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a castle constructed by Charles I. of Anjou. The other fortifica- | and bran are manufactured in the district. Live stock, principally tions have been removed. The handsome cathedral dates from sheep, pass through Gallipoli in transit to Constantinople and 1629. The town was once famous for its exports of olive-oil, Smyrna. Cheese, sardines, goats' skins and sheepskins are also which was stored, until it clarified, in cisterns cut in the rock. exported. The imports include woollen and cotton fabrics from This still continues, but to a less extent; the export of wine, Italy, Germany, France and Great Britain, and hardware from however, is increasing, and fruit is also exported.

Germany and Austria. These goods are imported through The ancient Callipolis was obviously of Greek origin, as its Constantinople. Cordage is chiefly obtained from Servia. Other name (" beautiful city') shows. It is hardly mentioned in imports are fuel, iron and groceries. ancient times. Pliny tells us that in his time it was known as The Macedonian city of Callipolis was founded in the 5th Anxa. It lay a little of the road from Tarentum to Hydruntum, century B.C. At an early date it became a Christian bishopric, but was reached by a branch from Aletium (the site is marked and in the middle ages developed into a great commercial city, by the modern church of S. Maria della Lizza), among the ruins with a population estimated at 100,000. It was fortified by the of which many Messapian inscriptions, but no Latin ones, have East Roman emperors owing to its commanding strategic position been found.

(T. As.) and its valuable trade with. Greece and Italy. In 1190 the GALLIPOLI (Turk. Gelibolu, anc. Kallinodes), a seaport and armies of the Third Crusade, under the emperor Frederick I. city of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople; at' the (Barbarossa), embarked here for Asia Minor. After the capture north-western extremity of the Dardanelles, on a narrow peninsula of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Gallipoli passed into the 132 m. W.S.W. of Constantinople, and 90 m. S. of Adrianople, in power of Venice. In 1294 the Genoese defeated a Venetian force 40° 24' N. and 26° 40' 30" E. Pop. (1905) about 25,000. Nearly in the neighbourhood. A body of Catalans, under Roger Florus, opposite is Lapsaki on the Asiatic side of the channel, which is established themselves here in 1306, and after the death of their here about 2 m. wide. Gallipoli has an unattractive appear- leader massacred almost all the citizens; they were vainly ance; its streets are narrow and dirty, and many of its houses are besieged by the allied troops of Venice and the Empire, and withbuilt of wood, although there are a few better structures, occupied drew in 1307, after dismantling the fortifications. About the by the foreign residents and the richer class of Turkish citizens. middle of the 14th century the Turks invaded Europe, and GalliThe only noteworthy buildings are the large, crowded and poli was the first city to fall into their power. The Venetians well-furnished bazaars with leaden domes. There are several under Pietro Loredano defeated the Turks bere in 1416. mosques, none of them remarkable, and many interesting Roman GALLIPOLIS, a city and the county-seat of Gallia county, and Byzantine remains, especially a magazine of the emperor Obio, U. S. A., on the Ohio river, about 125 m. E. by S. of Justinian (483-565), a square castle and tower attributed to Cincinnati

. Pop. (1890) 4498; (1900) 5432 (852 negroes); (1910) Bayezid I. (1389-1403), and some tumuli on the south, popularly 5560. It is served by the Kanawha & Michigan (Ohio Central called the tombs of the Thracian kings. The lighthouse, built Lines) and the Hocking Valley railways, and (at Gallipolis Ferry, on a cliff, has a fine appearance as seen from the Dardanelles. West Virginia, across the Ohio) by the Baltimore & Ohio railway. Gallipoli is the seat of a Greek bishop. It has two good harbours, The city is built on a level site several feet above the river's and is the principal station for the Turkish fleet. From its high-water mark. It has a United States marine hospital and a position as the key of the Dardanelles, it was occupied by the state hospital for epileptics. Among the city's manufactures are allied French and British armies in 1854. Then the isthmus a few lumber, furniture, iron, stoves, flour and brooms. The munimiles north of the town, between it and Bulair, was fortified with cipality owns and operates its waterworks. Gallipolis was strong earthworks by English and French engineers, mainly on settled in 1790 by colonists from France, who had received the lines of the old works constructed in 1357. These fortifica- worthless deeds to lands in Ohio from the Scioto Land Company, tions were renewed and enlarged in January 1878, on the founded by Col. William Duer (1747-1799) and others in 1787 Russians threatening to take possession of Constantinople. and officially organized in 1789 as the Compagnie du Scioto in The peninsula thus isolated by the fortified positions has the Gulf Paris by Joel Barlow, the agent of Duer and his associates of Saros on the N.W., and extends some 50 m. S.W. The guns abroad, William Playfair, an Englishman, and six Frenchmen. of Gallipoli command the Dardanelles just before the strait This company had arranged with the Ohio Company in 1787 for joins the Sea of Marmora. The town itself is not very strongly the use of about 4,000,000 acres, N. of the Ohio and E. of the fortified, the principal fortifications being farther down the Scioto, on which the Ohio Company had secured an option only. Dardanelles, where the passage is narrower.

The dishonesty of those who conducted the sales in France, the The district (sanjak) of Gallipoli is exceedingly fertile and well unbusinesslike methods of Barlow, and the failure of Duer and adapted for agriculture. It has about 100,000 inhabitants, and his associates to meet their contract with the Ohio Company, comprises four kazas (cantons), namely, (1) Maitos, noted for its caused the collapse of the Scioto Company early in 1790, and two excellent cotton; (2) Keshan, lying inland north of Gallipoli, subsequent attempts to revive it failed. Meanwhile about noted for its cattle-market, and producing grain, linseed and 150,000 acres had been sold to prospective settlers in France, and canary seed; (3) Myriofyto; and (4) Sharkeui or Shar-Koi in October 1790 the French immigrants, who had been detained (Peristeri) on the coast of the Sea of Marmora. Copper ore and for two months at Alcxandria, Virginia, arrived on the site of petroleum are worked at Sharķqui, and the neighbourhood Gallipolis, where rude huts had been built for them. This land, formerly produced wine that was highly esteemed and largely however, sell within the limits of the tract bought outright by the exported to France for blending. Heavy taxation, however, Ohio Company, which sold it to the Scioto Company, and to amounting to 55% of the value of the wine, broke the spirit which it reverted on the failure of the Scioto Company to pay. of the viticulturists, most of whom uprooted their vines and In 1794 William Bradford, attorney-gencral of the United States, replanted their lands with mulberry trees, making sericulture decided that all rights in the 4,000,000 acres, on which the Ohio their occupation.

Company had secured an option for the Scioto Company, were There are no important industrial establishments in Gallipoli legally vested in the Ohio Company. In 1795 the Ohio Company itself, except steam flour-mills and a sardine factory. The line sold to the French settlers for $1.25 an acre the land they of railway between Adrianople and the Aegean Sea has been occupied and adjacent improved lots, and thc United States prejudicial to the transit trade of Gallipoli, and several attempts government granted to them 24,000 acres in the southern part of have been made to obtain concessions for the construction of a what is now Scioto County in 1795; little of this land (still railway that would connect this port with the Turkish railway known as the “ French Grant”), however, was ever occupied by system. Steamers to and from Constantinople call regularly. them. Gallipolis was incorporated as a village in 1842, and was In 1904 the total value of the exports was £80,000. Wheat and first chartered as a city in 1865. maize are exported to the Aegean islands and to Turkish ports on the mainland; barley, oats and linseed to Great Britain; canary Settlement of Gallipolis (Cincinnati, 1907), series 2, vol. iii. No. 3

Sec Theodore T. Belote, The Sciolo Speculation and the French seed chicily to Australia; beans to France and Spain. Semolina l of the University Studies of the University of Cincinnati.


GALLITZIN, DEMETRIUS AUGUSTINE (1770-1840), ) precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate is American Roman Catholic priest, called “The Apostle of the dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by Alleghanies," was born at the Hague on the 22nd of December sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fraction1770. His name is a form of Golitsuin (q.v.), the Russian family ally precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the from which he came. His father, Dimitri Alexeievich Gallitzin gallium before the zinc. This precipitate is converted into (1735-1803), Russian ambassador to Holland, was an intimate gallium sulphate and finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, friend of Voltaire and a follower of Diderot; so, too, for many from which the metal is obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline years was his mother, Countess Adelheid Amalie von Schmettau solution. Gallium crystallizes in greyish-white octahedra which (1748-1806), until a severe illness in 1786 led her back to the melt at 30-15°C. to a silvery-white liquid. It is very hard and but Roman Catholic church, in which she had been reared. At the slightly malleable and flexible, although in thin plates it may be age of seventeen he too became a member of that church. His bent several times without breaking. The specific gravity of the father had planned for him a diplomatic or military career, and in solid form is 5.956 (24.5° C.), of the liquid 6.069, whilst the specific 1792 he was aide-de-camp to the commander of the Austrian heats of the two varicties are, for the solid form 0.079 (12-23° C.) troops in Brabant; but, after the assassination of the king of and for the liquid o-082 (106-119°) (M. Berthelot, Comples Sweden, he, like all other foreigners, was dismissed from the rendus, 1878, 86, p.786). It is not appreciably volatilized at a red service. He then set out to complete his education by travel, heat. Chlorine acts on it readily in the cold, bromine not so and on the 28th of October 1792 arrived in Baltimore, Maryland, easily, and iodine only when the mixture is heated. The atomic where he finally decided to enter the priesthood. He was weight of gallium has been determined by Lecoq de Boisbaudran ordained priest in March 1795, being the first Roman Catholic by ignition of gallium ammonium alum, and also by L. Meyer and priest ordained in America, and then worked in the mission at K. Seubert. Port Tobacco, Maryland, whence he was soon transferred to the Gallium oxide Gaz0, is obtained when the nitrate is heated, or by Conewago district. His impulsive objection to some of Bishop solution of the metal in nitric acid and ignition of the nitrate. It Carroll's instructions was sharply rebuked, and he was recalled On heating to redness in a stream of hydrogen it forms a bluish to Baltimore. But in 1796 he removed to Taneytown, Maryland, mass which is probably a lower oxide of composition Gao. Gallium and in both Maryland and Pennsylvania worked with such mis- forms colourless salts, which in neutral dilute aqueous solutions are directed zcal and autocratic manners that he was again reproved converted, on heating into basic salts. The gallium salts are preby his bishop in 1798. In the Alleghanics, in 1799, he planned a by sulphuretted hydrogen unless in acetic acid solution. Potassium settlement in what is now Cambria county, Pennsylvania, and lerrocyanide gives a precipitate even in very dilute solution. bought up much land which he gave or sold at low prices to neutral solutions, zinc gives a precipitate of gallium oxide. By Catholic immigrants, spending $150,000 or more in the purchase heating gallium in a regulated stream of chlorine the dichloride of some 20,000 acres in a spot singularly ill suited for such an readily decomposes on exposure to moist air. The trichloride enterprise. In 1808, after his father's death, he was disinherited GaCl, is similarly formed when the metal is heated in a rapid stream by the emperor Alexander I. of Russia“ by reason of your of chlorine, and may be purified by distillation in an atmosphere of Catholic faith and your ecclesiastical profession "; and although nitrogen. It forms very deliquescent long white needles melting at his sister Anne repeatedly promised him his half of the valuable 75:5°C.and boiling at 215-220°C. The bromide, iodide and sulphate

are known, as is also gallium ammonium alum. Gallium is best estate and sent him money from time to time, after her death her detected by means of its spark spectrum, which gives two violet lines brother received little or nothing from the estate. The priest, of wave length 4171 and 4031. who after his father's death had in 1809 discarded the name of GALLON, an English measure of capacity, usually of liquids, Augustine Smith, under which he had been naturalized, and had but also used as a dry measure for corn. A gallon contains four taken his real name, was soon deeply in debt. No small part was quarts. The word was adapted from an O. Norm. Fr. galon, a loan from Charles Carroll, and when Gallitzin was suggested for Central Fr. jalon, and was Latinized as galo and galona. It the see of Philadelphia in 1814, Bishop Carroll gave as an objec- appears to be connected with the modern French jale, a bowl, but tion Gallitzin's “great load of debt rashly, though for excellent | the ultimate origin is unknown; it has been referred without and charitable purposes, contracted." In 1815 Gallitzin was sug- much plausibility to Gr. yavlós, a milk pail. The British gested for the bishopric of Bardstown, Kentucky, and in 1827 for imperial gallon of four quarts contains 277.274 cub. in. The the proposed see of Pittsburg, and he refused the bishopric of old English wine gallon of 231 cub. in. capacity is the standard Cincinnati. He died at Loretto, the settlement he had founded gallon of the United States. in Cambria county, on the 6th of May 1840. Among his GALLOWAY, JOSEPH (1731-1803), American lawyer and parishioners Gallitzin was a great power for good. His part in politician, one of the most prominent of the Loyalists, was born in building up the Roman Catholic Church in western Pennsylvania West River, Anne Arundel county, Maryland, in 1731. He early cannot be estimated; but it is said that at his death there were removed Philadelphia, where he acquired a high standing as a

10,000 members of his church in the district where forty years lawyer. From 1756 until 1774 (except in 1764) he was one of the before he had found a scant dozen. One of the villages he founded most influential members of the Pennsylvania Assembly, over bears his name. Among his controversial pamphlets are: A

which he presided in 1766–1773. During this period, with his Defence of Catholic Principles (1816), Leller to a Protestant Friend friend Benjamin Franklin, he led the opposition to the Proon the Holy Scriptures (1820), Appeal to the Protestant Public prietary government, and in 1764 and 1765 attempted to secure a (1834), and Six Letters of Advice (1834), in reply to attacks royal charter for the province. With the approach of the crisis on the Catholic Church by a Presbyterian synod.

in the relations between Great Britain and the American colonies See Sarah M. Brownson, Life of D. A. Gallitzin, Prince and Priest he adopted a conservative course, and, while recognizing the (New York, 1873); a brief summary of his life by A. A. Lambing justice of many of the colonial complaints, discouraged radical 1886, PP: 58-68); and a good bibliography by Thomas C. Middleton action and advocated a compromise. As a member of the First in The Gallitzin Memorandum Book, in American Catholic Historical Continental Congress, he introduced (28th September 1774) a Society of Philadelphia, Records, vol. 4, pp. 32 sqq.

“ Plan of a Proposed Union between Great Britain and the GALLIUM (symbol Ga; atomic weight 69-9), one of the metallic Colonies," and it is for this chiefly that he is remembered. It chemical elements. It was discovered in 1875 through its provided for a president-general appointed by the crown, who spectrum, in a specimen of zinc blende by Lecoq de Boisbaudran should have supreme executive authority over all the colonies, (Comples rendus, 1875, 81, p. 493, and following years). The chief and for a grand council, elected triennially by the several prochemical and physical properties of gallium had been predicted vincial assemblies, and to have such "rights, liberties and many years before by D. Mendeléeff (c. 1869) from a consideration privileges as are held and exercised by and in the House of of the properties of aluminium, indium and zinc (see ELEMENT). Commons of Great Britain "; the president-general and grand The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only contains it in council were to be “an inferior distinct branch of the British very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an acid, and I legislature, united and incorporated with it.” The assent of the

grand council and of the British parliament was to be" requisite origin), the apparatus for executing the sentence of death by to the validity of all ... general acts or statutes,” except that hanging. It usually consists of two upright posts and a cross" in time of War, all bills for granting aid to the crown, prepared beam, but sometimes of a single upright with a beam projecting by the grand council and approved by the president-general, from the top. The Roman gallows was the cross, and in the shall be valid and passed into a law, without the assent of the older translations of the Bible“ gallows" was used for the cross British parliament.” The individual colonies, however, were to on which Christ suffered (so galga in Ulfilas's Gothic Testament). retain control over their strictly internal affairs. The measure Another form of gallows in the middle ages was that of which the was debated at length, was advocated by such influential members famous example at Montfaucon near Paris was the type. This as John Jay and James Duane of New York and Edward was a square structure formed of columns of masonry connected Rutledge of South Carolina, and was eventually defeated only by in each tier with cross-pieces of wood, and with pits beneath, the vote of six colonics to five. Galloway declined a second into which the bodies fell after disarticulation by exposure to the election to Congress in 1775, joined the British army at New weather. Brunswick, New Jersey (December 1776), advised the British to According to actual usage the condemned man stands on a attack Philadelphia by the Delaware, and during the British platform or drop introduced in England in 1760), the rope hangs occupation of Philadelphia (1777-1778) was superintendent of from the cross-beam, and the noose at its end is placed round the port, of prohibited articles, and of police of the city. In his neck. He is hanged by the falling of the drop, the knot in October 1778 he went to England, where he remained until his the noose being so adjusted that the spinal cord is broken by the death at Watford, Hertfordshire, on the 29th of August 1803. fall and death instantancous. In old times the process was far After he left America his life was attainted, and his property, less merciful; sometimes the condemned man stood in a cart, valued at £40,000, was confiscated by the Pennsylvania which was drawn away from under him; sometimes he had to Assembly, a loss for which he received a partial recompense in the mount a ladder, from which he was thrust by the hangman. form of a small parliamentary pension. He was one of the Until 1832 malefactors in England were sometimes hanged by clearest thinkers and ablest political writers among the American being drawn up from the platform by a heavy weight at the other Loyalists, and, according to Prof. Tyler, “ shared with Thomas end of the rope. Death in these cases was by strangulation. At Hutchinson the supreme place among American statesmen the present time executions in the United Kingdom are private, opposed to the Revolution."

the gallows being erected in a chamber or enclosed space set Among his pamphlets are A Candid Examination of the Mutual apart for the purpose inside the gaol. Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies (1775); Historical and The word " gibbet,” the Fr. gibel, gallows, which appears in Political Reflections on the Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion the first instance to have meant a crooked stick,' was originally American Independence (1780); and The Claim of the American used in English synonymously with gallows, as it sometimes Loyalists Reviewed and Maintained upon Incontrovertible Principles still is. Its later and more special application, however, was to of Law and Justice (1788).

the upright posts with a projecting arm on which the bodies of See Thomas Balch (Ed.), The Examination of. Joseph Galloway criminals were suspended after their execution. These gibbets by & Committee of the House of Conimons (Philadelphia, 1855); were erected in conspicuous spots, on the tops of hills (Gallows Ernest H. Baldwin, Joseph Galloway, the Loyalist Polùician (New Haven, 1903); and M. C. Tyler, Literary History of the American Hill is still a common name) or nçar frequented roads. The Revolution (2 vols., New York, 1897).

bodies, smeared with pitch to prevent too rapid decomposition, GALLOWAY, THOMAS (1796-1851), Scottish mathematician, hung in chains as a warning to evildoers. From the gruesome was born at Symington, Lanarkshire, on the 26th of February custom comes the common use of the word “to gibbet” for any 1796. In 1812 he entered the university of Edinburgh, where he holding up to public infamy or contempt. distinguished himself specially in mathematics. In 1823 he was GALLS. In animals galls occur mostly on or under the skin of appointed one of the teachers of mathematics at the military living mammals and birds, and are produced by Acaridea, and by college of Sandhurst, and in 1833 he was appointed actuary to the dipterous insects of the genus Oestrus. Signor Moriggia. has Amicable Life Assurance Office, the oldest institution of that kind described and figured a horny excrescence, nearly 8 in. in length, in London; in which situation he remained till his death on the from the back of the human hand, which was caused by Acarus ist of November 1851. Galloway was a voluminous, though, for domesticus. What are commonly known as galls are vegetable the most part, an anonymous writer. His most interesting excrescences, and, according to the definition of Lacaze-Duthiers, paper is “On the Proper Motion of the Solar System," and was comprise “all abnormal vegetable productions developed on published in the Phil. Trans., 1847. He contributed largely to plants by the action of animals, more particularly by insects, the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and also whatever may be their form, bulk or situation.” For the larvae wrote several scientific papers for the Edinburgh Review and of their makers the galls provide shelter and sustenance. The various scientific journals. His Encyclopaedia article, “ Prob- exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, ability," was published separately.

appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, See Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society (1852), secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the

GALLOWAY, a district in the south-west of Scotland, com- puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts prising the counties of Kirkcudbright and Wigtown. It was

of plants. This yirus causes the rapid cnlargement and subdivision the Novanlia of the Romans, and till the end of the 12th cen

of the cells affected by it, so as to form the tissues of the gall. Oval tury included Carrick, now the southern division of Ayrshire. or larval irritation also, without doubt, plays an important part Though the designation has not been adopted civilly, its use in the formation of many galls. Though, as Lacaze-Duthiers historically and locally has been long established. Thus the remarks, a certain relation is necessary between the "stimulus” Bruces were lords of Galloway, and the title of earl of Galloway and the supporter of the stimulus," as evidenced by the limita. (created 1623) is now held by a branch of the Stewarts. Galloway | tion in the majority of cases of cach species of gall-insect to some also gives its name to a famous indigenous breed of black hornless one vegetable structure, still it must be the quality of the irritant cattle. See KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE and WIGTOWNSHIRE.

not strictly obsolete, is now seldom used; the formation is felt GALLOWS? (a common Teutonic word-cf. Goth. galga, to be somewhat uncouth, so that the use of the word in the plural O. H. Ger. galgo, Mod. Ger. Galgen, A.S. galsan, &c.--of uncertain

in commonly evaded" (New Eng. Did. s.v. “Gallows ").

In Med. Lat. " gallows" was translated by furio and patibulum, · The word "gallows " is the plural of a word (galwe, galowe, gallow) both words applied in classical Latin to a fork-shaped instrument which, according to the New English Dictionary, was occasionally of punishment lastened on the neck of slaves and criminals. Furia, used as late as the 17th century, though from the 13th century on in feudal law, was the right granted to tenants having major juris. wards the plural form was more usual. Caxton speaks both of "a diction to erect a gallows within the limits of their fiet. gallows," and, in the older form, os" a pair of gallows," this referring i Cf. Wace, Roman de Rou, jii. 8349: probably to the two upright posts. From the 16th century onwards

Et il a le gibet saisi gallows" has been consistently treated as a singular form, a new

Qui a son destre braz pendi." plural, "gallowses," having come into use. "The latter, though Quoted in Zoological Record, iv. (1867), p. 192.


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of the tissues, rather than the specific peculiarities or the part the parenchyma proper; vessels which, without forming a of the plant affected, that principally determines the nature of the complete investment, underlie the parenchyma; a hard pro. gall. Thus the characteristics of the currant-gall of Spathegaster tective layer; and lastly, within that, an alimentary central baccarum, L., which occurs alike on the leaves and on the mass inhabited by the growing larva. flower-stalks of the oak, are obviously due to the act of ovi Galls are formed by insects of several orders. Among the position, and not to the functions of the parts producing it; Hymenoptera are the gall-wasps (Cynips and its allies), which the bright red galls of the saw-fly Nematus gallicola are found on infect the various species of oak. They are small insects, having four different species of willow, Salix fragilis, S. alba, S. caprea straight antennae, and a compressed, usually very short abdomen and S. cinerea;' and the galls of a Cynipid, Biorhiza aplera, with the second or second and third segments greatly developed, usually developed on the rootlets of the oak, have been procured and the rest imbricated, and concealing the partially coiled also from the deodar. Often the gall bears no visible resemblance ovipositor. The transformations from the larval state are to the structures out of which it is developed; commonly, completed within the gall, out of which the imago, or perfect however, outside the larval chamber, or gall proper, and giving insect, tunnels its way,- usually in autumn, though sometimes, to the gall its distinctive form, are to be detected certain more or as has been observed of some individuals of Cynips Kollari, less modified special organs of the plant. The gall of Cecidomyia after hibernation. strobilina, formed from willow-buds, is mainly a rosette of leaves Among the commoner of the galls of the Cynipidae are the the stalks of which have had their growth arrested. The small,“ oak-apple” or “oak-sponge" of Andricus terminalis, Fab.; smooth, seed-shaped gall of the American Cynips seminalor, the "currant berry galls" of Spalhegaster baccarum, Harris, according to W. F. Bassett," is the petiole, and its ter- L., above mentioned; and the “oak-spangles" of Neurolerus minal iuft of woolly hairs the enormously developed pubescence lenticularis,' Oliv., generally reputed to be fungoid growths, of the youngoak-leaf. The moss-likecovering of the "bedeguars" until the discovery of their true nature by Frederick Smith,10 and of the wild rose, the galls of a Cynipid, Rhodiles rosae, represents the succulent " cherry-galls " of Dryophanla scutellaris, Oliv. leaves which have been developed with scarcely any parenchyma The “marble" Devonshire woody galls of oak-buds, between their fibro-vascular bundles; and the “ artichoke-galls ” which often destroy the leading shoots of young trees, are proor "oak-strobile," produced by A philothrix gemmae, L., which duced by Cynips Kollari," already alluded to. They were first insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists of a cupule introduced into Devonshire about the year 1847, had become to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached, with a common near Birmingham by 1866, and two or three years later peduncular, oviform, inner gall. E. Newman held the view that were observed in several parts of Scotland. They contain many oak-galls are pseudobalani or false acorns: “to produce about 17% of tannin. On account of their regular form they an acorn has been the intention of thc oak, but the gall-fly has have been used, threaded on wire, for making ornamental baskets, frustrated the attempt.” Their formation from buds which The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah galls, produced on a normally would have yielded leaves and shoots is explained by species of oak by Cynips insana, Westw., have been regarded by Parfitt as the outcome of an effort at fructification induced by many writers as the Dead Sea fruit, mad-apples (male insana), oviposition, such as has been found to result in several plants from or apples of Sodom (puma sodomitica), alluded to by Josephus injury by insect-agency or otherwise. Galls vary remarkably and others, which, however, are stated by E. Robinson (Bibl. in size and shape according to the species of their makers. The Researches in Palestine, vol. i. pp. 522-524, 3rd ed., 1867) to be polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radicis, found on the roots of the singular fruit called by the Arabs Osher, produced by the old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls of Asclepias gigantea or procera of botanists. What in California another Cynipid, Andricus occultus, Tschek, which occurs on the are known as “flea seeds” are oak-galls made by a species of male flowers of Qucrcus sessiliflora, is 2 millimetres, or barely a Cynips; in August they become detached from the leaves that line, in length. Many galls are brightly coloured, as, for instance, bear them, and are caused to jump by the spasmodic movements the oak-leaf hairy galls of Spathegaster tricolor, which are of a of the grub within the thin-walled gall-cavity.15 crimson hue, more or less diffused according to exposure to light. Common gall-nuts, nut-galls, or oak-galls, the Aleppo, Turkey, The variety of forms of galls is very great. Some are like urns or Levant galls of commerce (Ger. Gallapse, Icoantische or cups, others lenticular. The “knoppern ” galls of Cynips Gallen; Fr. noix de Galle), are produced on Quercus inpolycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex fectoria, a variety of Q. Lusitanica, Webb, by Cynips (Diplolepis, upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge. Of the Ceylonese Latr.) tinctoria, L., or C. gallae linctoriae Oliv. Aleppo galls galls, some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in (gallac halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, - in. in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected diameter, ridged and warty on the upper half, and light brown by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long to dark greyish-yellow within. What are termed blue," cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."? The characters“ black,"or“ green "galls contain the insect; the inferior"white" of galls are constant, and as a rule exceedingly diagnostic, even galls, which are lighter coloured, and not so compact, heavy or when, as in the case of ten different gall-gnats of an American astringent, are gathered after its escape (see fig. 1.). Less valued willow, Salix humilis, it is difficult or impossible to tell the full- are the galls of Tripoli (Taraplus or Tarabulus, whence the name grown insects that produce them from one another. In degree“ Tarablous galls "). The most esteemed Syrian galls, according of complexity of internal structure galls differ considerably. to Pereira, are those of Mosul on the Tigris

. Other varieties of Some are monothalamous, and contain

but one larva of the gall- nut-galls, besides the above-mentioned, are employed in Europe maker, whilst others are many-celled and numerously inhabited. for various purposes. Commercial gall-nuts have yielded on The largest class are the unilocular, or simple, external galls, analysis from 26 (H. Davy) to 77 (Buchner) % of tannin (see divided by Lacaze-Duthiers into those with and those without "Recherches pour servir à l'histoire des galles," Ann. des sci. a superficial protective layer or rind, and composed of hard, sal. xix. pp. 293 sqq. or spongy, or cellular tissue. Ina common gall-nut that authority between N. lenticularis and Spathegaster baccarum (see E.A. Ormerod,

. According to Dr Adler, alternation of generations takes place distinguished seven constituent portions: an epidermis; a Entomologist, xi. P: 34). subdermic cellular tissue; a spongy and a hard layer, composing to See Westwood, Introd. to the Mod. Classif. of Insects, ii. (1840) "P. Cameron, Scottish Naturalist, ii. pp. 11-15.

" For figures and descriptions of insect and gall, see Entomologist, ? Entomologisi, vii. p. 47.

iv. p. 17. vii. p. 241, ix. p. 53, xi. p. 131. Sce in Proc. Entom. Soc. of London for the Year 1873. p. xvi.

13 Scollish Naturalist, i. (1871) p. 116, &c. • See A. Müller, Gardener's Chronicle (1871), pp. 1162 and 1518; 13 Vinen, Journ. de pharm. et de chim. XXX. (1856) p. 290; and E. A. Fitch, Entomologist, xi. p. 129.

English Ink-Galls," Pharm. Journ, and ser. iv. p. 520. Entomologist, vi. pp. 275-278, 339-340.

11 See Percira, Materia Medica, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 347; Pharm. Journ. Verhandl. d. zoolog.-bol. Ges. in Wien, xxi. p. 799.

Ist ser. vol. viii. pp. 422-424. 'Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication, is See R. H. Stretch and C. D. Gibbes, Proc. California Acad. ii. p. 282.

of Sciences, iv. pp. 265 and 266.

p. 130.

Vinen, loc. cit.), with gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, common cabbage and cereals. In the northern United States, in water, and minute quantities of proteids, chlorophyll

, resin, free May," legions of these delicate minute flies fill the air at twilight, sugar and, in the cells around the inner shelly chamber, calcium hovering over wheat-fields and shrubbery. A strong north-west. oxalate. Oak-galls are mentioned by Theophrastus, Dioscorides wind, at such times, is of incalculable value to the farmer.'' (i. 146), and other ancient writers, including Pliny (Nat. Hist. Other gall-making dipterous flies are members of the family xvi. 9, 10, xxiv. 5), according to whom they may be produced Trypetidae, which disfigure the seed-heads of plants, and of the "in a single night." Their insect origin appears to have been family Mycetophilidae, such as the species Sciara tilicola, Löw, entirely unsuspected until within comparatively recent times, the cause of the oblong or rounded green and red galls of though Pliny, indeed, makes the observation that a kind of gnat is the young shoots and leaves of the Dooliste di gunur babai Ett bra Galls are formed also by hemipterous and homopterous insects 915 97 mortem

Joglo of the families Tingidae, Psyllidae, Coccidae and Aphidae. 19911310 to do 30

quo Coccus pinicorticis causes the growth of patches of white flocculent Isuz

ist and downy matter on the smooth bark of young trees of the von EO

al white pine in America. The galls of examples of the last 1918 family are common objects on lime-leaves, and on the petioles of

the poplar. An American Aphid of the genus Pemphigus proTa ono

Oluko duces black, ragged, leathery and cut-shaped excrescences on the

young branches of the hickory. to the shoo doo Vodeod bra

vody The Chinese galls of commerce (Woo-pei-tsze) are stated to be 2017019 buque y

hivio produced by Aphis Chinensis, Bell, on Rhus semialata, Murr. (R.

Bucki-amelo, Roxb.), an Anacardiaceous tree indigenous to N.
India, China and Japan. They are hollow, brittle, irregularly

pyriform, tuberculated or branched vesicles, with thin walls, covered Boots gan

externally with a grey down, and internally with a white chalk-like bi matter, and insect-remains (see fig. 2). The escape of the insect

takes place on the spontaneous bursting of the walls of the vesicle, da bude od

bude probably when, after viviparous (thelytokous) reproduction for FIG. 1.-9, Aleppo "blue", gall; !, ditto in section, showing are gathered before the frosts set in, and are exposed to steam to kill

several generations, male winged insects are developed. The galls central cavity for grub; s, Aleppo "white" gall, perforated by the insects. insect; d, the same in section (natural size).

Chinese galls examined by Viedt 12 yielded 72% of tannin, and produced in certain excrescences on oak leaves. Bacon describes less mucilage than Aleppo galls. Several other varieties of galls oak-apples as an exudation of plants joined with putrefaction." are produced by Aphides on species of Pistacia.

M. J. Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of Pomet' thought that gall-nuts were the fruit of the oak, and a the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an similar opinion obtains among the modern Chinese, who apply apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young to them the term Mu-shih-lsse, or "fruits for the foodless. i2 Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to Hippocrates administered gall-nuts for their astringent properties, and by budding underground give rise to several generations of and Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxiv. 5) recommends them as a remedy in apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupis affections of the gums and uvula, ulcerations of the mouth and fera). These last issuing from the ground fly to the Pistachio, and some dozen more complaints. In British pharmacy gall-nuts on it deposit their pupae. From the pupae, again, are developed are used in the preparation of the two astringent ointments sexual individuals, the females of which lay fecundated eggs prounguentum gallae and unguentum gellae cum opio, and of the (see Compl

. rend., Nov. 18, 1878, P. 782, quoted in Ann. and Mag. tinctura gallae, and also as a source of tannin and of gallic acid Nat. Hist., 1879, p. 174). Dan not legal (9.0.). They have from very early times been resorted to as a Of other insects which have been recognized as gall-makers. means of staining the hair of a dark colour, and they are the ginaphonib 10 09 Subot base of the tattooing dye of the Somali women. l 10

zi ai The gall-making Hymenoptera include, besides the Cynipidae proper, certain species of the genus Euryloma (Isosoma, Walsh)

37503 and family Chalcididae, e.g. E. hordei, the "joint-worm” of the United States, which produces galls on the stalks of wheat; also various members of the family Tenthredinidae, or The larvae of the latter usually vacate their galls, to spin their molt

und cocoons in the earth, or, as in the case of Athalia abdominalis, Klg., of the clematis, may emerge from their shelter to feed for some days on the leaves of the gall-bearing plant.

47102 CV The dipterous gall-formers include the gall-midges, or gallgnats (Cecidomyidae), minute slender-bodied insects, with bodies Tube usually covered with long hairs, and the wings folded over the - ไ: 101 102.732

Ten almal back. Some of them build cocoons within their galls, others descend to the ground or become pupae. The true willow-galls Fig. 2.-a, Chinese gall (about nat. size); b, ditto broken, showing are the work either of these or of saw-flies. Their galls are to be

thin-walled cavity; c, Japanese gall (natural size). met with on a great variety of plants of widely distinct genera, there are, among the Coleoptera, certain Curculionids (galle.g. the ash, maple, horn-beam, oak, grape vine, alder, gooseberry, blackberry, pine, juniper, thistle, fennel, meadowsweet, wcevils), and species of the exotic Sagridae and Lamiadae and an

1 A Complete History of Drugs (translation), p. 169 (London, 1748). A. S. Packard, jun., Our Common Insects, p. 203. (Salem, U.S. (F. Porter Smith, Contrib. towards the Mal. Medica ... of China, 1873). On the Hessian fly, Cecidomyia destructor, Say, the May P. 100 (1871).

brood of which produces swellings immediately above the joints of R. F. Burton, First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 178 (1856). barley attacked by it, see Asa Fitch, The Hessian Fly (Albany, 1847), A. S. Packard, jun., Guide to the Sludy of Insects, p. 205 (Salem, reprinted from Trans. New York State Agric. Soc. vol. vi. 1870).

J. Winnertz, Beitrag zu einer Monographie der Sciarinen, P. 164 On the Cecidomyids of Quercus Cerris, see Fitch, Entomologist, (Vienna, 1867). xi. p. 14.

10 Asa Fitch, First and Second Rep. on the Noxious. . . Insects See, on Cecidomyia oenephila, Von Haimhoffen, Verhandl. d. of the State of New York, p. 167 (Albany, 1856). zoolog.-bot. Ges. in Wien, xxv. pp. 801-810.

11 See E. Doubleday, Pharm. Journ. Ist ser. vol. vii. p. 310; and 7 See Entomologist's Month. Mag. iv. (1868) p. 233; and for Pereira, ib. vol. iii. p. 377. figure and description, Entomologist, xi. p. 13.

12 Dingler's Polyl. Journ. ccxvi. p. 453.

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