its character in 1826 and became non-secret máy lawfully be done at a college maintained by private endowand purely honorary in character, admitting to membership al ment but not at an institution supported by public funds. In

the latter case all classes of the public are equally entitled to of the church. Thus Giovanni Villani, speaking of the heretic the same educational privileges and members of the fraternities Dolcino, says in his Chronicle (bk. viii. ch. 84): “He is not a may not be discriminated against.

brother of an ordered rule, but a fraticello without an order,” The fraternities are admirably organized. The usual system Similarly, John XXII., in his bull Sancta Romana el Universalis comprises a legislative body made up of delegates from the Ecclesia (28th of December 1317), condemns vaguely those different, chapters and an executive or administrative body "profanae multitudinis viri commonly called Fraticelli

, or elected by the delegates. Few of the fraternities have any Brethren of the Poor Life, or Bizocchi, or Beguines, or by all judiciary. None is needed. The financial systems are sound, manner of other names. and the conventions of delegates meet in various parts of the Some historians, in their 'zeal for rigid classification, have United States, several hundred in number, spend thousands of regarded the Fraticelli as a distinct sect, and have attempted dollars in 'travel and entertainment, and attract much public to discover its dogmas and its founder. Some of the conattention. Most of the fraternities have an inspection system temporaries of these religious groups fell into the same error, by which chapters are periodically visited and kept up to a certain and in this way the vague term Fraticelli has sometimes been level of excellence.

applied to the disciples of Armanno Pongilupo of Ferrara (d. 1269), The leading fraternitles publish journals usually from four to who was undoubtedly a Calhar, and to the followers of Gerard eight times during the college year. The earliest of these was Segarelli and Dolcino, who were always known among themthe Beta Theta Pi, first issued in 1872. All publish catalogues selves as Apostolic Brethren (Apostolici). Furthermore, it seems of their members and the most prosperous have issued histories. absurd to classify both the Dolcinists and the Spiritual Franciscans They also publish song books, music and many ephemeral and as Fraticelli, since, as has been pointed out by Ehrle (Archef. local publications.

Lil. u. Kirchengesck. des Millelallers, ii. 107, &c.), Angelo of The alumni of the fraternities are organized into clubs or associa- Clarino, in his De seplem tribulationibus, written to the glory of tions having headquarters at centres of population. These the Spirituals, does not scruple to stigmatize the Dolcinists as organizations are somewhat loose, but nevertheless are capable “ disciples of the devil.” It is equally absurd to include in the of much exertion and influence should occasion arise.

same category the ignorant Bizocchi and Segarcllists and such The college fraternity system has no parallel among the students learned disciples of Michael of Cesena and Louis of Bavaria as of colleges outside of America. One of the curious things about William of Occam and Bonagratia of Bergamo, who have often it, however, is that while it is practically uniform throughout been placed under this comprehensive rubric the United States, at the three prominent universities of Harvard, The name Fraticelli may more justly be applicd to the most Yale and Princeton it differs in many respects from its character exalted fraction of Franciscanism. În 1322 some prisoners elsewhere. At Harvard, although there are chapters of a few declared to the inquisitor Bernard Gui at Toulouse that the of the fraternities, their influence is insignificant, their place Franciscan order was divided into three sections—the Conbeing taken by a group of local societies, some of them class ventuals, who were allowed to retain their real and personal organizations. At Yale, the regular system of fraternities property; the Spirituals or Beguines, who were at that time obtains in the engineering or technical department (the Sheffield the objects of persecution; and the Fraticelli of Sicily, whose Scientific School), but in the classical department the fraternity leader was Henry of Ceva (see Gui's Prcctica Inquisitionis, v.). chapters are called "junior" societies, because they limit their It is this fraction of the order which John XXII. condemned membership to the three upper classes and allow the juniors in his bull Gloriosam Ecclesiam (23rd of January 1318), but each year practically to control the chapter affairs. Certain without calling them Fraticelli. Henry of Ceva had taken refuge senior societies, of which the oldest is the Skull and Bones, in Sicily at the time of Pope Boniface VIII.'s persecution of the which are inter-fraternity societies admitting freely members of Spirituals, and thanks to the good offices of Frederick of Sicily, the fraternities, are more prominent at Yale than the fraternities a little colony of Franciscans who rejected all property had soon themselves. Princeton has two (secret) literary and fraternal established itself in the island. Under Pope Clement V, and societies, the American Whig and the Cliosophic, and various more especially under Pope John XXII., fresh Spirituals joined local social clubs, with no relationship to organizations in other them; and this group of exalted and isolated ascetics soon colleges and not having Greek letter names.

began to regard itself as the sole Icgitimate order of the Minorites At a few universities (for instance, Michigan, Cornell and Vir- and then as the sole Catholic Church. After being excommuniginia), senior societies or other inter-fraternity societies exert great cated as “schismatics and rebels

, founders of a superstitious influence and have modified the strength of the fraternity system. sect, and propagators of false and pestiferous doctrines,” they

Of late years, numerous societies bearing Greek names and proceeded to elect a general (for Michael of Cesena had disavowed imitating the externals of the college fraternities have sprung them) and then a pope called, Celestine (L. Wadding, Annales, up in the high schools and academies of the country, but have at date 1313). The rebels continued to carry on an active excited the earnest and apparently united opposition of the propaganda. In Tuscany particularly the Inquisition made authorities of such schools.

persistent efforts to suppress them; Florence afflicted them See William Raimond Baird, American College Fraternities (6th with severe laws, but failed to rouse the populace against them, ed., New York, 1905); Albert C. Stevens, Cyclopedia of Fraternilies The papácy dreaded their social even more than their dogmatic (Paterson,

N. J., 1899); Henry D. Sheldon, Student Life and Customs influence. At first in Sicily and afterwards throughout Italy School Directory (Chicago, 1904): H. K. Kellogg, College Secret the Ghibellines gave them a warm welcome; the rigorists and Societies (Chicago, 1874); Albert P. Jacobs, Greek Letter Societies the malcontents who had either left the church or 'were on the (Detroit, 1879).

(W. R. B.) point of leaving, it, were attracted by these communities of FRÁTICELLI (plural diminutive of Ital. frale, brother), the needy rebels; and the tribune Rienzi was at one time disposed name given during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries to a number to join them. To overcome these ascetics it was necessary to of religious groups in Italy, differing widely from each other, but have recourse to other ascetics, and from the outset the reformed all derived more or less directly from the Franciscan movement. Franciscans, or Franciscans of the Strict Observance, under the Fra Salimbene says in his Chronicle (Parma ed., p. 108): “All direction of their first leaders, Paoluccio da Trinci (d. 1390), who wished to found a new rule borrowed something from the Giovanni Stronconi (d. 1405), and St Bernardine of Siena, had Franciscan order, the sandals or the habit.” As early as 1238 been at great pains to restore the Fraticelli to orthodoxy. These Gregory IX., in his bull Quoniam abundavil iniquilos, condemned early efforts, however, had little success. Alarmed by the and denounced as forgers (tanquam falsarios) all who begged or number of the sectaries, and the extent of their influence, Pope preached in a habit resembling that of the mendicant orders, Martin V., who had encouraged the Observants, and particularly and this condemnation was repeated by him or his successors. Bernardine of Siena, fulminated two bulls (1418 and 1421) The term Fraticelli was used contemptuously to denote, not any against the heretics, and entrusted different legates with the task particular sečt, but the members of orders formed on the fringe l of hunting them down. These measures failing, he decided, in

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1426, to appoint two Observants as inquisitors without territorial bad reasonable grounds for believing the statements to be true.
limitation to make a speciat crusade against the heresy of the It is also to be observed that, though damages cannot be re
Fraticelli. These two inquisitors, who pursued their duties covered in an action for a misrepresentation made with an bonest
under three popes (Martin V., Eugenius IV. and Nicholas, V.) belief in its truth, still any person induced to enter into a con-
were Giovanni da Capistrano and Giacomo della Marca. The tract by a misrepresentation, whether fraudulent or innocent, is
latter's valuable Dialogus contra Fralicellos (Baluze and Mansi, entitled to avoid the contract and to obtain a declaration that
Miscellanea, iv. 595-610) gives an account of the doctrines of it is not binding upon him. This is in accordance with the rule
Ithese heretics and of the activity of the two inquisitors, and shows of equity, which since the Judicature Act prevails in all the
that the Fraticelli not only constituted a distinct church but courts. Whether the representation is fraudulent or innocent,
a distinct society. They had a pope called Rinaldo, who was the contract is not void, but voidable. The party misled must
elected in 1429 and was succeeded by a brother named Gabriel. exercise his option to avoid the contract without delay, and
This supreme head of their church they styled “bishop of before it has become impossible to restore the other party to the
Philadelphia,” Philadelphia being the mystic name of their position in which he stood before the contract was made. If he
community; under him wore bishops, e.g. the bishops of is too late, he can only rely on his claim for damages, and in
Florence, Venice, &c.; and, furthermore, a member of the order to assert this claim it is necessary to prove that the mis.
community named Guglielmo Majoretto bore the title of representation was fraudulent. Fraud, in its wider sense of

Emperor of the Christians." This organization, at least in dishonest dealing, though not a distinct cause of action, is often
so far as concerns thc heretical church, had already been observed material as preventing the acquisition of a right, for which good
among the Fraticelli in Sicily, and in 1423 the general council faith is a necessary condition. Also a combination or conspiracy
of Siena affirmed with horror that at Peniscola there was an by two or more persons to defraud gives rise to liabilities not
heretical pope surrounded with a college of cardinals who made very clearly or completely defined.
no attempt at concealment. From 1426 to 1449 the Fraticelli FRAUENBURG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of
were unremittingly pursued, imprisoned and burned. The sect Prussia, on the Frische Haff, at the mouth of the Bande, 41 m.
gradually died out after losing the protection of the common S.W. from Königsberg on the railway to Elbing. Pop. 2500.
people, whose sympathy was now transferred to the austere The cathedral (founded 1329), with six towers, stands on a
Obscrvants and their miracle-worker Capistrano From 1466 commanding eminence adjoining the town and surrounded by
to 1471 there were sporadic burnings of Fraticelli, and in 1471 castellated walls and bastions. This is known as Dom-Frauen-
Tommaso di Scarlino was seht to Piombino and the littoral of burg, and is the seat of the Roman Catholic bishop of Ermeland.
Tuscany to track out some Fraticelli who had been discovered within the cathedral is a monument to the astronomer Copernicus
in those parts. After that date the name disappears from history. bearing the inscription Astronomo celeberrimo, cujus nomen e

See F. Ehrle, “ Die Spiritualen, ihr Verhältnis zum Franzis- gloria utrumque implevit orbem. There is a small port with
kanerorden und zu den Fraticellen" and " Zur Vorgeschichte des inconsiderablc trade. Frauenberg was founded in 1287 and
Concils von Viennc," in Archiv für Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte
des Mittelalters, vols. i., ii., fi.; Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, received the rights of a town in 1310.

"Fraticcllen": H. C. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle FRAUENFELD, the capital of the Swiss canton of Thurgau, Ages, iii. 129-180 (London, 1888).

(P. A.) 27 m. by rail N.E. of Zürich or 141 m. W. of Romanshorn. FRAUD (Lat. fraus, deceit), in its widest sense, a term which it is built on the Murg stream a little above its junction with the has never been exhaustively defined by an English court of law, Thur. It is a prosperous commercial town, being situated at and for legal purposes probably cannot usefully be defined. But the meeting point of several routes, while it possesses several as denoting a cause of action for which damages can be recovered industrial establishments, chicfly concerned with different in civil proceedings it now has a clear and settled meaning. In branches of the iron trade. In 1900 its population (including the actions in which damages are claimed for fraud, the difficulties neighbouring villages) was 7761, mainly German-speaking, and obscurities which commonly arise are due rather to the while there were 5563 Protestants to 2188 Romanists. Frauen complexity of modern commerce and the ingenuity of modern seld is the artillery depôt for North-East Switzerland. The upper swindlers than to any uncertainty or technicality in the modern town is the older part, and centres round the castle, of which the law. To succeed in such an action, the person aggrieved must tower dates from the roth century, though the rest is of a later first prove a representation of fact, made either by words, by period. Both stood on land belonging to the abbot of Reichenau, writing or by conduct, which is in fact untrue. Mere conceal- who, with the count of Kyburg, founded the town, which is first ment is not actionable unless it amounts not only to suppressio mentioned in 1255. The abbot retained all manorial rights till veri, but to suggestio falsi. An expression of opinion or of 1803, while the political powers of the Kyburgers (who were the intention is not enough, unless it can be shown that the opinion protectors ” of Reichenau) passed to the Habsburgs in 1273, was not really held, or that the intention was not really enter and were seized by the Swiss in 1460 with the rest of the tained, in which case it must be borne in mind, to use the phrases Thurgau. In 1712 the town succeeded Baden in Aargau as the of Lord Bowen, that the state of a man's mind is as much a matter meeting-place of the Federal Diet, and continued to be the capital of fact as the state of his digestion. Next, it must be proved that of the Confederation till its transformation in 1798. In 1799 it the representation was made without any honest belief in its was successively occupied, by the Austrians and the French. truth, that is, either with actual knowledge of its falsity or with The old Capuchin convent (1591-1848) is now occupied as a a reckless disregard whether it is true or false. It was finally vicarage by the Romanist priest.

(W. A. B. C.) established, after much controversy, in the case of Derry v. FRAUENLOB, the name by which HEINRICH VON MEISSEN, Peck in 1889, that a merely negligent misstatement is not action a German poet of the 13th century, is generally known. He able. Further, the person aggrieved must prove that the seems to have acquired the sobriquet because in a famous offender made the representation with the intention that he Liederstreit with his rival Regenbogen he defended the use of the should act on it, though not necessarily directly to him, and that word Frou (i.e. frouwe, = lady) instead of Weib (wip=woman). he did in fact act in reliance on it. Lastly, the complainant Frauenlob was born about 1250 of a humble burgher family. 'must prove that, as the direct consequence, he has suffered His youth was spent in straitened circumstances, but he graduactual damage capable of pecuniary measurement.

ally acquired a -reputation as a singer at the various courts of As soon as the case of Derry v. Peek had established, as the the German princes. In 1278 we find him with Rudolph I. general rule of law, that a merely negligent misstatement is not in the Marchfeld, in 1286 he was at Prague at the knighting of actionable, a statutory exception was made to the rule in the Wenceslaus (Wenzel) II., and in 1311 he was present at a knightly case of directors and promoters of companies who publish festival celebrated by Waldemar of Brandenburg before Rostock. prospectuses and similar documents. By the Directors' Liability After this he settled in Mainz, and there according to the popular Act 1890, "such persons are liable for damage caused by untrue account, founded the first school of Meistersingers (9.0.). He statements in such documents, unless they can prove that they I died in 1318, and was buried in the cloisters of the cathedral as

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Mainz. His grave is still marked by a copy made in 1783 of the Utzschneider for his instruction by Pierre Louis Guinand, a original tombstone of 1318; and in 1842 a monument by Schwan-' skilled optician, in the fabrication of flint and crown glass, in thaler was erected in the cloisters. Frauenlob's poems make a which he soon became an adept (see R. Wolf, Gesch. der Wissensch. great display of learning; he delights in far-fetched metaphors, in Deutschl. bd. xvi. p. 586). With Reichenbach and Utzand his versification abounds in tricks of form and rhyme. schneider, Fraunhofer established in 1809 an optical institute

Frauenlob's poetry was edited by L. Ettmüller in 1843; a selection at Benedictbeuern, near Munich, of which he in 1818 became will be found in K. Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdichter des 12. bis 14. sole manager. The institute was in 1819 removed to Munich, Cantica canticorum, by A. E. Kroeger, with notes, appeared

in 1877 ) and on Fraunhofer's death came under the direction of G. Merz. at St Louis, U.S.A. See A. Boerkel, Frauenlob (2nd ed., 1881).

Amongst the earliest mechanical contrivances of Fraunhofer FRAUNCE, ABRAHAM (c. 1558-1633), English poét, a native was a machine for polishing mathematically uniform spherical of Shropshire, was born between 1558 and 1560. His name was surfaces. He was the inventor of the stage-micrometer, and of registered as a pupil of Shrewsbury School in January 1571/2, a form of heliometer; and in 1816 he succeeded in constructing and he joined St John's College, Cambridge, in 1576, becoming a for the microscope achromatic glasses of long focus, consisting of fellow in 1580/81. His Latin comedy of Victoria, dedicated to

a single lens, the constituent glasses of which were in juxtà. Sidney, was probably written at Cambridge, where he remained position, but not cemented together. The great reflecting until he had taken his M.A. degree in 1583. He was called to the telescope at Dorpat was manufactured by him, and so great was bar at Gray's Inn in 1588, and then apparently practised as a

the skill he attained in the making of lenses for achromatic barrister in the court of the Welsh marches. After the death of telescopes that, in a letter to Sir David Brewster, he expressed his patron Sir Philip Sidney, Fraunce was protected by Sidney's his willingness to furnish an achromatic glass of 18 in. diameter: sister Mary, countess of Pembroke. His last work was published Fraunhofer is especially known for the researches, published in in 1992, and we have no further knowledge of him until 633, which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry.

the Denkschriften der Münchener Akademie for 1814-1815, by when he is said to have written an Epilhalamium in honour of the marriage of Lady Magdàlen Egerton, 7th daughter

of the. The dark lines of the spectrum of sunlight, earliest noted by carl of Bridgwater, whose service he may possibly have entered. Dr W. H: Wollaston (Phil

. Trans., 1802, p. 378), were inde. His works are: The Lamentations of Amintás for the death pendently discovered, and, by means of the telescope of a of Phyllis (1587), a version in English hexameters of his friend's

, theodolite, between which and a distant slit admitting the Thomas Watson's, Latin Amynlas; The Lawiers Logike, exem- light a prism was interposėd, were for the first time carefully plifying the praecepts of Logike by the practise of the common

observed by Fraunhofer, and have on that account been desigLowe (1588); Arcadian Rhetorike (1588); Abrahami Fransi nated“ Fraunhofer's lines.” He constructed a map of as many Insignium, Armorum ... explicatio (1588); The Countess of as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the Pembroke's Yvychurch (1591/2), containing a translation of letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their Tasso's Amintá, a reprint of his earlier version of Watson, refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are “The Lamentation of Corydon for the love of Alexis” (Virgil

, constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the eclogue ii.), a short translation from Heliodorus, and, in the third sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets. The part (1592) " Aminta's Dale," a collection of " conceited” spectra of the stars he obtained by using, outside the object-glass tales supposed to be related by the nymphs of Ivychurch; of his telescope, a large prism, through which the light passed The Countess of Pembroke's Emanuell (1 591); The Third Parl to be brought to a focus in front of the eye-piece. He showed that of the Countess of Pembroke's Ivychurch, enlituled Aminta's Dale in the spectra of the fixed stars many of the dark lines were (1592). His Arcadian Rhetorike owes much to earlier critical different from those of the solar spectrum, whilst other welltreatises, but has a special interest from its references to Spenser, known solar lines were wanting; and he concluded that it was and Fraunce quotes from the Paerie Queene a year before the not by any action of the terrestrial atmosphere upon the light publication of the first books. In “ Colin Clout's come home passing through. it that the lines were produced. He further again,” Spenser speaks of Fraunce as Corydon, on account of his expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum translations of Virgil's

second eclogue. His poems are written in coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame. He was also classical metres, and he was regarded by his contemporaries the inventor of the diffraction grating. as the best exponent of Gabriel Harvey's theory. Even Thomas

In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet Nashe had a good word for “sweete Master France."

at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king The Countess of Pembroke's Emanuell, hexameters on the nativity of Bavaria the civil order of merit. He died at Munich on the 7th and passion of Christ, with versions of some psalms, were reprinted of June 1826, and was buried near Reichenbach, whose decease by Dr A. B. Grosart in the third volume of his Miscellanies of the had taken place eight years previously. On his tomb is the Fuller Worthies Library (1972). Joseph Hunter in his Chorus Vatum inscription " Approximavit sidera." stated that five of Fraunce's songs were included in Sidney's A strophel and Stella, but it is probable that these should be attributed not to

See J. von Utzschneider, Kurser Umriss der Lebensgeschichte des Fraunce, but to Thomas Campion. See a life prefixed to the tran

Herrn Dr F. von Fraunhofer (Munich, 1826); and G. Merz, Das Leben scription of a MS. Latin comedy by Fraunce, Victoria, by Professor und Wirken Fraunhofers (Landshut, 1865) G. C. Moore Smith, published in Bang's Materialien zur Kunde des FRAUSTADT (Polish, Wszowa), a town of Germany, in the alteren englischen Dramas, vol. xiv., 1906.

Prussian province of Posen, in a flat sandy country dotted with FRAUNHOFER, JOSEPH VON (1787–1826), German optician windmills, 50 m. S.S.W. of Posen, on the railway Lissa-Sagan. and physicist, was born at Straubing in Bavaria on the 6th of Pop. (including a garrison) 7500. It has three Evangelical March 1787, the son of a glazier who died in 1798. He was and two Roman Catholic churches, a classical school and a apprenticed in 1799 to Weichselberger, a glass-polisher and looking- teachers' seminary; the manufactures include woollen and glass maker. On the 21st of July 1801 he nearly lost his life cotton goods, hats, morocco leather and gloves, and there is a by the fall of the house in which he lodged, and the elector of considerable trade in corn, cattle and wool. Fraustadt was Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph, who was present at his extrication founded by Silesians in 1348, and afterwards belonged to the from the ruins, gave him 18 ducats. With a portion of this sum principality of Glogau. Near the town the Swedes under Charles he obtained release from the last six months of his apprenticeship, XII. defeated the Saxons on the 13th of February 1706. and with the rest he purchased a glass-polishing machine. He FRAYSSINOUS, DENIS ANTOINE LUC, COMTE DE (1705now employed himself in making optical glasses, and in engraving 1841), French prelate and statesman, distinguished as an orator on metal, devoting his spare time to the perúsal of works on and as a controversial.writer, was born of humble parentage mathematics and optics. In 1806 he obtained the place of at Curières, in the department of Aveyron, on the oth of May optician in the mathematical institute which in 1804 had been 1765. He owes his reputation mainly to the lectures on dogfounded at Munich by Joseph von Utzschneider, G. Reichenbach matic theology, known as the “conferences” of Saint Sulpice, and J. Liebherr; and in 1807 arrangements were made by I delivered in the church of Saint Sulpice, Paris,, from 1803 to

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1809, to which admiring crowds were attracted by his lucid sistently endeavoured to secure the throne for her own children. exposition and by his graceful oratory. The freedom of his fan- Her first son Thierry, however, to whom Bishop Ragnemod of guage in 1809, when Napoleon had arrested the pope and de- Paris stood godfather, died soon after birth, and Fredegond clared the annexation of Rome to France, led to a prohibition tortured a number of women whom she accused of having of his lectures; and the dispersion of the congregation of Saint bewitched the child. Her second son also died in infancy. Finally, Sulpice in 1811 was followed by his temporary retirement from she gave birth to a child who afterwards became king as Clotaire the capital. He returned with the Bourbons, and resumed his II. Shortly after the birth of this third son, Chilperic himself lectures in 1814; but the events of the Hundred Days again perished in mysterious circumstances (584). Fredegond has been compelled him to withdraw into private life, from which he did accused of complicity in his murder, but with little show of not emerge until February 1816. As court preacher and almoner probability, since in her husband she lost her principal supporter. to Louis XVIII., he now entered upon the period of his greatest Henceforth Fredegond did all in her power to gain the kingpublic activity and influence. In connexion with the con- dom for her child. Taking refuge at the church of Notre Dame troversy raised by the signing of the reactionary concordat of at Paris, she appealed to King Guntram of Burgundy, who 1817, he published in 1818 a treatise entitled Vrais Principes took Clotaire under his protection and defended him against bis de l'église Gallicane sur la puissance ecclésiastique, which though other nephew, Childebert II., king of Austrasia. From that unfavourably criticized by Lamennais, was received,with favour time until her death Fredegond governed the western kingdom. by the civil and ecclesiastical authorities. The consecration of She endeavoured to prevent the alliance between King Guntram Frayssinous as bishop of Hermopolis“ in partibus," his election and Childebert, which was cemented by the pact of Andelot; to the French Academy, and his appointment to the grand-master- and made several attempts to assassinate Childebert by sending ship of the university, followed in rapid succession. In 1824, against him bired bravoes armed with poisoned scramasaxes on the accession of Charles X., he became minister of public in- (heavy single-edged knives). After the death of Childebert struction and of ecclesiastical affairs under the administration in 595 she resolved to augment the kingdom of Neustria at the of Villèle; and about the same time he was created a peer of expense of Austrasia, and to this end seized some cities near France with the title of count. His term of office was chiefly Paris and defeated Theodebert at the battle of Laffaux, near marked by the recall of the Jesuits. In 1825 he published his Soissons. Her triumph, however, was short-lived, as she died lectures under the title Défense du christianisme. The work quietly in her bed in 597 soon after her victory. passed through 15 editions within 18 years, and was translated See V. N. Augustin Thierry, Récits des temps mérovingiens (Brussels, into several European languages. In 1828 he, along with his 1840), Ulysse. Chevalier, Bio-bibliographie (2nd ed.), s.o.

Frédé. colleagues in the Villèle ministry, was compelled to resign office, sonde."

(C. Pr.) and the subsequent revolution of July 1830 led to his retire FREDERIC, HAROLD (1856–1898), Anglo-American novelist, ment to Rome. Shortly afterwards he became tutor to the duke was born on the 19th of August 1856 at Utica, N.Y., was eduof Bordeaux (Comte de Chambord) at Prague, where he con- cated there, and took to journalism. He went to live in England tinued to live until 1838. He died at St Géniez on the 12th of as London correspondent of the New York Times in 1884, and December 1841.

was soon recognized for his ability both as a writer and as a See Bertrand, Bibl. Sulpicienne (t. q. 135 sq.; iii. 253) for biblio- talker. He wrote several clever early stories, but it was not graphy, and G. A. Henrion (Paris, 2 vols., 1844) for biography. till he published Illumination (1896), followed by Gloria Mundi

FRÉCHETTE, LOUIS HONORÉ (1839-1908), French-Cana-(1898), that his remarkable gifts as a novelist were fully realized. dian poet, was born at Levis, Quebec, on the 16th of November He died in England on the 19th of October 1898. 1839, the son of a contractor. He was educated in his native FREDERICIA (FRIEDERICIA), a seaport of Denmark, near the province, and called to the Canadian bar in 1864. He started S.E. corner of Jutland, on the west shore of the Little Belt the Journal de Lévis, and his revolutionary doctrines compelled opposite the island of Fünen. Pop. (1901) 12,714. It has him to leave Canada for the United States. After some years railway communication with both south and north, and a steam spent in journalism at Chicago, he was in 1874 elected as the ferry connects with Middelfart, a seaside resort and railway Liberal candidate to represent Levis in the Canadian parliament. station on Fünen. There is a considerable shipping trade, and At the elections of 1878 and 1882 he was defeated, and there the industries comprise the manufacture of tobacco, salt and after confined himself to literature. He edited Lo Patrie and other chitory, and of cotton goods and hats. A small fort was erected French papers in the Dominion; and in 1889 was appointed on the site of Fredericia by Christian IV. of Denmark, and his clerk of the Quebec legislative council. He was long a warm successor, Frederick III., determined about 1650 to make it a advocate of the political union of Canada and the United States, powerful fortress. Free exercise of religion was offered to all but in later life became less ardent, and in 1897 accepted the who should settle in the new town, which at first bore the name honour of C.M.G. from Queen Victoria. He was president of the of Frederiksodde, and only received its present designation in Royal Society of Canada, and of the Canadian Society of Arts, 1664. In 1657 it was taken by storm by the Swedish general and received numerous honorary degrees. His works include: Wrangel, and in 1659, after the fortress had been dismantled, Més Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exilé (1867), a satire against it was occupied by Frederick William of Brandenburg. It was the Canadian government; Pêle-mêle (1877); Les Fleurs not till 1709-1710 that the works were again put in a state of boréales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French defence. In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes to academy; La Légende d'un peuple (1887); two historical oppose the Prussians, who entered on the end of May, and main. dramas, Papineau (1880) and Relix Poutre (1880); La Noël ou tained their position against the Danish gunboats. During the Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations. An armistice of 1848-1849 the fortress was strengthened, and soon exponent of local French sentiment, he won the title of the afterwards it stood a siege of two months, which was brought “Canadian Laureate." He died on the ist of June 1908. to a glorious close by a successful sortic on the 6th of July 1849.

FREDEGOND (Fredigundis) (d. 597), Frankish queen. Origin- In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected in ally a serving-woman, she inspired the Frankish king, Chilperic the town and its vicinity, of which the most noticeable are the I., with a violent passion. · At her instigation he repudiated his bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Bissen (one of first wife Audovera, and strangled his second, Galswintha, Thorvaldson's pupils), and the great barrow over 500 Danes in Queen Brunhilda's sister. A few days after this murder Chilperic the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief by married Fredegond (567). This woman exercised a most per- the same sculptor. On the outbreak of the war of 1864, the nicious influence over him. She forced him into war against fortress was again strengthened by new works and an entrenched Austrasia, in the course of which she procured the assassination camp; but the Danes suddenly evacuated it on the 28th of April of the victorious king Sigebert (575); she carried on a malignant after a siege of six weeks. The Austro-Prussian army partly struggle against Chilperic's sons by his first wife, Theodebert, destroyed the fortifications, and kept possession of the town Merwich and Clovis, who all died tragic deaths; and she per- 1 till the conclusion of peace.

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