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him to perpetual imprisonment and forfeituro of his property; GARNET, a name applied to a group of closely related for the law of England took no account of religious scruples or minerals, many of which are used as gem-stones. The name professional etiquette when they permit the execution of a probably comes from the Lat. granaticus, a stone so named from preventable crime. Strangely enough, however, the government its resemblance to the pulp of the pomegranate in colour, or to its passed over the incriminating conversation with Greenway, and seeds in shape; or possibly from granum, " cochineal," in allusion relied entirely on the strong circumstantial evidence to support to the colour of the stone. The garnet was included, with other the charge of high treason against the prisoner. The trial was red stones, by Theophrastus, under the name of avo pag, while not conducted in a manner which would be permitted in more the common garnet seems to have been his åvē klov. Pliny modern days. The rules of evidence which now govern thc pro- groups several stones, including garnet, under the term carbun. cedure in criminal cases did not then exist, and Garnet's trial, culus. The modern carbuncle is a deep red garnet (almandine) like many others, was influenced by the political situation, the cut en cabochon, or with a smooth convex surface, frequently case against him being supported by general political accusations hollowed out at the back, in consequence of the depth of colour, against the Jesuits as a body, and with evidence of their com- and sometimes enlivened with a foil (see ALMANDINE). The plicity in former plots against the government. The prisoner Hebrew word nophek, translated åvo pag in the Septuagint, seems himself deeply prejudiced his cause by his numerous false state to have been the garnet or carbuncle, whilst bareketh (opápardos ments, and still more by his adherence to the doctrine of equivoca- of the Septuagint), though also rendered "carbuncle," was probtion. Garnet, it is true, claimed to limit the justification of ably either beryl or, in the opinion of Professor Flinders Petrie, equivocation to cases“ of necessary defence from injustice and rock-crystal. Garnets were used as beads in ancient Egypt. wrong or of the obtaining some good of great importance when Though not extensively employed by the Greeks as a material for there is no danger of harm to others," and he could justify his engraved gems, it was much used for this purpose by the Romans conduci in lying to the council by their own conduct towards him, of the Empire. Flat polished slabs of garnet are found inlaid which included treacherous eavesdropping and fraud, and also in mosaic work in Anglo-Saxon and Merovingian jewelry, the threats of torture. Moreover, the attempt of the counsel for the material used being almandine, or “precious garnet.” crown to force the prisoner to incriminate himself was opposed to Garnets vary considerably in chemical composition, but the the whole spirit and tradition of the law of England. He was variation is limited within a certain range. All are orthosilicates, declared guilty, and it is probable, in spite of the irregularity and conformable to the general formula R":R":(SiOs)s, where R'= unjudicial character of his trial, that substantial justice was Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and R'' = Al, Fe, Cr. Although there are many done by his conviction. His execution took place on the 3rd of kinds of garnet they may be reduced to the following six types, May 1606, Garnet acknowledging himself justly condemned for which may occur intermixed isomorphously:his concealment of the plot, but maintaining to the last that he 1. Calcium-aluminium garnet (Grossularite). Ca.AlzSi.Oz. had never approved it. The king, who had shown him favour 2. Calcium-ferric garnet (Andradile), Ca.Fe.Si,Ola. throughout and who had forbidden his being tortured, directed

3. Calcium-chromium garnet (Uvarovite), Ca CrySi,012. that he should be hanged till he was quite dead and that the

4. Magnesium-aluminium garnet (Pyrope). MgAl,Si, 013.

5. Ferrous-aluminium garnet (Almandine), Fe,AT,Si,012. usual frightful cruelties should be omitted.

6. Manganous-aluminium garnet (Spessarline). MnAlSi,Ois. Soon after his death the story of the miracle of “Garnet's Straw" These are frequently called respectively:-(1) Lime-alumina garnet: wascirculated all over Europe, according to which a blood-stained (2) lime-iron garnet; (3) lime-chrome garnet; (4) magnesia-alumina straw from the scene of execution which came into the hands of garnet : (5) iron-alumina garnet ; (6) manganese-alumina garnet. one John Wilkinson, a young and fervent Roman Catholic, who The types are usually modified by isomorphous replacement of was present, developed Garnet's likeness. In consequence of the some of their elements. credence which the story obtained, Archbishop Bancroft was

All garnets crystallize in the cubic system, usually in rhombic commissioned by the privy council to discover and punish the dodecahedra or in icositetrahedra, or in a combination of the two impostors. Garnet's name was included in the list of the 353

forms (see fig.). Octahedra and cubes are rare, but the six-faced Roman Catholic martyrs sent to Rome from England in 1880, and octahedron occurs in some of the comin the 2nd appendix of the Menology of England and Wales binations. Cleavage obtains parallel compiled by order of the cardinal archbishop and the bishops of

to the dodecahedron, but is imperfect. the province of Westminster by R. Stanton in 1887, where he is

The hardness varies according to comstyled" a martyr whose cause is deferred for future investigation." position from 6-5 to 7.5, and the specific The passage in Macbeth (Act 11. Scene iii.) on equivocators no gravity in like manner has a wide doubt refers especially to Garnet. His aliases were Farmer, range, varying from 3:4 in the calciumMarchant, Whalley,Darcey Meaze, Phillips, Humphreys, Roberts, aluminium garnets to 4:3 in the ferrousFulgeham, Allen. Garnet was the author of a letter on the aluminium species. Sir Arthur H. Martyrdom of Godfrey Maurice, alias John Jones, in Diego Church found that many garnets when Yepres's Historia particular de la persecucion de Inglaterra(1599); fuscd yielded product of lower a Trealise of Schism, a MS. treatise ia reply to A Protestant density than the original mineral. The Dialogue between a Gentleman and a Physician; a translation of colour is typically red, but may be brown, yellow, green or even the Siemma Christi with supplements (1622); a treatise on the black, while some garnets are colourless. Being cubic the garnets Rosary; a Treatise of Christian Renovation or Birth (1616).

are normally singly refracting, but anomalies frequently occur, AUTHORITIES. Of the great

number of works embodying the leading some authorities to doubt whether the mineral is really mentioned in order of date: A True and Perfect Relation of the scopic sections, viewed by transmitted light, the mineral stands controversy on the question of Garnet's guilt the following may be cubic. The refractive power of garnet is high, so that in microwhole Proceedings against . . . Garnel a Jesuit and his Confederates out in relief. (1606, repr. 1679), the official account, but incomplete and inaccurate; Garnets are very widely distributed, occurring in crystalline A pologia pro Henrico Garnelo (1610), by the Jesuit L'Heureux, schists, gneiss, granite, metamorphic limestone, serpentine, and under the pseudonym Endaemon-Joannes, and Dr Robert Abbot's occasionally in volcanic rocks. With omphacite and smaragdite, reply. Antilogia versus Apologiam Eudacmon-Joannes, in which the garnet forms the peculiar rock called eclogite. The garnets used for whole subject is well treated; Henry More, Hist

. Provinciae Angli. Industrial purposes are usually found loose in detrital deposits, canae Societatis (1660); D. Jardine, Gunpowder Plou (1857): 1. weathered from the parent rock, though in some important workings Morris, S. J., Condilion of the Catholics under James I. (1872), con the rock is quarried. The garnets employed as gem-stones are taining Father Gerard's narrative; J. H. Pollen, Father Henry described under their respective headings (see ALMANDINE, CINNA: Garnei and the Gunpowder Plo! (1888); S. R. Gardiner, What Gun MON STONE, DEMANTOID and Pyrope). Most of the minerals noticed powder Plot was (1897), in reply to John Gerard. S.J., What was the in this article are of scientific rather than commercial interest. Gunpowder Plot? (1897): 1. Gerard. Contributions towards a Life of Grossularite or gooseberry-stone." is typically a brownish-green Father Henry Garnel (1898). Soe also Slale. Trials II., and Cal. of garnet from Siberia, known also as wiluite (a name applicd also to State Papers Dom., (1603-1610). The original documents are pre vesuvianite. q.v.), from the river Wilui where it occurs. It is related served in the Gunpowder Plot Book at the Record Office.

to hessonite, or cinnamon-stone. A Mexican variety occurs in rose

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pink dodecahedra. Romanzovite is a brown garnet, of grossularia-, and as translator or editor, that this list represents only a small dite was named by J. D. Dana alter

B. J. d'Andrada e Silva, who part of his published work. He was a member of numerous described, in 1800, one of its varieties allochroite, a Norwegian learned literary societies, British and foreign. His facility as an garnet, 80 named from its variable colour. This species includes expositor, and his gift for lucid and acute generalization, together most of the common garnet occurring in granular and compact with his eminence as a bibliophile, gave his work an authority masses, sometimes forming garnet rock. To andradite may be which was universally recognized, though it sometimes suffered tuffs near Rome, used occasionally in the 18th century for mourning from his relying too much on his memory and his power of jewelry: Another black garnet, in small crystals from the Pyrenees, generalizing-remarkable as both usually were-in cases is called pyreneite. Under andradite may also be placed topazolite, requiring greater precision of statement in matters of detail. But a honcy-yellow garnet, rather like topaz, from Piedmont; colophonite, a brown resin-like garnet, with which certain kinds of

as an interpreter, whether of biography or belles lettres, who idocrase have been confused ; aplome, a green garnet from Saxony brought an unusually wide range of book-learning, in its best and Siberia; and jelletite, a green Swiss garnet named after the sense, interestingly and comprehensibly before a large public, and Rev. J: H. Jellet. Here also may be placed the green Siberian at the same time acceptably to the canons of careful scholarship, mineral termed demantoid (9.v.), sometimes improperly. called Dr Garnett's writing was always characterized by clearness, olivine by jewellers. Uvarovite, named after a Russian minister, Count S.S. Uvarov, is a rare green garnet from Siberia and Canada, common sense and sympathetic appreciation. His official but though of fine colour is never found in crystals large enough for career at the British Museum marked an epoch in the managegem-stones. Spessartite, or spessartine, named after Spessart, a ment of the library, in the history of which his place is second German locality, is a fine aurora-red garnet, cut for jewelry when only to that of Panizzi. Besides introducing the sliding press found in Ceylon, and notably in the mica-mines in Amelia county, in 1887 he was responsible for reviving the publication of the Virginia, United States. A beautiful rose-red garnet, forming a general catalogue, the printing of which, interrupted in 1841, was fine gem-stone, occurs in gravels in Macon county, N.C., and has resumed under him in 1880, and gradually completed. The antibeen described by W. E. Hidden and Dr J. H. Pratt under the name podes of a Dryasdust, his human interest in books made him an shows the absorption-spectrum of almandine. The Bohemian garnets ideal librarian, and his courtesy and helpfulness were outstanding largely used in jewelry belong to the species pyrope (9.v.).

features in a personality of singular charm. The whole bookish Garnets are not only cut as gems, but are used for the bearings of world looked on him as a friend. Among his “hobbies” was a Garnet paper is largely used, especially in America, in place of sand: study of astrology, to which, without associating his name with paper for smoothing woodwork and for scouring leather in the boot - it in public, he devoted prolonged inquiry. Under the pseudonym

As an abrasive agent it is worked at several localities in the of " A. G. Trent " he published in 1880 an article (in the Unithe Adirondacks, where it occurs in limestone and in gneiss. Much Wilde and Dodson's Natal Astrology. He satisfied himself that United States, especially in New York State, along the borders of versily Magazine) on “ The Soul and the Stars ”-quoted in of the garnet used as an abrasive is coarse almandine. Common garnet, where abundant, has sometimes been used as a fluxing agent there was more truth in the old astrology than modern criticism in metallurgical operations. Garnet has been formed artihcially, supposed, and he had intended to publish a further monograph and is known as a furnace-product.

on the subject, but the intention was frustrated by the ill-health It may be noted that the name of white garnet has been given to which led up to his death on the 13th of April 1906. He married the mineral leucite, which occurs, like garnet, crystallized in icosi (1863) an Irish wife,

Olivia Narney Singleton (d. 1903), and had a tetrahedra.


family of six children; his son Edward (b. 1868) being a wellGARNETT, RICHARD (1835-1906), English librarian and known literary man, whose wife translated Turgeneff's works author, son of the learned philologist Rev. Richard Garnett into English.

(H. CH.) (1789-1850), priest-vicar of Lichfield cathedral and afterwards GARNIER, CLÉMENT JOSEPH (1813–1881), French econokeeper of printed books at the British Museum, who came of a mist, was born at Beuil (Alpes maritimes) on the 3rd of October Yorkshire family, was born at Lichfield on the 27th of February 1813. Coming to Paris he studied at the Ecole de Commerce, of 1835. His father was really the pioneer of modern philological which he eventually became secretary and finally a professor. research in England; his articles in the Quarterly Review (1835, In 1842 he founded with Gilbert-Urbain Guillaumin (1801-1864) 1836) on English lexicography and dialects, and on the Celtic the Société d'Economie politique, becoming its secretary, a post question, and his essays in the Transactions of the Philological which he held till his death; and in 1846 he organized the Society (reprinted 1859), were invaluable to the later study of Association pour la Liberté des échanges. He also helped to the English language. The son, who thus 'owed much to his establish and edited for many years the Journal des économistes parentage, was educated at home and at a private school, and in and the Annuaire de l'économie politique. Of the school of 1851, just after his father's death, entered the British Museum as laissez faire, he was engaged during his whole life in the advancean assistant in the library. In 1875 he rose to be superintendent ment of the science of political economy, and in the improveof the reading-room, and from 1890 to 1899, when he retired, he ment of French commercial education. In 1843 he became a was keeper of the printed books. In 1883 he was given the member of the Institute, and in 1876 a senator for the departdegree of LL.D. at Edinburgh, an honour repeated by other ment in which he was born. He died at Paris on the 25th of universities, and in 1895 he was made a C.B.

September 1881. Of his writings, the following are the more His long connexion with the British Museum library, and the important: Traité d'économie politique (1845), Richard Cobden value of his services there, made him a well-known figure in the el la Ligue (1846), Traile des finances (1862), and Principes du literary world, and he published much original work in both population (1857). prose and verse. His chief publications in book-form were: GARNIER, GERMAIN, MARQUIS (1754-1821), French poliin verse, Primula (1858), lo in Egypt (1859), Idylls and Epigrams tician and economist, was born at Auxerre on the 8th of November (1869, republished in 1892 as A Chaplet from the Greek Anthology), 1754. He was educated for the law, and obtained when young The Qucen and other Poems (1902), Collected Poems (1893); in the office of procureur to the Châtelet in Paris. On the calling of prose, biographies of Carlyle (1887), Emerson (1887), Milton the states-general he was elected as one of the depulés suppléants (1890), Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1898); a volume of re of the city of Paris, and in 1791 administrator of the department markably original and fanciful tales, The Twilight of the Gods of Paris. After the roth of August 1792 he withdrew to the (1888); a tragedy, Iphigenia in Delphi (1890); A Short History Pays de Vaud, and did not return to France till 1795. In public of Italian Literature (1898); Essays in Librarianship and Biblio- life, however, he seems to have been singularly fortunate. In phily (1899); Essays of an Ex-librarian (1901). He was an 1797 he was on the list of candidates for the Directory; in 1800 extensive contributor to the Encyclopacdia Britannica and the he was prefect of Seine-et-Oise; and in 1804 he was made senator Dictionary of National Biography, editor of the International and in 1808 a count. After the Restoration he obtained a peerage, Library of Pamous Literature, and co-editor, with E. Gosse, of the and on the return of Louis XVIII., after the Hundred Days, he elaborate English Literature: an illustrated Record. So multi- became minister of state and member of privy council, and in iarious was his output, however, in contributions to reviews, &c., '1817 was created a marquis. He died at Paris on the 4th of

October 1821. At court he was, when young, noted for his facile confined to France; it was recognized by all the countries of power of writing society verse, but his literary reputation depends Europe, and in England he received, in 1886, the royal gold medal rather on his later works on political economy, especially his of the Royal Institute of Architects, given by Queen Victoria. admirable translation, with notes and introduction, of Smith's Besides his monograph' on the temple of Aegina, he wrote Wealth of Nations (1805) and his Histoire de la monnaie (2 vols., several works, of which Le Nouvel Opéra de Paris is the most 1819), which contains much sound and well-arranged material. valuable. For the International Exhibition of 1889 he designed His Abrégé des principes de l'écon. polit. (1796) is a very clear and the buildings illustrating the “History of the House" in all instructive manual. The valuable Description géographique, periods, and a work on this subject was afterwards published by physique, el politique du déparlement de Seine-el-Oise (1802) was him in conjunction with M. Ammann. Not the least of his drawn up from his instructions. Other works are De la propriété claims to the gratitude of his country were the services which he (1792) and Histoire des banques d'escomple (1806).

rendered on the various art juries appointed by the state, the GARNIER, JEAN LOUIS CHARLES (1825-1898), French Institute of France, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, services which architect, was born in Paris on the 6th of November 1825. He in France are rendered in an honorary capacity. Garnier died was educated in a primary school, and it was intended that he on the 3rd of August 1898.

(R. P. S.) should pursue his father's craft, that of a wheelwright. His GARNIER, MARIE JOSEPH FRANÇOIS (Francis) (1839– mother, however, having heard that with a little previous study 1873), French officer and explorer, was born at St Étienne on the he might enter an architect's office and eventually become a 25th of July 1839. He entered the navy, and after voyaging measuring surveyor (vérificateur), and earn as much as six francs in Brazilian waters and the Pacific he obtained a post on the a day, and foreseeing that in consequence of his delicate health staff of Admiral Charner, who from 1860 to 1862 was campaignhe would be unfit to work at the forge, sent him to learn drawing ing in Cochin-China. After some time spent in France he and mathematics at the Petite École de Dessin, in the rue de returned to the East, and in 1862 he was appointed inspector of Médecine, the cradle of so many of the great artists of France. the natives in Cochin-China, and entrusted with the administraHis progress was such as to justify his being sent first into an tion of Cho-lon, a suburb of Saigon. It was at his suggestion architect's office and then to the well-known atelier of Lebas, that the marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat determined to send a where he began his studies in preparation for the examination of mission to explore the valley of the Mekong, but as Garnier was the Ecole des Beaux Arts, which he passed in 1842, at the age of not considered old enough to be put in command, the chief seventeen. Shortly after his admission it became necessary that authority was entrusted to Captain Doudart de Lagrée. In the he should support himself, and accordingly he worked during the course of the expedition--to quote the words of Sir Roderick day in various architects' offices, among them in that of M. Murchison addressed to the youthful traveller when, in 1870, he Viollet-le-Duc, and confined his studies for the Ecole to the was presented with the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical evening. In 1848 he carried off, at the early age of twenty-three, Society of London--from Kratie in Cambodia to Shanghai the Grand Prix de Rome, and with his comrades in sculpture, 5392 m. were traversed, and of these 3625 m., chiefly of country engraving and music, set off for the Villa de Medicis. His unknown to European geography, were surveyed with care, and principal works were the measured drawings of the Forum of the positions fixed by astronomical observations, nearly the whole Trajan and the temple of Vesta in Rome, and the temple of of the observations being taken by Garnier himself. Volunteering Serapis at Pozzuoli. In the fifth year of his travelling student to lead a detachment to Talisu, the capital of Sultan Suleiman, ship he went to Athens and measured the temple at Aegina, the sovereign of the Mahommedan rebels in Yunnan, he success. subsequently working out a complete restoration of it, with its fully carried out the more than adventurous enterprise. When polychromatic decoration, which was published as a monograph shortly afterwards Lagrée died, Garnier naturally assumed the in 1877. The elaborate set of drawings which he was com-command of the expedition, and he conducted it in safety to the missioned by the duc de Luynes to make of the tombs of the Yang-tsze-Kiang, and thus to the Chinese coast. On his return house of Anjou were not published, owing to the death of his to France he was received with enthusiasm. The preparation of patron; and since Garnier's death they have been given to the his narrative was interrupted by the Franco-German War, and library of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, along with other drawings he during the siege of Paris he served as principal staff officer to the made in Italy. On his return to Paris in 1853 he was appointed admiral in command of the cighth " sector.” His experiences surveyor to one or two government buildings, with a very during the siege were published anonymously in the feuilleton of moderate salary, so that the commission given him by M. Victor Le Temps, and appeared separately as Le Siège de Paris, journal Baltard to make two water-colour drawings of the Hotel de d'un officier de marine (1871). Returning to Cochin-China he Ville, to be placed in the album presented to Queen Victoria in found the political circumstances of the country unfavourable 1855, on the occasion of her visit to Paris, proved very acceptable. to further exploration, and accordingly he went to China, and in These two drawings are now in the library at Windsor.

1873 followed the upper course of the Yang-tsze-Kiang to the In 1860 came, at last, Garnier's chance: a competition was waterfalls. He was next commissioned by Admiral Dupré, announced for a design for a new imperial academy of music, and governor of Cochin-China, to found a French protectorate or a out of 163 competitors Garnier was one of five selected for a new colony in Tongking. On the 20th of November 1873 he took second competition, in which, by unanimous vote, he carried off | Hanoi, the capital of Tongking, and on the 21st of December he the first prize, and the execution of the design was placed in his was slain in fight with the Black Flags. His chief fame rests on hands. Begun in 1861, but delayed in its completion by the the fact that he originated the idea of exploring the Mekong, and Franco-German War, it was not till 1875 that the structure of the carried out the larger portion of the work. present Grand Opera House of Paris was finished, at a cost of The narrative of the principal expedition appeared in 1873, as about 35,000,000 francs (£1,420,000). During the war the build-Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine ejectué pendant les années 1866, ing was utilized as the municipal storehouse of provisions. The 1867 ct 1869, publié sous la direction de M. Francis Garnier, avec staircase and the magnificent hall are the finest portion of the le concours de 11. Delaporte et de MM. Joubert et Thorel (2 vols.). interior, and alike in conception and realization have never been the Bulletin de la Soc. de Géog: (1874). His Chronique royale du

An account of the Yang-tsze-Kiang from Garnier's pen is given in approached. Of Garnier's other works, the most remarkable are Cambodje, was reprinted from the Journal Asiatique in 1872. See the Casino at Monte Carlo, the Bischoffsheim villa at Bordighera, Ocean flighways (1874) for a memoir by Colonel Yule: and Hugh the Hôtel du Cercle de la Librairie in Paris; and, among tombs, Clifford, Further India, in the Story of Exploration series (1904). those of the musicians Bizet, Offenbach, Massé and Duprato. In GARNIER, ROBERT (c. 1545-6.1600), French tragic poet, was 1874 he was elected a member of the Institute of France, and born at Ferté Bernard (Le Maine) in 1545. He published his after passing through the grades of chevalier, officer and com- first work while still a law-student at Toulouse, where he won a mander of the Legion of Honour, received in 1895 the rank of prize (1565) in the jeux floraux. It was a collection of lyrical grand officer, a high distinction that had never before been pieces, now lost, entitled Plaintes amoureuses de Robert Garnier granted to an architect. Charles Garnier's reputation was not 1(1505). After some practice at the Parisian bar, he became

conseiller du roi au siège présidial et sénéchaussée of Le Maine, deputies (1842). He was a keen promoter of reform, and was a his native district, and later lieutenant-général criminel. His leading spirit in the affair of the reform banquet fixed for the friend Lacroix du Maine says that he enjoyed a great reputation 22nd of February 1848. He was a member of the provisional as an orator. He was a distinguished magistrate, of considerable government of 1848, and was named mayor of Paris. On the weight in his native province, who gave his leisure to literature, 5th of March 1848 he was made minister of finance, and incurred and whose merits as a poet were fully recognized by his own great unpopularity by the imposition of additional taxes. He generation. He died at Le Mans probably in 1599 or 1600. was a member of the Constituent Assembly and of the Executive

In his early plays he was a close follower of the school of Commission. Under the Empire he was conspicuous in the dramatists who were inspired by the study of Seneca. In these republican opposition and opposed the war with Prussia, and productions there is little that is strictly dramatic except the after the fall of Napoleon III. became a member of the Governform. A tragedy was a series of rhetorical speeches relieved by a ment of National Defence. Unsuccessful at the elections for the lyric chorus. His pieces in this manner are Porcie (published National Assembly (the 8th of February 1871), he retired into 1568, acted at the hotel de Bourgogne in 1573), Cornélie and private life, and died in Paris on the 31st of October 1878. He Hippolyte (both acted in 1573 and printed in 1574). In Porcie wrote Histoire de la révolution de 1848 (1860-1862); Histoire de the deaths of Cassius, Brutus and Portia are each the subject of | la commission exéculive (1869–1872); and L'opposition et l'empire an eloquent recital, but the action is confined to the death of the (1872). nurse, who alone is allowed to die on the stage. His next group GARNISH, a word meaning to fit out, equip, furnish, now of tragedies---Marc-Antoine (1578), La Troade (1579), Antigone particularly used of decoration or ornament. It is formed from (acted and printed 1580)-shows an advance on the theatre of the 0. Fr. garnisani or guarnissant, participle of garnir, guarnir, Étienne Jodelle and Jacques Grévin, and on his own early plays, to furnish, equip. This is of Teutonic origin, the base being in so much that the rhetorical element is accompanied by abund- represented in 0. Eng. warnian, to take warning, beware, and ance of action, though this is accomplished by the plan of joining Ger. warnen, to warn, Eng. warn; the original sense would be to together two virtually independent pieces in the same way. guard against, fortify, hence equip or fit out. The meaning of

In 1582 and 1583 he produced his two masterpieces Brada- “ warn” is seen in the law term "garnishee," a person who owes mante and Les Juives. In Bradamante, which alone of his plays money to or holds money belonging to another and is “ warned" has no chorus, he cut himself adrift from Senecan models, and by order of the court not to pay it to his immediate creditor but sought his subject in Ariosto, the result being what came to be to a third person who has obtained final judgment against that known later as a tragi-comedy. The dramatic and romantic creditor. (See ATTACHMENT; EXECUTION; BANKRUPTCY.) story becomes a real drama in Garnier's hands, though even GARO HILLS, a district of British India, in the hills division of there the lovers, Bradamante and Roger, never meet on the stage. Eastern Bengal and Assam. It takes its name from the Garos, a The contest in the mind of Roger supplies a genuine dramatic tribe of doubtful ethnical affinities and peculiar customs, by whom interest in the manner of Corneille. Les Juives is the pathetic it is almost entirely inhabited. The Garos are probably a section story of the barbarous vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar on the of the great Bodo tribe, which at one time occupied a large part of Jewish king Zedekiah and his children. The Jewish women Assam. According to the census of 1901 they numbered 128,17. lamenting the fate of their children take a principal part in this In the 18th century they are mentioned as being frequently in tragedy, which, although almost entirely elegiac in conception, conflict with the inhabitants of the plains below their hills, and in is singularly well designed, and gains unity by the personality of 1790 the British government first tried to reduce them. No the prophet. M. Faguet says that of all French tragedies of the permanent success was achieved. In 1852 raids by the Garos 16th and 17th centuries it is, with Athalie, the best constructed were followed by a blockade of the hills, but in 1856 they were with regard to the requirements of the stage. Actual representa- again in revolt. Again a repressive expedition was despatched in tion is continually in the mind of the author; his drama is, in 1861, but in 1866 there was a further raid. A British officer was fact, visually conceived.

now posted among the hills; this step was effective; in 1869 the Garnier must be regarded as the greatest French tragic poet of district was constituted, and though in 1871 an outrage was his century and the precursor of the great achievements of the committed against a native on the survey staff, there was little

opposition when an expedition was sent in 1872-1873 to bring the The best edition of his works is by Wendelin Foerster (Heilbronn, whole district into submission, and there were thereafter no 4 vols., 1882–1883), A detailed criticism of his works is to be found further disturbances. in Emile Faguet, La Tragédie française au XVI° siècle (1883, pp. The district consists of the last spurs of the Assam hills, which 183-307).

here run down almost to the bank of the Brahmaputra, where that GARNIER-PAGÈS, ÉTIENNE JOSEPH LOUIS (1801-1841), river debouches upon the plain of Bengal and takes its great French politician, was born at Marseilles on the 27th of December sweep to the south. The administrative headquarters are at 1801. Soon after his birth his father Jean François Garnier, a Tura. The area of the district is 3140 sq. m. In 1901 the naval surgeon, died, and his mother married Simon Pagès, a population was 138,274, showing an increase of 14% in the college professor, by whom she had a son. The boys were brought decade. The American missionaries maintain a small training up together, and took the double name Garnier-Pagès. Etienne school for teachers. The public buildings at Tura were entirely found employment first in a commercial house in Marseilles, and destroyed by the earthquake of June 12, 1897, and the roads in then in an insurance office in Paris. In 1825 he began to study the district were greatly damaged by subsidence and fissures. law, and made some mark as an advocate. A keen opponent of Coal in large quantities and petroleum are known to exist. the Restoration, he joined various democratic societies, notably The chief exports are cotton, timber and forest products. Trade the Aide-loi, le ciel l'aidera, an organization for purifying the is small, though the natives, according to their own standard, elections. He took part in the revolution of July 1830; became are prosperous. They are fair agriculturists. Communications secretary of the Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera, whose propaganda he within the district are by cart-roads, bridle-paths and native brought into line with his anti-monarchical ideas; and in 1831 tracks. was sent from Isère to the chamber of deputies. He was con GARONNE (Lat. Garumna), a river of south-western France, cerned in the preparation of the Compte rendu of 1832, and rising in the Maladetta group of the Pyrenees, and flowing in a advocated universal suffrage. He was an eloquent speaker, and wide curve to the Atlantic Ocean. It is formed by two torrents, his sound knowledge of business and finance gave him a marked one of which has a subterranean course of 2} m., disappearing in influence among all parties in the chamber. He died in Paris on the sink known as the Trou du Taureau (“bull's hole") and the 23rd of June 1841.

reappearing at the Goueil de Jouéou. After a course of 30 m. in His half-brother, Louis ANTOINE GARNIER-PAGÈS (1803- Spanish territory, during which it flows through the fine gorge 1878), fought on the barricades during the revolution of July called the Vallée d'Aran, the Garonne enters France in the 1830, and after Étienne's death was elected to the chamber of department of Haute Garonne through the narrow defile of the


Pont du Roi, and at once becomes navigable for rafts. At the English and German romantic movements during his stay Montréjeau it receives on the left the Neste, and encountering at abroad. this point the vast plateau of Lannemezan is forced to turn Imbued with the spirit of nationauty, he wrote in 1824 at abruptly east, flowing in a wide curve to Toulouse. At Saint Havre the poem “ Camões,” which destroyed the influence of the Martory it gives off the irrigation canal of that name. At this worn-out classical and Arcadian rhymers, and in the following point the Garonne enters a fertile plain, and supplies the motive year composed the patriotic poem “D. Branca," or "The power to several mills. It is joined on the right by various Conquest of the Algarve.” He was permitted to return to streams fed by the snows of the Pyrenees. Such are the Salat, at Portugal in 1826, and thereupon devoted himself to journalism. whose confluence river navigation proper begins, and the Arize With the publication of O Porluguez, he raised the tone of the and the Ariège (both names signifying "river"). From Toulouse press, exhibiting an elevation of ideas and moderation of language the Garonne flows to the north-west, now skirting the northern then unknown in political controversy, and he introduced the border of the plateau of Lannemezan which here drains into it, the “ feuilleton.” But his defence of Liberal principles brought him principal streams being the Save, the Gers and the Baise. On its three months'imprisonment, and when D. Miguel was proclaimed right hand the Garonne is swelled by its two chief tributaries, the absolute king on the 3rd of May 1828, Garrett had again to leave Tarn, near Moissac, and the Lot, below Agen; farther down it is the country. In London, where he sought refuge, he continued joined by the Drot (or Dropt), and on the left by the Ciron. his adhesion to romanticism by publishing Adozinda and Bernal. Between Toulouse and Castets, 331 m. above Bordeaux, and the Francez, expansions of old folk-poems, which met with the highest point to which ordinary spring-tides ascend, the river is warmest praise from Southey and were translated by Adamson. accompanied at a distance of from a 1 to 3 m. by the so-called He spent the next three years in and about Birmingham, "lateral canal ” of the Garonne, constructed in 1838-1856. Warwick and London, engaged in writing poetry and political This canal is about 120 m. long, or 133 m. including its branches, pamphlets, and by these and by his periodicals he did much to one of which runs off at right angles to Montauban on the Tarn. unite the Portuguese émigrés and to keep up their spirit amid From Toulouse to Agen the main canal follows the right bank of their sufferings in a foreign land. Learning that an expedition the Garonne, crossing the Tarn on an aqueduct at Moissac, while was being organized in France for the liberation of Portugal, another magnificent aqueduct of twenty-three arches carries it at Garrett raised funds and joined the forces under D. Pedro as a Agen from the right to the left bank of the river. It has a fall of volunteer. Sailing in February 1832, he disembarked at Terceira, 420 ft. and over fifty locks, and is navigable for vessels having the whence he passed to S. Miguel, then the seat of the Liberal maximum dimensions of 981 ft. length, 19 ft. breadth and 6) ft. government. Here he became a co-operator with the statesman draught. The carrying trade upon it is chiefly in agricultural Mousinho da Silveira, and assisted him in drasting those laws produce and provisions, building materials, wood and industrial which were to revolutionize the whole framework of Portuguese products. Ai Toulouse the canal connects with the Canal du society, this important work being donc far from books and Midi, which runs to the Mediterranean. After passing Castets the without pecuniary reward. In his spare time he wrote some of Garonne begins to widen out considerably, and from being 160 the beautiful lyrics afterwards collected into Flores sem Fruclo. yds. broad at Agen increases to about 650 yds. at Bordeaux, its He took part in the expedition that landed at the Mindello on the great commercial port. From here it flows with ever increasing Sth of July 1832, and in the occupation of Oporto. Early in the width between two flat shores to the Bec d'Ambès (151 m.), siege he sketched out, under the influence of Walter Scott, the where, after a course of 357 m., it unites with the Dordogne to historical romance Arco de Sant Anna, descriptive of the city in form the vast estuary known as the Girond . The triangular the reign of D. Pedro I.; and, in addition, he organized the peninsula lying between these two great tidal rivers is called Home and Foreign offices under the marquis of Palmella, drafted Entre-deux-mers (“ between two seas ") and is famous for its many important royal decrees, and prepared the criminal and wines. The drainage area of the Garonne is nearly 33,000 sq. m. commercial codes. In the following November he was deFloods are of common occurrence, and descend very suddenly. spatched as secretary to the marquis on a diplomatic mission to The most disastrous occurred in 1875, 1856 and in 1770, when the foreign courts, which involved him in much personal hardship. flood level at Castets attained the record height of 424 ft. above In the next year the capture of Lisbon enabled him to return low-water mark.

home, and he was charged to prepare a scheme for the reform of GARRET (from the O, Fr. garite, modern guérite, a watch public instruction. tower, connected ultimately with "guard " and " ward "), In 1834-1835 he served as consul-general and chargé d'affaires properly a small look-out tower built on a wall, and hence the at Brussels, representing Portugal with distinction under most name given to a room on the top storey of a building, the sloping difficult circumstances, for which he received no thanks and ceiling of which is formed by the roof.

little pay. When he got back, the government employed him to GARRETT, JOÃO BAPTISTA DA SILVA LEITÃO DE draw up a proposal for the construction of a national theatre and ALMEIDA, VISCONDE ALMEIDA-GARRETT (1799–1854), for a conservatoire of dramatic art, of which he became the perhaps the greatest Portuguese poet since Camoens, was of head. He instituted prizes for the best plays, himself revising Irish descent. Born in Oporto, his parents moved to the Quinta nearly all that were produced, and a school of dramatists and do Castello at Gaya when he was five years old. The French actors arose under his influence. To give them models, he invasion of Portugal drove the family to the Azores, and Garrett proceeded to write a series of prose dramas, choosing his subjects made his first studies at Angra, beginning to versify at an early from Portuguese history. He began in 1838 with the Aulo de age under the influence of his uncle, a poet of the school of Gil Vicente, considering that the first step towards the reBocage. Going to the university of Coimbra in 1816, he soon creation of the Portuguese drama was to revive the memory of its earned notoriety by the precocity of his talents and his fervent founder, and he followed this up in 1842 by the Alfageme de Liberalism, and there he gained his first oratorical and literary Santarem, dealing with the Holy Constable, and in 1843 by

His tragedy Lucrecia was played there in February Frei Luiz de Sousa, one of the few great tragedies of the 19th 1819, and during this period he also wrote Merope as well as a century, a work as intensely national as The Lusiads. The story, great part of Cato, all these plays belonging to the so-called which in part is historically true, and has the merit of being classical school. Leaving Coimbra with a law degree, he pro- simple, like the action, is briefly as follows. D. João de Portugal, ceeded to Lisbon, and on the 11th of November 1822 married who was supposed to have died at the battle of Alcacer, returns, D. Luiza Midosi; but the alliance proved unhappy and a formal years afterwards, to find his wife married to Manoel de Sousa and separation took place in 1839.

the mother of a daughter by him, named Maria. Thereupon the The reactionary movement against the Radical revolution of pair separate and enter religion, and Manoel becomes the famous 1820 reached its height in 1823, and Garrett had to leave Portugal chronicler, Frei Luiz de Sousa (9.8.). The characters live and by order of the Absolutist ministry then in power, and went move, especially Telmo, the old servant, who would never believe to England. He became acquainted with the masterpieces of I in the death of his former master D. João, and the consumptive



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