« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
the retorts in the desired proportion, and the mixture of water gas gas out of the producer, but it has various drawbacks and vapour, a process which at the present price of oil and benzol is has been abandoned in all modern
constructions. Where the distinctly more economical than the use of carburetted water gas natural draught " is not sufficient, it is aided either by blowing In 1896 Karl Dellwik introduced a modification in the process of air under the grate or else by suction at the other end. making water gas which entirely altered the whole aspect of the Wo shall now describe a few of the very large number of gasindustry. In all the attempts to make water gas, up to that date, the incandescence of the fuel had been obtained by "blowing" so deep a bed of fuel that carbon monoxide and out ab. vd bratado the residual nitrogen of the air formed the chief products, this mixture being, known as producer
In the Dellwik process, however, the main point is the adjustment of the air supplied to the fuel in the generator in such a way that carbon dioxide is formed instead of carbon monoxide. Under these conditions producer gas ceases to exist as a by-product, and the gases of the blow consist merely of the incombustible products of complete combustion, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the result being that more than three times
leu the heat is developed for the combustion of the same amount of fuel, and nearly double the quantity of water gas can be made per pound of fuel than was before possible. The runs or times of steaming can also be continued for longer periods. The possibility of making from 60,000 to 70,000 cub. ft. of water gas per ton of coke used in the Dellwik generator as against 34,000 to 45,000 cub. ft. per ton made by previous processes reduces
OR 19 the price of water gas to about 3ld. per thousand, so that the cconomic value of using,
Fig. 12.4-Siemens Producer (Sectional Elevation). W sobre
1:45 it in admixture with coal gas and then enriching the mixture by producers constructed, selecting some of the most widely applied any cheap carburetting process is manifest. The universal adoption in practice.
Turyster of the incandescent mantle for lighting purposes has made it evident
The Siemens Producer in its original shape, of which hundreds and the whole tendency now is to do away with enrichment and have been erected and many
may be still at work, is skown in
fig. 12. A is the chargingproduce a gas of low-candle power but good heating power at a cheap rate for fuel purposes and incandescent lighting. (See also hole; B, the inclined front
(V. B. L.) LIGHTING: Gas.)
wall, consisting of a cast
iron plate with fire-brick 2. Gas for Fuel and Power. The first gas-producers, which lining, the equally inwere built
by Faber du Faur at Wasseralfingen in 1836 and clineder step-grate ne D, a by C. G. C. Bischof at Mägdesprung (both in Germany), con
ducer may be isolated in sisted of simple perpendicular shafts of masonry contracted case of repairs: E, a waterat the top and the bottom, with or without a grate for the pipe, by which the cinders coal. Such producers, frequently strengthened by a wrought at the bottom may be iron casing, are even now used to a great extent. Some- quenched before taking
here times the purpose of a gas-producer is attained in a very formed rises into the prosimple manner by lowering the grate of an ordinary fireplace ducer where it forms some so much that a layer of coal 4 or 5 ft. deep is maintained in the semi-water gas" (see fire. The effect of this arrangement is that the great body of like that shown at & serve coal reaches a higher temperature than in an ordinary fireplace, for introducing a poker in FIG. 13.--Lürmann's Producer. and this, together with the reduction of the carbon dioxide formed order to clean the brickimmediately above the grate by the red-hot coal in the upper H is the gas Hue; 1, the perpendicularly ascending shaft, 10 or 12 ft. part of the furnace, leads to the formation of carbon monox- high: JJ, the horizontal iron tube; K, the descending branch menide which later on, on the spot where the greatest heat is re- tioned above, for producing a certain amount of suction by means quired, is burned into dioxide by admitting fresh air, preferably of the gas-siphon thus formed. In the horizontal branch JJ much pre-heated. This simple and inexpensive arrangement has the further advantage that the producer-gas is utilized immediately after its formation, without being allowed to cool down. But it is not very well adapted to large furnaces, and especially not to those cases where all the space round the furnace is required for manipulating heavy, white-hot masses of iron, or for similar purposes. In these cases the producers are arranged outside the iron-works, glass-works, &c., in an open yard where all the manipulations of feeding them with coal, of stoking, and of removing the ashes are performed without interfering with the work inside. But care must always be taken to place the producers at such a low level that the gas has an upward tendency, in order to facilitate its passage to the furnace where it is to be doney burned. This purpose can be further promoted by various means. The gas-producers constructed by Messrs Siemens Brothers, from 1856 onwards, were provided with a kind of brick chimney; on the top of this there was a horizontal iron tube, of the tar and Alue-dust is also condensed, which is of importance
Figs. 14 and 15.-Liegel's Producer. continued into an iron down-draught, and only from this the where bituminous coal is employed for firing. underground flues were started which sent the gas into the single furnaces. This arrangement, by which the gas was cooled down Lunge's Coal-tar and Ammonia, by permission of Friedr. Vieweg u.
"Figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21 of this article are from by the action of the air, acted as a gas-siphon for drawing the Sohn.
This as well as most other descriptions of gas-proflucers, is not where it is to be used. The retort E is charged with ordinary adapted to being worked with such coal as softens in the heat and bituminous coal which is submitted to destructive distillation
e doua no by the heat communicated through the fucs na ns, and is thus maillot de bou into the upper portion of and get mixed with the producer:
converted into coke. The gases formed during this process pass y todo
Selbst gatal di gas formed in the lower portion. From time to time, as the level பரம ஜாins us on ilmoilovale 1 of the coke in V goes down, some of the freshly
formed coke in E is otto
& alud-esgadeguatured be
motodata oubou ,
badam out Hold
Fig. 16.-Taylor's Producer.
FIG. 17.-Dowson Gas Plant. forms cakes, impenetrable to the air and impeding the regular sink- pushed into V, whereby the level of the coke in V should assume ing of the charge in the producer. The fuel employed should be the shape shown by the dotted line l... m. If the level became non-bituminous coal anthracite or coke, or at least so much of these materials should be mixed with ordinary coal that no semi-solid cakes of the kind just described are formed. Where it is unavoidable to work with coal softening in the fire, Lürmann's producer may be employed, which is shown in fig 13. V shows a gasproducer of the ordinary kind, which during regular work is filled with the coke formed in the horizontal retort E. The door b serves for removing the slags and ashes from the bottom of V, as far as they do not fall through the grate. The hot producer-gas formed in V is passed round the retort É in the Hues no ne, and ultimately goes away through K to the furnace
FIG. 19.-Mond Gas Plant.
too low, such as is shown by the dotted line x..: ), the working , holes B. to B, passing through the brick lining M. F is the conat the front side would be too low, and carbon dioxide would be doors D. An injector I, worked by means of the steam-pipe J. of the producer would be wrong, as in this case the layer of coke tracted part, leading to the closed ash-pit, accessible through the formed in lieu of monoxide.
forces air through K into F. The circular grate G can be turned Figs. 14 and 15 show Liegel's producer, the special object of round K by means of the crank E from the outside. This is done, which is to deal with any luci (coal or coke) giving a tough, pasty without interfering with the blast, in order to keep the fuel at the slag on combustion. Such slags act very prejudicially by impeding proper level in L, according to the indications of the burning zone, the up-draught of the air and the sinking of the fucl; nor can they as shown through the peep-holes B, to Be. The ashes collecting at
the bottom are from time to time removed by the doors D. As the steam, introduced by J. is decomposed in the producer, we here obtain a "
ni-water gas," with about 27% CO and 12% Hz.
Fig. 17 shows the Dowson gas-producer, together with the arrangements for purifying
the gas for the purpose of working a gas н
engine. a is a vertical steam boiler, heated by a central shaft filled with coke, with súperheating tubes b. passing through the central shaft. c is the steam-pipe, carrying the dry steam into the air-injector d. This mixture of steam and air enters into the gas-producer e below the fire-grate f. & is
the leeding-hopper for the anthracite which D В.
is usually employed in this kind of producer. h, h are cooling-pipes for the gas where most of the undecomposed steam (say 10% of the whole employed in d) is condensed. i is a hydraulic box with wate scal; j, a coke-scrubber; k, a filter: 1, a saw.
dust-scrubber; m, inlet of gas-holder; n, gas. Generator
holder; o, outlet ol same; p. a valve with weighted lever to regulate the admission of steam to the gas-producer; q, the weight which actuates the lever automatically by the rise or fall of the bell of the gas-holder.
In practical work about tb of steam is Scrubber
decomposed for each pound of anthracite consumed, and no more than 5% of carbon dioxide is found in the resulting gas. The latter has an average calorific power of 1732 calories per cubic metre, or 161 B.T.U. per cubic fooi, at oo and 760 mm.
The Mond plant is shown in figs. 18 and G are passed through pipes r into washers W, in which water is kept in violent motion by means of paddle-wheels. The spray of water removes the dust and part of the tar and ammonia from the gases, much steam being produced at the same time. This water is withdrawn from time to time and worked for the ammonia it contains. The gases, escaping from W at a temperature of about 100° C., and containing much steam, pass though g and a into a tower, led with an acid-absorbing liquid, coming from the tank s, which is spread into many drops by the brick filling of the tower. This liquid is a strong solution of ammonium sulphate, containing about 2.5% free sul. phuric acid which absorbs nearly all the ammonia from the gases, without dissolving much of the tarry substances. Most of the liquor arriving at the bottom, alter mechanically separating the tar, is pumped back into s, but a portion is always withdrawn and worked for ammonium sulphate. When escaping from the acid tower, the gas contains about 0.013% NH3, and has a temperature of about 80° C. and is saturated with aqueous vapour. It is passed through c into a second tower B, filled with blocks
of wood, where it meets with a stream of FIG. 20.-Blass' Gas Plant.
comparatively cold water. At the bottom
of this the water runs away, its temperature be removed by falling through a grate, like ordinary coal-ashes. , being 78°C.: at the top the gas passes away through d into the disTo obviate these drawbacks the producer A is kept at a greater heat tributing main. The hot water from B, freed from tar, is pumped than is otherwise usual, the air required for feeding the producer into a third tower C, through which cold air is forced by means of a being pre-heated in the channels e, e. The inside shape of the pro- Root's blower by the pipe w. This air, after being heated to 76° C., ducer is such that the upper, less hot portion cannot get stopped, and saturated with steam in the tower C, passes through l into the as it widens out towards the bottom; the lower, hotter portion, generator G. The water in C leaves this tower cold enough to be where the ashes are already fluxed, is contracted to a slit a, through used in the scrubber B. Thus two-thirds of the stcam originally which the air ascends. The grate & retains any small pieces of fuel, employed in the generator is reintroduced into it, leaving only onebut allows the liquid cinder to pass through. The lateral fuesc, i third to be supplied by the exhaust steam of the steam-engine. The prevent the brickwork from being melted.
gas-generators G have a rectangular section, 6X12 st., several of One of the best-known gas-producers for working with com-them being erected in series. The introduction of the air and the pressed air from below is Taylor's, shown in fig. 16. A is the removal of the ashes takes place at the narrower ends. The bottom feeding-hopper, on the same principle as is used in blast is formed by a water-tank and the ashes are quenched here. The furnaces. L is the producer-shalt, with an iron casing B and peep- | air enters just above the water-level, at a pressure ol 4 in. The
Mond gas in the dry state contains 15% carbon dioxide, 10% bave joined the Middle Temple. He became member of Gray's monoxide, 23% hydrogen., 3% hydrocarbons, 49% nitrogen. Inn in 1555. He has been identified without much show of The yield of ammonium sulphate is 75 to from a ton of coal (slack evidence with a lawyer named Gastone who was in prison in with 11.5% ashes and 55 % fixed carbon).
One of the best plants for the generation of water-gas is that 1548 under very discreditable circumstances. There is no doubt constructed by E. Blass (fig. 20). Steam enters through the that his escapades were notorious, and that he was imprisoned valve V at D into the generator, filled with coke, and passes
for debt. George Whetstone says that Sir John Gascoigne away at the bottom through A. The pressure of the gas should not be such that it could get into the pipe conveying the air- disinherited his son on account of his follies, but by his own blast, by which an explosive mixture would be formed. This is account he was obliged to sell his patrimony to pay the debts prevented by the water-cooled damper S, which always closes the contracted at court. He was M.P. for Bedford in 1557–1558 air-blast when the gas-pipe is open and vice versa. Below the entry and 1558–1559, but when he presented himself in 1572 for election as the damper S opens the gas canal; thus a second security against at Midhurst he was refused on the charges of being “ a defamed the production of a mixture of air and gas is afforded. The water- person and noted for manslaughter," " a common Rymer and cooled ring channel K protects the bottom outlet of the generator a deviser of slaunderous Pasquelles," a notorious ruffianne," and causes the cinders to solidify, so that they can be easily removed. But sometimes no such cooling is effected, in which case the cinders
an atheist and constantly in debt. His poems, with the exception run away in the liquid form. Below K the fuel is lying in a conical of some commendatory verses, were not published before 1572, heap, leaving the ring channel A free. During the period of hot but they were probably circulated in MS. before that date. He blowing (heating-up) S is turned so that the air-blast communicates tells us that his friends at Gray's Inn importuned him to write with the generator; d and G are open; 8 (the damper connected with the scrubber) and V are closed. During the period of
on Latin themes set by them, and there two of his plays were
gasmaking G and d are closed, S now closes the air-blast and connects acted. He repaired his fortunes by marrying the wealthy widow the generator with the scrubber; V is opened, and the gas passes of William Breton, thus becoming step-father to the poet, from the scrubber into the gas-holder, the inlet w being under a Nicholas Breton. In 1568 an inquiry into the disposition of pressure of 4 in. All these various changes in the opening of the William Breton's property with a view to the protection of the by means of a hand-wheel H, the shaft m resting on the standards d children's rights was instituted before the lord mayor, but the and shast v. This hand-whcel bas merely to be turned one way for matter was probably settled in a friendly manner, for Gascoigne starting the hot-blowing, and the opposite way for gas-making, to continued to hold the Walthamstow estate, which he had from open and shut all the connexions, without any mistake being possible his wife, until his death. He sailed as a soldier of fort une to the that, when the cone e opens, e is shut, and vice versa, thus no more Low Countries in 1572, and was driven by stress of weather to gas can escape, on feeding fresh coke into the generator, than that Brill
, which luckily for him had just fallen into the hands of the which is contained in E. G is the pipe through which the blowing-up Dutch. He obtained a captain's commission, and took an active is at once burned) or into a pre-heater for the blast
, or into some part in the campaigns of the next two years, during which he place where it can be utilized as fuel. This gas, which is made for acquired a profound dislike of the Dutch, and a great admiration 10 or 1 minutes, contains from 23 to 32%
carbon monoxide, 7 for William of Orange, who had personally intervened on his to 1.5% carbon dioxide, 2 to 3% hydrogen, a little methane, 64 behalf in a quarrel with his colonel, and secured him against to 68% nitrogen, and has a heating value of 950 calories per the suspicion caused by his clandestine visits to a lady at the cub. metre. The water-gas itself is made for 7 minutes, and has an
average composition of 3.3 % carbon Hague. Taken prisoner after the evacuation of Valkenburg
of 1575) and “ Gascoigne's Voyage into Hollande.” In 1575 water-gas and 3:13 Siemens gas. he had a share in devising the masques, published in the next 100 parts coke (of 7000 calories) year as The Princely Pleasures at the Courte al Kenelworlh, which furnish 42%
of their heat value as celebrated the queen's visit to the Earl of Leicester. At Wood. Lastly we give a section of the stock in 1575 he delivered a prose speech before Elizabeth, and Dellwik-Fleischer gas-producer (fig. presented her with the Pleasant Tale of Hemetes the Heremite! 21). The feeding-hoppers A are in four languages. Most of his works were actually published alternately charged every hall-hour, so that the layer of fuel in the during the last years of his life, after his return from the wars. generator always remains 4 ft. deep. He died at Bernack, near Stamford, where he was the guest of B is the chimney-damper, the George Whetstone, on the 7th of October 1577, George Whet. grate, D the door for removing the stone wrote a long dull poem in honour of his friend, entitled “A slags, E the ash-door, F the inlet of Remembrance of the wel-imployed life and godly end of George lower outlet for the water-gas which Gaskoigne, Esquire.” is removed alternately at top and His theory of metrical composition is explained in a short bottom by means of an outside critical treatise, “ Certayne Notes of Instruction concerning the at the opposite end. The blowing. making of verse or ryme in English, written at the request of up generally lasts of minutes, the Master Edouardo Donati,"? prefixed to his Posics (1575). He
gas-making 8 or 10 minutes. The acknowledged Chaucer as his master, and differed from the Fig. 21.--Dellwik-Fleischer air-blast works under a pressure of earlier poets of the school of Surrey and Wyatt chiefly in the Producer.
8 or 9 in. below the grate, or 4 added smoothness and sweetness of his verse. His poems were blowing-up, gas contains 19 or 18% carbon dioxide and 1.5% published in 1572 during his absence in Holland, surreptitiously, oxygen, with mere traces of carbon monoxide. The water-gas according to his own account, but it seems probable that the shows 4 to 5% carbon dioxide, 40% carbon monoxide, 0.8% "editor" who supplied the running comment was none other methane, 48 to $!% hydrogen, 4 or 5 % nitrogen. About 2.5 cub. than Gascoigne himself. A hundreth Sundrie Floures bound up metres is obtained per kilogram of best coke.
See Mills and Rowan, Fuel and its Application (London, 1889); in one small Posie. Gathered parlely (by translation) in the fyne Samuel S. Wyer, Producer-Gas and Gas-Producers, published by the outlandish Gardens of Euripides, Ovid, Petrarke, Ariosto and Engineering and Mining Journal (New York); F. Fischer, Chemische olhers; and parlely by Invention out of our ownc fruitfull Orchardes Stöhmann and Kerl's Handbuch der technischen Chemie, 4th edition, in Englande, Yelding Sundrie Savours of tragical
, comical and iii. 642 et seq.
BV ir tos to IC (G. L.) moral discourse, bothe pleasaunl and profitable, to the well-smelling
Printed in 1579 in a pamphlet called The Paradoxe, the GASCOIGNE,
(c. 1535-1577), English poet, eldest author of which, Abraham Fleming, does not mention Gascoigne's son of Sir John Gascoigne of Cardington, Bedfordshire, was born
2 Reprinted in vol. ii. of J. Haslewood's Ancient Critical Essays probably between 1530 and 1535. He was educated at Trinity (1811-1815), and in Gregory Smith's Elizabethan Critical Essays College, Cambridge, and on leaving the university is supposed to ! (1904).
noses of learned Readers, was followed in 1575 by an authorized | biographical Don Bartholomew of Bath, and miscellaneous poems. edition, The Posics of G. G. Esquire : . (not dated).
Real personages, some of whom were well known at court, were sup
posed to be concealed under fictitious names in The Adventures of Gascoigne had an adventurous and original mind, and was a
Alaster F. J., and the poem caused considerable scandal, so that the pioneer in more than one direction. In 1576 be published The names are disguised in the second edition. A more comprehensive Steele Glas, sometimes called the earliest regular English satire. collection, The Whole Workes of G. G. ... appeared in 1587. In Although this poem is Elizabethan in form and manner, it is 1868-1870. The Complete. Poems of. G. G... were edited for the written in the spirit of Piers Plowman. Gascoigne begins with Roxburghe Library by Mr W. C. Hazlitt. In his English Reprints a comparison between the sister arts of Satire and Poetry, and Glas and the compra onde componentementes the master ceilas bases de under a comparison between the old-fashioned "glas of trustie edited for the Library of English Literalure, by Henry Morley, vol. i. steele," and the new-fangled crystal mirrors which he takes as a
p. 184 (1889). A new edition, The Works of George Gascoigne (The symbol of the “ Italianate " corruption of the time, he attacks See also The Life and Writings of George Gascoigne, by Prof. Felix
Cambridge English Classics, 1907, &c.) is edited by Dr J. W. Cunliffe. the amusements of the governing classes, the evils of absentee E. Schelling (Publications of the Univ. of Pennsylvania series in landlordism, the corruption of the clergy, and pleads for the Philology, vol. ii. No, 4118941); C. H. Herford, Studies in the Literary restoration of the feudal ideal.
Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century, pp. 149. His dramatic work belongs to the period of his residence at 164 (1886); S. H. Herford, Gascoigne's Glasse of Government."
in Englische Studien, vol. ix. (Halle, 1877, &c.). Gray's Inn, both Jocasta (of which Actsi. and iv. were contributed by Francis Kinwelmersh) and Supposes being played there in GASCOIGNE, SIR WILLIAM (c. 1350-1419), chief justice of 1566. Jocasta was said by J. P. Collier (Hist. of Dram. Poetry England in the reign of Henry IV. Both history and tradition ül. 8) to be the "first known attempt to introduce a Greek testify to the fact that he was one of the great lawyers who in play upon the English stage," but it turns out that Gascoigne times of doubt and danger have asserted the principle that the was only very indirectly acquainted with Euripides. His play is head of the state is subject to law, and that the traditional a literal version of Lodovico Dolce's Giocasta, which was derived practice of public officers, or the expressed voice of the nation in probably from the Phoenissae in the Latin translation of R. parliament, and not the will of the monarch or any part of the Winter. Supposes," a version of Ariosto's / Supposili, is notable legislature, must guide the tribunals of the country. He was a as an early and excellent adaptation of Italian comedy, and descendant of an ancient Yorkshire family. The date of his moreover, as “the earliest play in English prose acted in public birth is uncertain, but it appears from the year-books that he or private." Udal's Ralph Roister Doister had been inspired practised as an advocate in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard directly by Latin comedy; Gammer Gurton's Needle was a purely II. On the banishment of Henry of Lancaster Gascoigne was native product; but Supposes is the first example of the ac- appointed one of his attorneys, and soon after Henry's accession climatization of the Italian models that were to exercise so to the throne was made chief justice of the court of king's bench. prolonged an influence on the English stage. A third play of After the suppression of the rising in the north in 1405, Henry Gascoigne's, The Glasse of Government (published in 1575), is eagerly pressed the chief justice to pronounce sentence upon a school drama of the “Prodigal Son " type, familiar on the Scrope, the archbishop of York, and the earl marshal Thomas continent at the time, but rare in England. It is defined by Mr Mowbray, who had been implicated in the revolt. This he C. H. Herford as an attempt "to connect Terentian situation absolutely refused to do, asserting the right of the prisoners to be with a Christian moral in a picture of school life," and it may tried by their peers. Although both were afterwards executed, be assumed that Gascoigne was familiar with the didactic drama the chief justice had no part in the transaction. It has been very of university life in vogue on the continent. The scene is laid at much doubted, however, whether Gascoigne could have displayed Antwerp, and the two prodigals meet with retribution in Geneva such independence of action without prompt punishment or and Heidelberg respectively.
removal from office following. The oft-told tale of his committing The Spoyle of Antwerpe, written by an eyewitness of the sack the prince of Wales to prison must also be regarded as unof the city in 1576, has sometimes been attributed to Gascoigne, authentic, though it is both picturesque and characteristic. but although a George Gascoigne was employed in that year The judge had directed the punishment of one of the prince's to carry letters for Walsingham, internal evidence is against riotous companions, and the prince, who was present and enraged Gascoigne's authorship. A curious editorial preface by Gascoigne at the sentence, struck or grossly insulted the judge. Gascoigne to Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Discourse of a Discoverie for a new immediately committed him to prison, using firm and forcible Passage lo Cataio (1576) has led to the assertion that Gascoigne language, which brought him to a more reasonable mood, and printed the tract against its author's wish, but it is likely that secured his voluntary obedience to the sentence. The king is said he was really serving Gilbert, who desired the publication, but to have approved of the act, but there appears to be good ground dąred not avow it. The Wyll of the Devill . . . (reprinted for for the supposition that Gascoigne was removed from his post or private circulation by Dr F. J. Furnivall, 1871), an anti-popish resigned soon after the accession of Henry V. He died in 1419, tract, once attributed, on slender evidence, to Gascoigne, is and was buried in the parish church of Harewood in Yorkshire. almost certainly by another hand.
Some biographies of the judge have stated that he died in 1412, Gascoigne's works not already mentioned include: “G. G. in but this is clearly disproved by Foss in his Lives of the Judges; commendation of the noble Arte of Venerie," prefixed to the Noble and although it is clear that Gascoigne did not hold office long bound up with The Steele Glas (1576): The Droomme of Doomes-day under Henry V., it is not absolutely impossible that the scene in the (1576), a prose compilation from various authors, especially from fifth act of the second part of Shakespeare's Henry IV. has some the De contemptu mundi sive de miseria humanae conditionis of historical basis, and that the judge's resignation was voluntary. Pope Innocent III., printed with varying titles, earliest ed. (14707); A Delicale Diet for daintie mouthde droonkardes ... (1576), a free
GASCONY (Wasconia), an old province in the S.W. of France. version of St Augustine's De ebrietate. The Posies (1572) included It takes its name from the Vascones, a Spanish tribe which in Supposes, Jocasta, A Discourse of the Adventures of Master Flerdi- 580 and 587 crossed the Pyrenees and invaded the district known nando Jeronimi), in imitation of an Italian novella, a partly auto to the Romans as Novempopulana or Aquitania tertia. Basque, 1 " Againe I see, within my glasse of Steele
the national language of the Vascones, took root only in a few of But foure estates, to serve each country soyle,
the high valleys of the Pyrenees,
such as Soule and Labourd; in The King, the Knight, the Pesant, and the Priest.
the plains Latin dialects prevailed, Gascon being a Romance The King should care for al the subjects still, The Knight should fight, for to defend the same,
language. In the 7th century the name of Vasconia was subThe Pesant, he shoulde labor for their ease,
stituted for that of Novempopulana. The Vascones readily And Priests shuld pray, for them and for themselves." - recognized the sovereignty of the Merovingian kings. In 603 Shrew is dealt with by Prof. A. H. Tolman in Shakespeare's Partin in reality they remained independent. They even appointed * The influence of this play on the Shakespearian Taming of the they consented to be governed by a duke called Genialis
, but the Taming of the Shrew (Pub. of the Mod. Lang. Assoc. vol, v. national dukes, against whom Charlemagne had to fight at No. 4, pp. 215, 216, 1890).
the beginning of his reign. Finally Duke Lupus II. made his