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PREDERICK (Mod. Ger. Friedrich; Ital. Pederigo; Fr. step-brother Conrad was invested with the Palatinate of the Rhine. Prédéric and Federic; M.H.G. Friderich; O.H.G. Fridurik, On the oth of June 1156 the king was married at Würzburg " king or lord of peace," from O.H.G. fridu, A.S. frilh, "peace, to Beatrix, daughter and heiress of the dead count of Upper and rik "rich," " a ruler," for derivation of which see HENRY), Burgundy, Renaud III., when Upper Burgundy or Franche a Christian name borne by many European sovereigns and Comté, as it is sometimes called, was added to his possessions. princes, the more important of whom are given below in the An expedition into Poland reduced Duke Boleslaus IV. to an following order.-(1) Roman emperors and German kings; abject submission, after which Frederick received the homage of (2) other kings in the alphabetical order of their states; (3) the Burgundian nobles at a diet held at Besançon in October other reigning princes in the same order.
1157, which was marked by a quarrel between pope and emperor. FREDERICK I. (c. 1123-1190), Roman emperor, surnamed A Swedish archbishop, returning from Rome, had been seized by “ Barbarossa" by the Italians, was the son of Frederick II. of robbers, and as Frederick had not punished the offenders Adrian Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, and Judith, daughter of Henry sent two legates to remonstrate. The papal letter when transIX. the Black, duke of Bavaria. The precise date and place of lated referred to the imperial crown as a benefice conferred by his birth, together with details of his early life, are wanting; but the pope, and its reading aroused great indignation. The in 1143 he assisted his maternal uncle, Count Welf VI., in his emperor had to protect the legates from the fury of the nobles; attempts to conquer Bavaria, and by his conduct in several local and afterwards issued a manifesto to his subjects declaring that feuds earned the reputation of a brave and skilful warrior. When he held the Empire from God alone, to which Adrian replied that his father died in 1147 Frederick became duke of Swabia, and im- he had used the ambiguous word beneficia as meaning benefits, mediately afterwards accompanied his uncle, the German king and not in its feudal sense. Conrad III., on his disastrous crusade, during which he greatly In June 1158 Frederick set out upon his second Italian exdistinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the pedition, which was signalized by the establishment of imperial king. Abandoning the cause of the Welfs, he fou for Conrad officers called podeslas in the cities of northern Italy, the revolt against them, and in 1952 the dying king advised the princes to and capture of Milan, and the beginning of the long struggle with choose Frederick as his successor to the exclusion of his own pope Alexander III., who excommunicated the emperor on the young son. Energetically pressing his candidature, he was and of March 1160. During this visit Frederick summoned the chosen German king at Frankfort on the 4th or 5th of March | doctors of Bologna to the diet held near Roncaglia in November 1152, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the oth of the same 1958, and as a result of their inquiries into the rights belonging month, owing his election partly to his personal qualities, and to the kingdom of Italy he obtained a large amount of wealth. partly to the fact that he united in himself the blood of the rival Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick famílies of Welf and Waiblingen.
prevented a conflict between Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position and a number of neighbouring princes, and severely punished the it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto the Great, and saw citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary | A further visit to Italy in 1163 saw his plans for the conquest preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy, of Sicily checked by the formation of a powerful league against Issuing a general order for peace, he was prodigalin his concessions him, brought together mainly by the exactions of the podestos to the nobles. Count Welf was made duke of Spoleto and mar. and the enforcement of the rights declared by the doctors of grave of Tuscany; Berthold VI., duke of Zähringen, was en Bologna. Frederick had supported an anti-pope Victor IV. trusted with extensive rights in Burgundy; and the king's against Alexander, and on Victor's death in 1163 a new antinephew, Frederick, received the duchy of Swabia. Abroad pope called Paschal III. was chosen to succeed him. Having Frederick decided a quarrel for the Danish throne in favour of tried in vain to secure the general recognition of Victor and Svend, or Peter as he is sometimes called, who did homage for Paschal in Europe, the emperor held a diet at Würzburg in May his kingdom, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman 1165; and by taking an oath, followed by many of the clergy emperor, Manuel Comnenus. It was probably about this time and nobles, to remain true to Paschal and his successors, brought that the king obtained a divorce from his wife Adela, daughter about a schism in the German church. A temporary alliance of Dietpold, margrave of Vohburg and Cham, on the ground with Henry II., king of England, the magnificent celebration of consanguinity, and made a vain effort to obtain a bride of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick restoration of peace in the Rhineland, occupied Frederick's had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius attention until October 1166, when he made his fourth journey III., but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. In spite to Italy. Having captured Ancona, he marched to Rome, stormed of this omission, however, and of some trouble arising from a the Leonine city, and procured the enthronement of Paschal, and double election to the archbishopric of Magdeburg, a treaty was the coronation of his wife Beatrix; but his victorious career concluded between king and pope at Constance in March 1153, was stopped by the sudden outbreak of a pestilence which by which Froderick promised in return for his coronation to make destroyed the German army and drove the emperor as a fugitive no peace with Roger I. king of Sicily, or with the rebellious to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. Romans, without the consent of Eugenius, and generally to help Henry the Lion was again saved from a threatening combination; and defend the papacy.
conflicting claims to various bishoprics were decided; and the The journey to Italy made by the king in 1154 was the pre-imperial authority was asserted over Bohemia, Poland and cursor of five other expeditions which engaged his main energies Hungary. Friendly relations were entered into with the emperor for thirty years, during which the subjugation of the peninsula Manuel, and attempts made to come to a better understanding was the central and abiding aim of his policy. Meeting the new with Henry II., king of England, and Louis VII., king of France. pope, Adrian IV., near Nepi, Frederick at first refused to hold In 1174, when Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy, his stirrup; but after some negotiations he consented and the Lombard league had been formed, and the fortress of Ales. received the kiss of peace, which was followed by his coronation sandria raised to check his progress. The campaign was a comas emperor at Rome on the 18th of June 1155. As his slender plete failure. The refusal of Henry the Lion to bring help into forces were inadequate to encounter the fierce hostility which Italy was followed by the defeat of the emperor at Legnano on he aroused, be left Italy in the autumn of 1155 to prepare for a the 29th of May 1176, when he was wounded and believed to be new and more formidable campaign. Disorder was again rampant dead. Reaching Pavia, he began negotiations for peace with in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored Alexander, which ripened into the treaty of Venice in August by Frederick's vigorous measures. Bavaria was transferred 1177, and at the same time truce with the Lombard league from Henry II. Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, to Henry the was arranged for six years. Frederick, loosed from the papai Lion, duke of Saxony; and the former was pacified by the ban, recognized Alexander as the rightful pope, and in July 1177 crection of his margraviate into a duchy, while Frederick's I knelt before him and kissed his feet. The possession of the vast
estates left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, and claimed while he endeavoured to overthrow the republics in Italy, he by both pope and emperor, was to be decided by arbitration, and held in check the power of the nobles in Germany, by conferring in October 1178 the emperor was again in Germany. Various municipal franchises and independent rights on the principal small feuds were suppressed; Henry the Lion was deprived of his cities. Even in Italy, though his general course of action was duchy, which was dismembered, and sent into exile; a treaty was warped by wrong prepossessions, he in many instances manifested made with the Lombard league at Constance in June 1183; exceptional practical sagacity in dealing with immediate diffiand most important of all, Frederick's son Henry was betrothed culties and emergencies. Possessing frank and open manners, in 1184 to Constance, daughter of Roger I., king of Sicily, and aunt untiring and unresting energy, and a prowess which found its and heiress of the reigning king, William II. This betrothal, native element in difficulty and danger, he seemed the embodi, which threatened to unite Sicily with the Empire, made it difficult ment of the chivalrous and warlike spirit of his age, and was for Frederick, when during his last Italian expedition in 1184 the model of all the qualities which then won highest admiration. he met Pope Lucius III. at Verona, to establish friendly relations Stern and ambitious he certainly was, but his aims can scarcely with the papacy. Further causes of trouble arose, moreover, be said to have exceeded his prerogatives as emperor; and though and when the potentates separated the question of Matilda's he had sometimes recourse when in straits to expedients almost estates was undecided; and Lucius had refused to crown diabolically ingenious in their cruelty, yet his general conduct Henry or to recognize the German clergy who had been ordained was marked by a clemency which in that age was exceptional. during the schism. Frederick then formed an alliance with His quarrel with the papacy was an inherited conflict, not reMilan, where the citizens witnessed a great festival on the 27th flecting at all on his religious faith, but the inevitable conof January 1186. The emperor, who had been crowned king of sequence of inconsistent theories of government, which had been Burgundy, or Arles, at Arles on the 30th of July 1178, had this created and could be dissipated only by a long series of events. ceremony repeated; while his son Henry was crowned king of His interference in the quarrels of the republics was not only quite Italy and married to Constance, who was crowned queen of justifiable from the relation in which he stood to them, but seemed Germany.
absolutely necessary. From the beginning, however, he treated The quarrel with the papacy was continued with the new the Italians, as indeed was only natural, less as rebellious subjacts pope Urban III., and open warfare was begun. But Frederick than as conquered aliens; and it must be admitted that in regard was soon recalled to Germany by the news of a revolt raised by to them the only effective portion of his procedure was, not his Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, in alliance with the energetic measures of repression nor his brilliant victories, but, pope. The German clergy remained loyal to the emperor, and after the battle of Legnano, his quiet and cheerful acceptance of hostilities were checked by the death of Urban and the election of the inevitable, and the consequent complete change in his policy, a new pope as Gregory VIII., who adopted a more friendly policy by which if he did not obtain the great object of his ambition, towards the emperor. In 1188 Philip submitted, and immediately he at least did much to render innoxious for the Empire his afterwards Frederick took the cross in order to stop the victorious previous mistakes. career of Saladin, who had just taken Jerusalem. After extensive In appearance Frederick was a man of well-proportioned, preparations he left Regensburg in May 1189 at the head of a medium stature, with flowing yellow hair and a reddish beard. splendid army, and having overcome the hostility of the East He delighted in hunting and the reading of history, was zoalous Roman emperor Isaac Angelus, marched into Asia Minor.' On in his attention to public business, and his private life was unthe roth of June 1190 Frederick was either bathing or crossing impeachable. Carlyle's tribute to bim is interesting: “No king the river Calycadnus (Geuksu), near Seleucia (Sclefke) in Cilicia, so furnished out with apparatus and arena, with personal faculty when he was carried away by the stream and drowned. The to rule and scene to do it in, has appeared elsewhere. A magplace of his burial is unknown, and the legend which says he still nificent, magnanimous man; holding the reins of the world, not sits in a cavern in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia waiting quite in the imaginary sense; scourging anarchy down, and until the need of his country shall call him, is now thought to urging noble effort up, really on a grand scale. A terror to evilrefer, at least in its earlier form, to his grandson, the emperor doers and á praise to well-doers in this world, probably beyond Frederick II. He left by his wife, Beatrix, five sons, of whom what was ever seen since." the eldest afterwards became emperor as Henry VI.
The principal contemporary authority for the earlier part of the Frederick's reign, on the whole, was a happy and prosperous reign of Frederick is the Gesta Friderici imperatoris, mainly the work time for Germany. He encouraged the growth of towns, easily of Otto, bishop of Freising: This
is continued from 1156 to 1160 by suppressed the few risings against his authority, and took Rahewin, a canon of Freising, and from 1160 to 1170 by an anony. strong and successful measures to establish order. Even after among which may be mentioned the Chronica regia Coloniensis
mous author. The various annals and chronicles of the period, the severe reverses which he experienced in Italy, his position in and the Annales Magdeburgenses, are also important. Other Germany was never seriously weakened; and in 1181, when, authorities for the different periods in Frederick's reign are Tageno almost without striking a blow, he deprived Henry the Lion of of Passau, Descriptio expeditionis asiaticae Friderici 1.; Burchard. his duchy, he seemed stronger than ever. This power rested upon de gestis Friderici I., which are all
found in the Monumenta Germanice his earnest and commanding personality, and also upon the sup- historica. Scriptores (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892);. Otto port which he received from the German church, the possession of Morena of Lodi, Historia rerum Loudensium, continued by his son, a valuable private domain, and the care with which he exacted Acerbus, also in the Monumento; Ansbert, Historia de expedilione
Friderici, 1187-1196, published in the Fontes rerum Austriacarum. feudal dues from his dependents.
Scriplores (Vienna, 1855 fol.). Many valuable documents are found Frederick I. is said to have taken Charlemagne as bis model; in the Monumenta Germaniac selecta, Band iv., edited by M. Doeberi but the contest in which he engaged was entirely different both (Munich, 1889-1890). in character and results from that in which his great predecessor im Zeitalter der Hohenstaufen (Berlin, 1893): W. von Giesebrecht,
The best modern authorities are J. Jastrow, Deutsche Geschichte achieved such a wonderful temporary success. Though Frederick Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, Band" iv. (Brunswick, 1877): failed to subdue the republics, the failure can scarcely be said to H. von Bünau, Leben und Thaten Friedrichs I. (Leipzig, 1872): H. reflect either on his prudence as a statesman or his skill as a Prutz, Kaiser Friedrich !. (Dantzig, 1871-1874); C. Peters. Die general, for his ascendancy was finally overthrown rather by the Wall Kaiser Friedrichs I. in the Forschungen sur deutschen Geschichte, ravages of pestilence than by the might of human arms. In (Innsbruck, 1899). For a complete bibliography see Dahlmann.
Band xx. (Göttingen, 1862–1886); W. Gundlach, Barbarossalieder Germany his resolute will and sagacious administration subdued Waitz, Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte
(Göttingen, 1894), and or disarmed all discontent, and he not only succeeded in welding U. Chevalier, Répertoire des sources historiques du moyen âge, the various rival interests into a unity of devotion to himself tome iii. (Paris, 1904). against which papal intrigues were comparatively powerless, FREDERICK II. (1194-1250), Roman emperor, king of Sicily but won for the empire a prestige such as it had not possessed and Jerusalem, was the son of the emperor Henry VI. and Con. since the time of Otto the Great. The wide contrast between his stance, daughter of Roger I., king of Sicily, and therefore grandGerman and Italian rule is strikingly exemplified in the fact that, son of the emperor Frederick I. and a member of the Hohenstaufen
family. Born at Jesi near Ancona on the 26th of December | Damietta in 1221, Frederick definitely undertook by a treaty 1194, he was baptized by the name of Frederick Roger, chosen made at San Germano in 1225 to set out in August 1227 or to German king at Frankfort in 1196, and after his father's death submit to this penalty. His own interests turned more strongly crowned king of Sicily at Palermo on the 17th of May 1198. to the East, when on the oth of November 1225, after having been His mother, who assumed the government, died in November a widower since 1222, he married Iolande (Yolande or Isabella), 1198, leaving Pope Innocent III. as regent of Sicily and guardian daughter of John, count of Brienne, titular king of Jerusalem. of her son. The young king passed his early years amid the John appears to have expected that this alliance would restore terrible anarchy in his island kingdom, which Innocent was him to his kingdom, but his hopes were dashed to the ground powerless to check; but his education was not neglected, and when Frederick himself assumed the title of king of Jerusalem. his character and habits were formed by contact with men of The emperor's next step was an attempt to restore the imperial varied nationalities and interests, while the darker traits of his authority in northern Italy, and for the purpose a diet was called nature were developed in the atmosphere of lawlessness in which at Cremona. But the cities, watchful and suspicious, renewed the be lived. In 1208 he was declared of age, and soon afterwards Lombard league and took up a hostile attitude. Frederick's Innocent arranged a marriage, which was celebrated the following reply was to annul the treaty of Constance and place the cities year, between him and Constance, daughter of Alphonso II. under the imperial ban; but he was forced by lack of military king of Aragon, and widow of Emerich or Imre, king of Hungary. strength to accept the mediation of Pope Honorius and the
The dissatisfaction felt in Germany with the emperor Otto IV. maintenance of the status quo. came to a climax in September 1211, when a number of influential After these events, which occurred early in 1227, preparations princes met at Nuremberg, declared Otto deposed, and invited for the crusade were pressed on, and the emperor sailed from Frederick to come and occupy the vacant throne. In spite of Brindisi on the 8th of September. A pestilence, however, which the reluctance of his wife, and the opposition of the Sicilian nobles, attacked his forces compelled him to land in Italy three days be accepted the invitation; and having recognized the papal later, and on the 29th of the same month he was excommunicated supremacy over Sicily, and procured the coronation of his son by the new pope, Gregory IX. The greater part of the succeeding Henry as its king, reached Germany after an adventurous journey year was spent by pope and emperor in a violent quarrel. in the autumn of 1212. This step was taken with the approval Alarmed at the increase in his opponent's power, Gregory deof the pope, who was anxious to strike a blow at Otto IV. nounced him in a public letter, to which Frederick replied in à
Frederick was welcomed in Swabia, and the renown of the clever document addressed to the princes of Europe. The reading Hohenstaufen name and a liberal distribution of promises made of this manifesto, drawing attention to the absolute power his progress easy. Having arranged a treaty against Otto with claimed by the popes, was received in Rome with such evidences Louis, son of Philip Augustus, king of France, whom he met at of approval that Gregory was compelled to fly to Viterbo. Having Vaucouleurs, be was chosen German king a second time at Frank- lost his wife Isabella on the 8th of May 1228, Frederick again set fort on the sth of December 1212, and crowned four days later sail for Palestine; where he met with considerable success, the at Mainz. Anxious to retain the support of the pope, Frederick result of diplomatic rather than of military skill. By a treaty promulgated a bull at Eger on the 12th of July 1213, by which made in February 1229 he secured possession of Jerusalem, he renounced all lands claimed by the pope since the death of the Bethlehem, Nazareth and the surrounding neighbourhood. emperor Henry VI in 1197, gave up the right of spoils and all Entering Jerusalem, he crowned himself king of that city on the interference in episcopal elections, and acknowledged the right 18th of March 1229. These successes had been won in spite of of appeal to Rome. He again affirmed the papal supremacy the hostility of Gregory, which deprived Frederick of the assistover Sicily, and promised to root out heresy in Germany. The ance of many members of the military orders and of the clergy victory of his French allies at Bouvines on the 27th of July 1214 of Palestine. But although the emperor's possessions on the greatly strengthened his position, and a large part of the Rhine- Italian mainland had been attacked in his absence by the papal Land having fallen into his power, he was crowned German king troops and their allies, Gregory's efforts had failed to arouse at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 25th of July 1215. His cause continued serious opposition in Germany and Sicily; so that when Frederick to prosper, fresh supporters gathered round his standard, and in returned unexpectedly to Italy in June 1229 he had no difficulty May 1218 the death of Otto freed him from his rival and left him in driving back his enemies, and compelling the pope to sue for undisputed ruler of Germany, A further attempt to allay the peace. The result was the treaty of San Germano, arranged in pope's apprehension lest Sicily should be united with the Empire July 1230, by which the emperor, loosed from the ban, promised had been made early in 1216, when Frederick, in a letter to Inno- to respect the papal territory, and to allow freedom of election cent, promised after his own coronation as emperor to recognize and other privileges to the Sicilian clergy. Frederick was next his son Henry as king of Sicily, and to place him under the engaged in completing the pacification of Sicily. In 1231 à suzerainty of Rome. Henry nevertheless was brought to Germany series of laws were published at Melfi which destroyed the and chosen German king at Frankfort in April 1220, though ascendancy of the feudal nobles. Royal officials were appointed Frederick assured the new pope, Honorius III., that this step for administrative purposes, large estates were recovered for the had been taken without his consent. The truth, however, seems crown, and fortresses were destroyed, while the church was ļo be that he had taken great trouble to secure this election, and placed under the royal jurisdiction and all gifts to it were profor the purpose had won the support of the spiritual princes by hibited. At the same time certain privileges of self-government extensive concessions. In August 1220 Frederick set out for were granted to the towns, representatives from which were Italy, and was crowned emperor at Rome on the 22nd of November summoned to sit in the diet. In short, by means of a centralized 1220; after which he repeated the undertaking he had entered system of government, the king established an almost absolute into at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1215 to go on crusade, and made lavish monarchical power. promises to the Church. The clergy were freed from taxation In Germany, on the other hand, an entirely different policy was and from lay jurisdiction, the ban of the Empire was to follow pursued. The concessions granted by Frederick in 1220, together the ban of the Church, and heretics were to be severely punished. with the Privilege of Worms, dated the est of May 1231, made
Neglecting his promise to lead a crusade, Frederick was the German princes virtually independent. All jurisdiction over occupied until 1215 in restoring order in Sicily. The island was their lands was vested in them, no new mints or toll-centres were seething with disorder, but by stern and sometimes cruel to be erected on their domains, and the imperial authority was measures the emperor suppressed the anarchy of the barons, restricted to a small and dwindling area. A fierce attack was also curbed the power of the cities, and subdued the rebellious made on the rights of the cities. Compelled to restore all their Saracens, many of whom, transferred to the mainland and lands, their jurisdiction was bounded by their city-walls; they settled at Nocera, afterwards rendered him valuable military were forbidden to receive the dependents of the princes; all service. Meanwhile the crusade was postponed again and trade gilds were declared abolished; and all official appointments again; until under a threat of excommunication, after the fall of I made without the consent of the archbishop or bishop were
annulled. A further attack on the Lombard cities at the diet of partisans, Sinibaldo Fiesco,was chosen pope, and took the name Ravenna in 1231 was answered by a renewal of their league, and of Innocent IV. Negotiations for peace were begun, but the was soon connected with unrest in Germany. About 1231 a relations of the Lombard cities to the Empire could not be breach took place between Frederick and his elder son Henry, adjusted, and when the emperor began again to ravage the who appears to have opposed the Privilege of Worms and to have papal territories Innocent fled to Lyons. Hither he summoned a favoured the towns against the princes. After refusing to travel general council, which met in June 1245; but although Frederick to Italy, Henry changed his mind and submitted to his father at sent his justiciar, Thaddeus of Suessa, to represent him, and Aquileia in 1232; and, a temporary peace was made with the expressed his willingness to treat, sentence of excommunication Lombard cities in June 1233. But on his return to Germany and deposition was pronounced against him. Once more an Henry again raised the standard of revolt, and made a league interchange of recriminations began, charged with all the violent with the Lombards in December 1234. Frederick, meanwhile, hyperbole characteristic of the controversial style of the age. having helped Pope Gregory against the rebellious Romans and Accused of violating treaties, breaking oaths, persecuting the having secured the friendship of France and England, appeared church and abetting heresy, Frederick replied by an open letter in Germany early in 1235 and put down this rising without rebutting these charges, and in equally unmeasured terms difficulty. Henry was imprisoned, but his associates were treated denounced the arrogance and want of faith of the clergy from leniently. In August 1235 a splendid diet was held at Mainz, the pope downwards. The source of all the evil was, he declared, during which the marriage of the emperor with Isabella (1214- the excessive wealth of the church, whích, in retaliation for the 1241), daughter of John, king of England, was celcbrated. A sentence of excommunication, he threatened to confiscate. In general peace (Landfrieden), which became the basis of all such vain the mediation of the saintly king of France, Louis IX., was peaces in the future, was sworn to; a new office, that of imperial invoked. Innocent surpassed his predecessors in the ferocity and justiciar, was created, and a permanent judicial record was first unscrupulousness of his attacks on the emperor (see INNOCENT instituted. Otto of Brunswick, grandson of Henry the Lion, IV.). War soon became general in Germany and Italy, duke of Saxony, was made duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg; and Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, was chosen German war was declared against the Lombards.
king in opposition to Frederick in May 1246, but neither he nor Frederick was now at the height of his power. His second son, his successor, William II., count of Holland, was successful in Conrad, was invested with the duchy of Swabia, and the claim driving the Hohenstaufen from Germany. In Italy, during the of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia, to some lands which had emperor's absence, his cause had been upheld. by Enzio and belonged to the German king Philip was bought off. The attitude by the ferocious Eccelino da Romano. In 1246 å formidable of Frederick II. (the Quarrelsome), duke of Austria, had been conspiracy of the discontented Apulian barons against the considered by the emperor so suspicious that during a visit paid emperor's power and life, fomented by papal emissaries, was by Frederick to Italy' a war against him was begun. Compelled discovered and crushed with ruthless cruelty. The emperor's to return by the ill-fortune which attended this campaign, the power seemed more firmly established than ever, when suddenly emperor took command of his troops, seized Austria, Styria the news reached him that Parma, a stronghold of the imperial and Carinthia, and declared these territories to be immediately authority in the north, had been surprised, while the garrison was dependent on the Empire. In January 1237 he secured the off its guard, by the Guelphs. To recover the city was a matter election of his son Conrad as German king at Vienna; and in of prime importance, and in 1247 Frederick concentrated his September went to Italy to prosecute the war which had broken forces round it, building over against it a wooden town which, out with the Lombards in the preceding year. Pope Gregory in anticipation of the success that astrologers had predicted, attempted to mediate, but the cities refused to accept the insult- he named Vittoria. The siege, however, was protracted, and ing lerms offered by Frederick. The emperor gained a great finally, in February 1248, during the absence of the emperor on a victory over their forces at Cortenuova in November 1237; but hunting expedition, was brought to an end by a sudden sortie of though he met with some further successes, his failure to take the men of Parma, who stormed the imperial camp. The disaster Brescia in October 1238, together with the changed attitude of was complete. The emperor's forces were destroyed or scattered; Gregory, turned the fortune of war. The pope had become the treasury, with the imperial insignia, together with Frederick's alarmed when the emperor brought about a marriage between the harem and some of the most trusted of his ministers, fell into the heiress of Sardinia, Adelasia, and his natural son Enzio, who hands of the victors. Thaddeus of Suessa was hacked to pieces by afterwards assumed the title of king of Sardinia. But as his the mob; the imperial crown was placed in mockery on the head warnings had been disregarded, he issued a document after the of a hunch-backed beggar, who was carried back in triumph into emperor's retreat from Brescia, teeming with complaints against the city. Frederick, and followed it up by an open alliance with the Frederick struggled hard to retrieve his fortunes, and for a Lombards, and by the cxcommunication of the emperor on the while with success. But his old confidence had left him; he had 20th of March 1239. A violent war of words ensued. Frederick, grown moody and suspicious, and his temper gave a ready handle accused of heresy, blasphemy and other crimes, called upon all to his enemies. Pier della Vigna, accused of treasonable designs, kings and princes to unite against the pope, who on his side made was disgraced; and the once all-powerful favourite and minister, vigorous efforts to arouse opposition in Germany, where his blinded now and in rags, was dragged in the emperor's train, as a emissaries, a crowd of wandering friars, were actively preaching warning to traitors, till in despair he dashed out his brains. rebellion. It was, however, impossible to find an anti-king. Then, in May 1248, came the tidings of Enzio's capture by the In Italy, Spoleto and Ancona were declared part of the imperial Bolognese, and of his hopeless imprisonment, the captors refusing dominions, and Rome itself, faithful on this occasion to the all offers of ransom. This disaster to his favourite son broke the pope, was threatened. A number of ecclesiastics proceeding to a emperor's spirit. He retired to southern Italy, and after a short council called by Gregory were captured by Enzio at the sea- illness died at Fiorentino on the 13th of December 1250, fight of Meloria, and the emperor was about to undertake the having been loosed from the ban by the archbishop of Palermo. siege of Rome, when the pope died (August 1241). Germany was He was buried in the cathedral of that city, where his splendid at this time menaced by the Mongols; but Frederick contented tomb may still be seen. By his will he appointed his son Conrad himself with issuing directions for a campaign against them, to succeed him in Germany and Sicily, and Henry, bis son by until in 1242 he was able to pay a short visit to Germany, where Isabella of England, to be king of Jen alem or Arles, neither of he gained some support from the towns by grants of extensive which kingdoms, however, he obtained. Frederick left several privileges.
illegitimate children: Enzio has already been referred to: The
successor of Gregory was Pope Celestine IX. But this Frederick, who was made the imperial vicar in Tuscany; and pontiff died soon after his election; and after a delay of eighteen Manfred, his son by the beloved Bianca Lancia or Lanzia, who months, during which Frederick marched against Rome on two was legitimatized just before his father's death, and was appointed occasions and devastated the lands of his opponents, one of his by his will prince of Tarento and regent of Sicily.
The character of Frederick is one of extraordinary interest and I imperii selecta. Urkunden deutscher Rönige und Reiser, edited by versatility, and contemporary opinion is expressed in the words J. F. Böhmer and J. Ficker (Innsbruck, 1870); Acta imperii inedila
seculi XIII. Urkunden und Briefe sur Geschichte des Kaiserreichs stupor mundi el immulalor mirabilis
. Licentious and luxurious in und des Königreichs Sicilien, edited by E. Winkelmann (Innsbruck, bis manners, cultured and catholic in his tastes, he united in his 1880): Epistolae saeculi XIN, selecta c regestis pontificum Romano person the most diverse qualities. His Sicilian court was a centre rum, edited by C. Rodenberg, tomc i. (Berlin, 1883): P. Pressutti, of intellectual activity. Michael Scott, the translator of some Regesta Honorii papae III. (Rome, 1888); L. Auvray, Les Registres de
Grégoire IX (Paris, 1890). treatises of Aristotle and of the commentaries of Averroes, The best modern authorities are W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte Leonard of Pisa, who introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to der deutschen Kaiserzeit, Band y, (Leipzig, 1888); J. Jastrow, the West, and other scholars, Jewish and Mahommedan as well as
Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitaller der Hohenstaufen (Berlin, 1893); Christian, were welcome at his court. Frederick himself had a
F. W. Schirrmacher, Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite (Gortingen, 1859
1865); " Beiträge zur Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs II." in the Forknowledge of six languages, was acquainted with mathematics, schungen zur deutschen Geschichie, Band xi. (Göttingen, 1862-1886), philosophy and natural history, and took an interest in medicine and Die letzten Hohenstaufen (Göttingen, 1871); E. Winkelmann, and architecture. In 1224 he founded the university of Naples, Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs II und seiner Reiche (Berlin, 1865) and and he was a liberal patron of the medical school at Salerno. Kaiser Friedrich II. (Leipzig, 1889); G. Blondel, Elude sur la
politique de l'empereur Frédéric II, en Allemagne (Paris, 1892); . He formed a menagerie of strange animals, and wrote a treatise M. Halbe, Friedrich 11. und der päpstliche Stuhl (Berlin, 1888): on falconry (De arte venendi cum avibus) which is remarkable for R. Röhricht, Die Kreuzfahrt des Kaisers Friedrich II. (Berlin, 1874); its accurate observation of the habits of birds. It was at his C. Köhler, Das Verhältnis Kaiser Friedrichs II. zu den Papsten court, too, that-as Dante points out-Italian poetry
had its seiner Zeit (Breslau, 1888): J. Felten, Papst Gregor ?x. (Freiburg. birth. Pier della Vigna there wrote the first sonnet, and Italian (Halle, 1892); K. Lamprecht, Deutsche Geschichte, Band iii
. (Berlin, lyrics by Frederick himself are preserved to us. His wives were 1891); M. Huillard-Bréholles, Vie et correspondance de Pierre de la kept secluded in oricntal fashion; a harem was maintained at Vigne (Paris, 1865); A. del Vecchio, La legislazione de Federico II Lucera, and eunuchs were a prominent feature of his household. Turin, 1874); and K. Hampe, Kaiser Friedrich II. (Munich,
(A. W. H.) His religious ideas have been the subject of much controversy. The theory of M. Huillard-Bréholles that he wished to unite to the FREDERICK III. (1415-1493), Roman emperor,-as Frederick functions of emperor those of a spiritual pontiff, and aspired to be IV., German king, and as Frederick V., archduke of Austria, the founder of a new religion, is insufficiently supported by son of Ernest of Habsburg, duke of Styria and Carinthia, was born evidence to be credible. Although at times he persecuted at Innsbruck on the 21st of September 1415. After his father's heretics with great cruelty, he tolerated Mahommedans and Jews, death in 1424 he passed his time at the court of his uncle and and both acts appear rather to have been the outcome of political guardian, Frederick IV., count of Tirol. In 1435, together with considerations than of religious belief. His jests, which were used his brother, Albert the Prodigal, he undertook the government by his enemies as a charge against him, seem to have originated of Styria and Carinthia, but the peace of these lands was disturbed in religious indifference, or perhaps in a spirit of inquiry which by constant feuds between the brothers, which lasted until anticipated the ideas of a later age. Frederick's rule in Germany Albert's death in 1463. In 1439 the deaths of the German and Italy was a failure, but this fact may be accounted for by the king Albert II, and of Frederick of Tirol left Frederick the conditions of the time and the inevitable conflict with the papacy. senior member of the Habsburg family, and guardian of SigisIn Germany the enactments of 1220 and 1231 contributed to the mund, count of Tirol. In the following year he also became disintegration of the Empire and the fall of thc Hohenstaufen, guardian of Ladislaus, the posthumous son of Albert II., and heir while conflicting interests made the government of Italy a problem to Bohemia, Hungary and Austria, but these responsibilities di exceptional difficulty. In Sicily Frederick was more successful. brought only trouble and humiliation in their train. On the 2nd He quelled disorder, and under his rule the island was prosperous of February 1440 Frederick was chosen German king at Frankfort, and contented. His ideas of government were those of an but, owing to his absence from Germany, the coronation was absolute monarch, and he probably wished to surround himself delayed until the 17th of June 1442, when it took place at Aix-lawith some of the pomp which had encircled the older emperors of Chapelle. Rome. His chief claim to fame, perhaps, is as a lawgiver. The Disregarding the neutral. attitude of the German electors code of laws which he gave to Sicily in 1231 bears the impress of towards the papal schism, and acting under the influence of his personality, and has been described as "the fullest and most Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II., Frederick adequate body of legislation promulgated by any western ruler in 1445 made a secret treaty with Pope Eugenius IV. This since Charlemagne." Without being a great soldier, Frederick developed into the Concordat of Vienna, signed in 1448 with the was not unskilfut in warfare, but was better acquainted with the succeeding pope, Nicholas V., by which the king, in return for a arts of diplomacy. In person he is said to have been “ red, bald sum of money and a promise of the imperial crown, pledged the and short-sighted," but with good features and a' plcasing obedience of the German people to Rome, and so checked for a countenance. It was seriously believed in Germany for about a time the rising tide of liberty in the German church. Taking up century after his death that Frederick was still alive, and many the quarrel between the Habsburgs and the Swiss cantons, impostors attempted to personate him. A legend, afterwards. Frederick invited the Armagnacs to attack his enemies, but transferred to Frederick Barbarossa, told how he sat in a cavern after meeting with a stubborn resistance at St Jacob on the 26th in the Kyffhäusser before a stone table through which his beard of August 1444, these allies proved faithless, and the king soon had grown, waiting for the time for him to awake and restore to lost every vestige of authority in Switzerland. In 1451 Frederick, the Empire the golden age of peace.
disregarding the revolts in Austria and Hungary, travelled to The contemporary documents relating to the reign of Frederick II. Rome, where, on the 16th of March 1452, his marriage with are very numerous. Among the most important are: Richard of Leonora, daughter of Edward, king of Portugal, was celebrated, San Germano, Chronica regni Siciliae; Annales Placentini, Gibellini; and three days later he was crowned emperor by pope Nicholas. Albert of Stade, Annales; Matthew Paris, Historia major Angliae; On his return he found Germany seething with indignation. Germaniae historica. Scriptores (Hanover and Berlin, 1826–1892). His capitulation to the pope was not forgotten; his refusal to The Rerum Italicarum scriptores, cdited by L. A. Muratori (Milan, attend the diets, and his apathy in the face of Turkish aggressions, 1723-175!), contains Annales Mcdiolanenses;
Nicholas of Jamsilla, constituted a serious danger; and plans for his deposition failed There are also the Epistolarum libri of Peter della Vigna, edited only because the electors
could not unite upon a rival king. In by J. R. Iselin (Basel, 1740); and Salimbene of Parma's Chronik, 1457 Ladislaus, king of Hungary and Bohemia, and archduke of pui alished at Parma (1857). Many of the documents concerning Austria, died; Frederick failed to secure either kingdom, but the history of the time are found in the Historia diplomatica Friderici obtained lower Austria, from which, however, he was soon driven II., edited by M. Huillard-Bréholles (Paris, 1852-1861); Acta by his brother Albert, who occupied Vienna. On Albert's death
First printed at Augsburg in 1596; a German edition was pub- in 1463 the cmperor united upper and lower Austria under his Eished at Berlin in 1896.
rule, but these possessions were constantly ravaged by George