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Poděbrad, king of Bohemia, and by Matthias Corvinus, king of prisoner to Trausnitz. Here he was retained until three years Hungary. A visit to Rome in 1468 to discuss measures against later a series of events induced Louis to come to terms. By the the Turks with Pope Paul II. had no result, and in 1470 Frederick treaty of Trausnitz, signed on the 13th of March 1325, Frederick bogan negotiations for a marriage between his son Maximilian acknowledged the kingship of Louis in return for freedom, and and Mary, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold, duke of promised to return to captivity unless he could induce his brother Burgundy. The emperor met the duke at Treves in 1473, when Leopold to make a similar acknowledgment. As Leopold reFrederick, disliking to bestow the title of king upon Charles, left fused to take this step, Frederick, although released from his oath the city secretly, but brought about the marriage after the duke's by Pope John XXII., travelled back to Bavaria, where he was death in 1477. Again attacked by Matthias, the emperor was treated by Louis rather as a friend than as a prisoner. A driven from Vienna, and soon handed over the government of his suggestion was then made that the kings should rule jointly, but lands to Maximilian, whose election as king of the Romans he as this plan aroused some opposition it was agreed that Frederick vainly opposed in 1486. Frederick then retired to Linz, where he should govern Germany while Louis went to Italy for the imperial passed his time in the study of botany, alchemy and astronomy, crown. But this arrangement did not prove generally acceptable, until his death on the 19th of August 1493.

and the death of Leopold in 1326 deprived Frederick of a powerful Frederick was a listless and incapable ruler, lacking alike the supporter, In these circumstances he returned to Austria broken qualities of the soldier and of the diplomatist, but possessing a down in mind and body, and on the 13th of January 1330 he certain cleverness in evading difficulties. With a fine presence, died at Gutenstein, and was buried at Mauerbach, whence his he had many excellent personal qualities, is spoken of as mild and remains were removed in 1783 to the cathedral of St Stephen at just, and had a real love of learning. He had a great belief in the Vienna. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James I., king of future greatness of his family, to which he contributed largely by Aragon, and left two daughters. His voluntary return into arranging the marriage of Maximilian with Mary of Burgundy, captivity is used by Schiller in his poem Deutsche Treue, and by and delighted to inscribe his books and other articles value J. L. Uhland in the drama Ludwig der Bayer. with the letters A.E.I.O.U. (Austriae est imperare orbi universo; The authorities for the life of Frederick are found in the Fontes or in German, Alles Erdreich ist Oesterreich unterthan). His rerum Germanicarum. Band i., edited by J. F. Böhmer (Stuttgart, personality counts for very little in German history. Onc 1843-1868), and in the Fontes rerum Austriacorum, part i. (Vienna,

1855). Modern works which may be consulted are: E. M. Fürst chronicler says: "He was a uscless emperor, and the nation von Lichnowsky, Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg (Vienna, 1836during his long reign forgot that she had a king." His tomb, a 1844); Th. Lindner, Deutsche Geschichte unter den Habsburgers magnificent work in red and white marble, is in the cathedral of und Luxemburgern (Stuttgart, 1888-1893). R. Döbner, Die Aus.

einandersetzung, swischen Ludwig IV. dem Bayer und Friedrich dem St Stephen at Vienna.

Schönen von Österreich (Göttingen, 1875). F.Kurz, Osterreich See Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, De rebus et gestis Friderici III. unter König Friedrich dem Schönen (Linz, 1818): F. Kroncs, Hand. (trans. Th. Ilgen, Leipzig., 1889); J. Chmel, Geschichte Kaiser buch der Geschichte Österreichs (Berlin, 1876-1879): H. Schrohe, Friedrichs IV. und seines Sohnes Maximilians !. (Hamburg, 1840); Der Kampf der Gegenkönige Ludwig und Friedrich (Berlin, 1902); A, Bachmann, Deutsche Reichsgeschichte im Zeitalter Friedrichs HII. W. Friedcnsburg, Ludwig IV. der Bayer und Friedrich von Oster. und Maximilians I. (Leipzig. 188.4); A. Huber, Geschichte Österreich (Göttingen, 1877); B. Gebhardt, Handbuch der deurschen reichs (Gotha, 1885-1892); and E. M. Fürst von Lichnowsky, Geschichte (Berlin, 1901). Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg (Vienna, 1836-1844)

FREDERICK II. (1534-1588), king of Denmark and Norway, FREDERICK III. (c. 1286-1330), surnamed “the Fair,” son of Christian III., was born at Hadersleben on the ist of July German king and duke of Austria, was the second son of the 1534. His mother, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, was the elder German king, Albert I., and consequently a member of the sister of Catherine, the first wife of Gustavus Vasa and the mother Habsburg family. In 1298, when his father was chosen German of Eric XIV. The two little cousins, born the same year, were king, Frederick was invested with some of the family lands, and destined to be lifelong rivals. At the age of two Frederick was in 1306, when his elder brother Rudolph became king of Bohemia, proclaimed successor to the throne at the Rigsdag of Copenhagen he succeeded to the duchy of Austria. In 1307 Rudolph died, (October 30th, 1536), and homage was done to him ai Oslo for and Frederick sought to obtain the Bohemian throne; but an Norway in 1548. The choice of his governor, the patriotic expedition into that country was a failure, and his father's historiographer Hans Svaning, was so far fortunate that it ensured murder in May 1308 deprived him of considerable support. He the devotion of the future king of Denmark to everything was equally unsuccessful in his efforts to procure the German Danish; but Svaning was a poor pedagogue, and the wild and crown at this time, and the relations between the new king, wayward lad suffered all his life from the defects of his early Henry VII., and the Habsburgs were far from friendly. Frederick training. Frederick's youthful, innocent attachment to the asked not only to be confirmed in the possession of Austria, but to daughter of his former tutor, Anna Hardenberg, indisposed him be invested with Moravia, a demand to which Henry refused to towards matrimony at the beginning of his reign (1558). After accede; but an arrangement was subsequently made by which the the hands of Elizabeth of England, Mary of Scotland and Renata duke agrced to renoun Moravia in return for a payment of of Lorraine had successively been sought for him, the council of 50,000 marks. Frederick then became involved in a quarrel with state grew anxious about the succession, but he finally married his cousin Louis IV., duke of Upper Bavaria (afterwards the his cousin, Sophia of Mecklenburg, on the 20th of July 1572. emperor Louis IV.), over the guardianship of Henry ., duke The reign of Frederick II, falls into two well-defined divisions: of Lower Bavaria. Hostilities broke out, and on the 9th of (1) a period of war, 1559-1570; and (2) a period of peace, 1570November 1313 he was defeated by Louis at the battle of Gam- 1588. The period of war began with the Ditniarsh expedition, melsdorf and compelled to renounce his claim.

when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of Meanwhile the emperor Henry VII. had died in Italy, and a West Holstein, which had stoutly maintained its independence stubborn contest ensued for the vacant throne. After a long for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, delay Frederick was chosen German king at Frankfort by a was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, minority of the electors on the 19th of October 1314, while a Frederick and his uncles John and Adolphus, dukes of Holstein, majority elected Louis of Bavaria. Six days later Frederick dividing the land between them. Equally triumphant was was crowned at Bonn by the archbishop of Cologne, and war Frederick in his war with Sweden, though here the contest was broke out at once between the rivals. During this contest, much more severe, lasting as it did for seven years; whence it is which was carried on in a desultory fashion, Frederick drew his generally described in northern history as the Scandinavian chief strength from southern and eastern Germany, and was Seven Years' War. The tension which had prevailed between supported by the full power of the Habsburgs. The defeat of the two kingdoms during the last years of Gustavus Vasa reached his brother Leopold by the Swiss at Morgarten in November breaking point on the accession of Gustavus's eldest son Eric 1315 was a heavy blow to him, but he prolonged the struggle for XIV. There were many causes of quarrel between the two seven years. On the 28th of September 1322 a decisive battle ambitious young monarchs, but the detention at Copenhagen in was fought at Mühldorf; Frederick was defeated and sent as a l 1563 of a splendid matrimonial embassy on its way to Germany,

to negotiate a match becween Eric and Christina of Hesse, which ( throne at all; but Frederick removed the last scruples of the King Frederick for political reasons was determined to prevent, Rigsraad by unhesitatingly accepting the conditions imposed precipitated hostilities. During the war, which was marked by upon him. extraordinary ferocity throughout, the Danes were generally The new monarch was a reserved, enigmatical prince, who victorious on land owing to the genius of Daniel Rantzau, but seldom laughed, spoke little and wrote less-a striking contrast at sea the Swedes were almost uniformly triumphant. By 1570 to Christian IV. But if he lacked the brilliant qualities of his the strife had degenerated into a barbarous devastation of border impulsive, jovial father, he possessed in a high degree the comprovinces; and in July of the same year both countries accepted pensating virtues of moderation, sobriety and self-control. the mediation of the Emperor, and peace was finally concluded But with all his good qualities Frederick was not the man to take at Stettin on Dec. 13, 1570. During the course of this a clear view of the political horizon, or even to recognize his own Seven Years' War Frederick II, had narrowly escaped the fate and his country's limitations. He rightly regarded the accession of his deposed cousin Eric XIV. The war was very unpopular of Charles X. of Sweden (June 6th, 1654) as a source of danger to in Denmark, and the closing of the Sound against foreign shipping, Denmark. He felt that temperament and policy would combine in order to starve out Sweden, had exasperated the maritime to make Charles an aggressive warrior-king: the only uncertainty powers and all the Baltic states. On New Year's Day 1570 | was in which direction he would turn his arms first. Charles's Frederick's difficulties seemed so overwhelming that he invasion of Poland (July 1654) came as a distinct relief to the threatened to abdicate; but the peace of Stettin came in time Danes, though even the Polish War was full of latent peril to to reconcile all parties, and though Frederick had now to re- Denmark. Frederick was resolved upon a rupture with Sweden linquish his ambitious dream of re-establishing the Union of at the first convenient opportunity. The Rigsdag which Kalmar, he had at least succeeded in maintaining the supremacy assembled on the 23rd of February 1657 willingly granted of Denmark in the north. After the peace Frederick's policy | considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military became still more imperial. He aspired to the dominion of all expenses; on the 15th of April Frederick III. desired, and on the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he the 23rd of April he received, the assent of the majority of the died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had Rigsraad to attack Sweden's German provinces; in the beginning haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean. He also erected the of May the still pending negotiations with that power were broken stately fortress of Kronborg, to guard the narrow channel of the off, and on the ist of June Frederick signed the manifesto justifySound. Frederick possessed the truly royal gift of discovering ing a war which was never formally declared. The Swedish and employing great men, irrespective of personal preferences king traverscd all the plans of his enemies by his passage of the and even of personal injuries. With infinite tact and admirable frozen Belts, in January and February 1658 (see CHARLES X. self-denial he gave free scope to ministers whose superiority of Sweden). The effect of this unheard-of achievement on the in their various departments he frankly recognized, rarely inter- Danish government was crushing. Frederick III. at once sued fering personally unless absolutely called upon to do so. His for peace; and, yielding to the persuasions of the English and influence, always great, was increased by his genial and unaffected French ministers, Charles finally agreed to be content with manners as a host. He is also remarkable as one of the few mutilating instead of annihilating the Danish monarchy (treaties kings of the house of Oldenburg who had no illicit liaison. of Taastrup, February 18th, and of Roskilde, February 26th, He died at Antvorskov on the 4th of April 1588. No other | 1658). The conclusion of peace was followed by a remarkable Danish king was ever so beloved by his people.

episode. Frederick expressed the desire to make the personal See Lund (Troels), Danmarks og Norges Historie i Slutningen af acquaintance of his conqueror; and Charles X. consented to be del XVI. Aarh. (Copenhagen, 1879); Danmarks Riges Historie his guest for three days (March 3-5) at the castle of Fredriksborg. (Copenhagen, 1897–1905), vol. 3; Robert Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia, Splendid banquets lasting far into the night, private and intimate cap. 4 (Cambridge, 1905).

(R. N. B.) conversations between the princes who had only just emerged FREDERICK III. (1609–1670), king of Denmark and Norway, from a mortal struggle, seemed to point to nothing but peace and son of Christian IV. and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, was friendship in the future. But Charles's insatiable lust for conborn on the 18th of March 1609 at Hadersleben. His position quest, and his ineradicable suspicion of Denmark, induced him, as a younger son profoundly influenced his future career. In his on the 17th of July, without any reasonable cause, without a youth and early manhood there was no prospect of his ascending declaration of war, in defiance of all international equity, to the Danish throne, and he consequently became the instrument of endeavour to despatch an inconvenient neighbour. his father's schemes of aggrandizement in Germany. While still Terror was the first feeling produced at Copenhagen by the a lad he became successively bishop of Bremen, bishop of Verden landing of the main Swedish army at Korsör in Zealand. None and coadjutor of Halberstadt, while at the age of eighteen he had anticipated the possibility of such a sudden and brutal attack, was the chief commandant of the fortress of Stade. Thus and every one knew that the Danish capital was very inadequately from an early age he had considerable experience as an adminis- fortified and garrisoned. Fortunately Frederick had never been trator, while his general education was very careful and thorough. deficient in courage. “I will die in my nest " were the memorHe had always a pronounced liking for literary and scientific able words with which he rebuked those counsellors who advised studies. On the ist of October 1643 Frederick wedded Sophia him to seek safety in flight. On the Sth of August representatives Amelia of Brunswick Lüneburg, whose energetic, passionate irom every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not only resistance; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great Frederick's destiny but the destiny of Denmark. During the burgomaster Hans Nansen (q.v.), protested their unshakable disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copengeneralissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won hagen to the uttermost. The Danes had only three days' warning were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal of the approaching danger; and the vast and dilapidated line Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces. This was of defence had at first but 2000 regular defenders. But the Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever government and the people displayed a memorable and exafterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his emplary energy, under the constant supervision of the king, elder brother Christian in June 1647 first opened to him the pros- the queen, and burgomaster Nansen. By the beginning of pect of succeeding to the Danish throne, but the question was September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with still unsettled when Christian IV. died on the 28th of February cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city 1648. Not till the 6th of July in the same year did Frederick III. by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention receive the homage of his subjects, and only after he had signed of carrying the place by assault; began a regular siege; but this a Heandjaestning or charter, by which the alrcady diminished also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an royal prerogative was still further curtailed. It had been doubt auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the ful at first whether he would be allowed to inherit his ancestral 1 garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the

Swedish navy of 44 liners in the Sound. Thus the Danish capital | allies, fighting with distinction at Blenheim and elsewhere. had saved the Danish monarchy. But it was Frederick III. Frederick, who was deformed through an injury to his spine, who profited most by his spirited defence of the common interests died on the 25th of February 1713. By his extravagance the king of the country and the dynasty. The traditional loyalty of the exhausted the treasure amassed by his father, burdened his Danish middle classes was transformed into a boundless enthusi-country with heavy taxes, and reduced its finances to chaos. His asm for the king personally, and for a brief period Frederick found constant obligations to the emperor drained Brandenburg of himself the most popular man in his kingdom. He made use of money which might have been employed more profitably a his popularity by realizing the dream of a lifetime and converting home, and prevented her sovereign from interfering in the policia an elective into an absolute monarchy by the Revolution of 1660 of northern Europe. Frederick, however, was not an unpopulu (sec DENMARK: History). Frederick III. died on the 6th of ruler, and by making Prussia into a kingdom he undoubtedly February 1670 at the castle of Copenhagen.

advanced it several stages towards its future greatness. He See R. Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia, caps. ix. and x. (Cambridge, founded the university of Halle, and the Academy of Sciences al 1905).

(R. N. B.) Berlin; welcomed and protected Protestant refugecs from France FREDERICK VIII. (1843- ), king of Denmark, eldest son and elsewhere; and lavished money on the erection of public of King Christian LX., was born at Copenhagen on the 3rd of buildings. June 1843. As crown prince of Denmark he took part in the war The king was married three times. His second wife, Sophie of 1864 against Austria and Prussia, and subsequently assisted Charlotte (1668-1705), sister of the English king George I., was his father in the duties of government, becoming king on the friend of Leibnitz and one of the most cultured princesses of Christian's death in January 1906. In 1869 Frederick married the age; she bore him his only son, his successor, King Frederick Louise (b. 1851), daughter of Charles XV., king of Sweden, William I. by whom he had a family of four sons and four daughters. His

See W. Hahn, Friedrich I., König in Preussen (Berlin, 1876): eldest son Christian, crown prince of Denmark (b. 1870), was 1. G. Droysen, Geschichte der preussischen Politik, Band iv. (Leipzig, married in 1898 to Alexandrina (b. 1879), daughter of Frederick 1872); E. Heyck, Friedrich 1. und die Begründung des preussischen Francis III., grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; and his Königtums (Bielefeld, 1901); C. Graf von Dohna, Mémoires origi. second son, Charles (b. 1872), who married his cousin Maud, I mange sur le règne et la cour de Frédéric

I(Berlin, 1883): Aus dem daughter of Edward VII. of Great Britain, became king of (Berlin, 1901); and T. Carlyle, History of Fredorick the Great, vol. i. Norway as Haakon VII. in 1905.

(London, 1872). FREDERICK I. (1657–1713), king of Prussia, and (as Frederick FREDERICK II., known as "the Great” (1712–1786), king, III.) elector of Brandenburg, was the second son of the great of Prussia, born on the 24th of January 1712, was the eldest son elector, Frederick William, by his first marriage with Louise of Frederick William I. He was brought up with extreme rigour, Henriette, daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange. Born at his father devising a scheme of education which was intended Königsberg on the urth of July 1657, he was educated and greatly to make him a hardy soldier, and prescribing for him every influenced by Eberhard Danckelmann, and became heir to the detail of his conduct.' So great was Frederick William's horror throne of Brandenburg through the death of his elder brother, of everything which did not seem to him practical, that he Charles Emil, in 1674. He appears to have taken some part in strictly excluded Latin from the list of his son's studies. public business before the death of his father; and the court Frederick, however, had free and generous impulses which could at Berlin was soon disturbed by quarrels between the young not be restrained by the sternest system. Encouraged by his prince and his stepmother, Dorothea of Holstein-Glücksburg. mother, and under the influence of his governess Madame de In 1686 Dorothca persuaded her husband to bequeath outlying Roucoulle, and of his first tutor Duhan, a French refugee, he portions of his lands to her four sons; and Frederick, fearing acquired an excellent knowledge of French and a taste for litera. he would be poisoned, left Brandenburg determined to prevent ture and music. He even received secret lessons in Latin, any diminution of his inheritance. By promising to restore which his father invested with all the charms of forbidden Schwiebus to Silesia after his accession he won the support of the fruit. As he grew up he became extremely dissatisfied with the emperor Leopold I.; but eventually he gained his end in a peace- dull and monotonous life he was compelled to lead; and his able fashion. Having become elector of Brandenburg in May discontent was heartily shared by his sister, Wilhelmina, a bright 1688, he came to terms with his half-brothers and their mother. and intelligent young princess for whom Frederick had a warm In return for a sum of money these princes renounced their rights affection. under their father's will, and the new elector thus secured the Frederick William, seeing his son apparently absorbed in whole of Frederick William's territories. After much delay and frivolous and effeminate amusements, gradually conceived for grumbling he fulfilled his bargain with Leopold and gave up him an intense dislike, which had its share in causing him to Schwiebus in 1695. At home and abroad Frederick continued break off the negotiations for a double marriage between the the policy of the great elector. He helped William of Orange prince of Wales and Wilhelmina, and the princess melia, to make his descent on England; added various places, including daughter of George II., and Frederick; for Frederick had been the principality of Neuchâtel, to his lands; and exercised some

so indiscreet as to carry on a separate correspondence with the influence on the course of European politics by placing his large English court and to vow that he would marry Amelia or no one. and efficient army at the disposal of the emperor and his allies Frederick William's hatred of his son, openly avowed, displayed (see BRANDENBURG). He was present in person at the siege of itself in violent outbursts and public insults, and so harsh was Bonn in 1689, but was not often in command of his troops. The his treatment that Frederick frequently thought of running elector was very fond of pomp, and, striving to model his court away and taking refuge at the English court. He at last resolved upon that of Louis XIV., he directed his main energies towards to do so during a journey which he made with the king to south obtaining for himself the title of king. In spite of the assistance Germany in 1730, when he was eighteen years of age. He was he had given to the emperor his efforts met with no success for helped by his two friends, Lieutenant Katte and Lieutenant some years; but towards 1700 Leopold, faced with the prospect Keitk; but by the imprudence of the former the secret was found of a new struggle with France, was inclined to view the idea more out. Frederick was placed under arrest, deprived of his rank favourably. Having insisted upon various conditions, prominent as crown prince, tried by court-martial, and imprisoned in the among them being military aid for the approaching war, he gave fortress of Cüstrin. Warned by Frederick, Keith escaped; the imperial sanction to Frederick's request in November 1700; but Kattc delayed his flight too long, and a court-martial decided whereupon the elector, hurrying at once to Königsberg, crowned that he should be punished with two years' fortress arrest. But himself with great ceremony king of Prussia on the 18th of the king was determined by a terrible example to wake Frederick January 1701. According to his promise the king sent help to once for all to a consciousness of the heavy responsibility of his the emperor; and during the War of the Spanish Succession the position. He changed the sentence on Katte to one of death and troops of Brandenburg-Prussia rendered great assistance to the ordered the execution to take place in Frederick's presence,

himself arranging its every detail, Frederick's own fate would predecessors, and the extinction of the male line of the house of depend upon the effect of this terrible object-lesson and the Habsburg may well have seemed to him a unique opportunity response he should make to the exhortations of the chaplain sent for realizing an ambition traditional in his family. For this to reason with him. On the morning of the 7th of November resolution he is often abused still by historians, and at the time Katte was beheaded before Frederick's window, after the crown he had the approval of hardly any one out of Prussia. He him. prince had asked his pardon and received the answer that there self, writing of the scheme in his Mémoires, laid no claim to lofty was nothing to forgive. On Frederick himself lay the terror of motives, but candidly confessed that "it was a means of acquiring death, and the chaplain was able to send to the king a favourable reputation and of increasing the power of the state.“ He report of his orthodoxy and his changed disposition. Frederick firmly believed, however, in the lawfulness of his claims; and William, whose temper was by no means so ruthlessly Spartan although his father had recognized the Pragmatic Sanction, as tradition has painted it, was overjoyed, and commissioned the whereby the hereditary dominions of Charles VI. were to descend clergyman to receive from the prince an oath of filial obedience, to his daughter, Maria Theresa, Frederick insisted that this and in exchange for this proof of “his intention to improve in sanction could refer only to lands which rightfully belonged to the real earnest” his arrest was to be lightened, pending the earning house of Austria. He could also urge that, as Charles VI. had of a full pardon." The whole town shall be his prison," wrote not fulfilled the engagements by which Frederick William's the king; " I will give him employment, from morning to night, recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction had been secured, Prussia in the departments of war, and agriculture, and of the govern- was freed from her obligation. ment. He shall work at financial matters, receive accounts, Frederick sent an ambassador to Vienna, offering, in the event read minutes and make extracts. ... But if he kicks or rears of his rights in Silesia being conceded, to aid Maria Theresa again, he shall forfeit the succession to the crown, and even, against her enemies. The queen of Hungary, who regarded the according to circumstances, life itself."

proposal as that of a mere robber, haughtily declined; whereupon For about fifteen months Frederick lived in Cüstrin, busy Frederick immediately invaded Silesia with an army of 30,000 according to the royal programme with the details of the Prussian men. His first victory was gained at Mollwitz on the roth of administrative system. He was very careful not to " kick or April 1741. Under the impression, in consequence of a furious rear,” and his good conduct earned him a further stage in the charge of Austrian cavalry, that the battle was lost, he rode restoration to favour. During this period of probation he had rapidly away at an early stage of the struggle-a mistake been deprived of his status as a soldier and refused the right to which gave rise for a time to the groundless idea that he lacked sear uniform, while officers and soldiers were forbidden"to give personal courage. A second Prussian victory was gained at him the military salute; in 1732 he was made colonel in command Chotusitz, near Caslau, on the 17th May 1742; by this time of the regiment at Neuruppin. In the following year he married, Frederick was master of all the fortified places of Silesia. Maria inobedience to the king's orders, the princess Elizabeth Christina, Theresa, in the heat of her struggle with France and the elector daughter of the duke of Brunswick-Bevern. He was given the of Bavaria, now Charles VII., and pressed by England to rid estate of Rheinsberg in the neighbourhood of Neuruppin, and herself of Frederick, concluded with him, on the with of June there he lived until he succeeded to the throne. These years were 1742, the peace of Breslau, conceding to Prussia, Upper and Lower perhaps the happiest of his life. He discharged his duties with so Silesia as far as the Oppa, together with the county of Glatz. much spirit and so conscientiously that he ultimately gained Frederick made good use of the next two years, fortifying his new the esteem of Frederick William, who no longer feared that he territory, and repairing the evils inflicted upon it by the war. would leave the crown to one unworthy of wearing it. At the By the death of the prince of East Friesland without heirs, he same time the crown prince was able to indulge to the full his also gained possession of that country (1744). He knew well that personal tastes. He carried on a lively correspondence with Maria Theresa would not, if she could help it, allow him to Voltaire and other French men of letters, and was a diligent remain in Silesia; accordingly, in 1744, alarmed by her victories, student of philosophy, history and poetry. Two of his best-he arrived at a secret understanding with France, and pledged known works were written at this time--Considérations sur himself, with Hesse-Cassel and the palatinate, to maintain the Past présent du corps politique de l'Europe and his Anti-Mocchiavel. imperial rights of Charles VII., and to defend his hereditary In the former he calls attention to the growing strength of Bavarian lands. - Frederick began the second Silesian War by Austria and France, and insists on the necessity of some third entering Bohemia in August 1744 and taking Prague. By this power, by which he clearly means Prussia, counterbalancing their brilliant but rash venture he put himself in great danger, and excessive influence. The second treatise, which was issued by soon had to retreat; but in 1745 he gained the battles of HohenVoltaire in Hague in 1740, contains a generous exposition of friedberg, Soor and Hennersdorf; and Leopold of Dessau (" Der some of the favourite ideas of the 18th-century philosophers alte Dessauer”)won for him the victory of Kesselsdorf in Saxony. respecting the duties of sovereigns, which may be summed up The latter victory was decisive, and the peace of Dresden in the famous sentence: “the prince is not the absolute master, (December 25,,1745) assured to Frederick a second time the but only the first servant of his people.”

possession of Silesia. (See AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE.) On the 31st of May 1740 he became king. He maintained all Frederick had thus, at the age of thirty-three, raised himself the forms of government established by his father, but ruled to a great position in Europe, and henceforth he was the most in a far more enlightened spirit; he tolerated every form of re- conspicuous sovereign of his time. He was a thoroughly absolute' ligious opinion, abolished the use of torture, was most careful ruler, his so-called ministers being mere clerks whose business to secure an exact and impartial administration of justice, and, was to give effect to his will. To use his own famous phrase, while keeping the reins of government strictly in his own hands, however, he regarded himself as but “ the first servant of the allowed every one with a genuine grievance free access to his state"; and during the next eleven years he proved that the presence. The Potsdam regiment of giants was disbanded, but words expressed his inmost conviction and feeling. All kinds of the real interests of the army were carefully studied, for Frederick qisestions were submitted to him, important and unimportant; realized that the two pillars of the Prussian state were sound and he is frequently censured for having troubled himself so finances and a strong army. On the 20th of October 1740 the much with mere details. But in so far as these details related emperor Charles VI. died. Frederick at once began to make to expenditure he was fully justified, for it was absolutely extensive military preparations, and it was soon clear to all the essential for him to have a large army, and with a small state world that he intended to enter upon some serious enterprise this was impossible unless he carefully prevented unnecessary He had made up his mind to assert the ancient claim of the house outlay. Being a keen judge of character, he filled the public of Brandenburg to the three Silesian duchies, which the Austrian offie es with faithful, capable, energetic men, who were kept up rulers of Bohemia had ever denied, but the Hohenzollerns had to a high standard of duty by the consciousness that their work never abandoned. "Projects for the assertion of this claim by might at any time come under his strict supervision. The force of arms had been formed by more than one of Frederick's Acai 'emy of Sciences, which had fallen into contempt during

This father's reign, he restored, infusing into it vigorous life; and | free. His wit, however, was often cruel, and any one who rehe did more to promote elementary education than any of his sponded with too much spirit was soon made to feel that the predecessors. He did much too for the economic development licence of talk was to be complete only on one side. of Prussia, especially for agriculture; he established colonies, At Frederick's court ladies were seldom scen, a circumstance peopling them with immigrants, extended the canal system, that gave occasion to much scandal for which there seems to have drained and diked the great marshes of the Oderbruch, turning been no foundation. The queen he visited only on rare occasions. them into rich pasturage, encouraged the planting of fruit She had been forced upon him by his father, and he had never trees and of root crops; and, though in accordance with his loved her; but he always treated her with marked respect, and ideas of discipline he maintained serfdom, he did much to lighten provided her with a generous income, half of which she gave away the burdens of the peasants. All kinds of manufacture, too, in charity. Although without charm, she was a woman of many particularly that of silk, owed much to his encouragement, noble qualities; and, like her husband, she wrote French books, To the army he gave unremitting attention, reviewing it at some of which attracted a certain attention in their day. She regular intervals, and sternly punishing negligence on the part survived him by eleven years, dying in 1797. of the officers. · Its numbers were raised to 160,000 men, while Maria Theresa had never given up hope that she would recover fortresses and magazines were always kept in a state of readiness Silesia; and as all the neighbouring sovereigns were bitterly for war. The influence of the king's example was felt far beyond jealous of Frederick, and somewhat afraid of him, she had no the limits of his immediate circle. The nation was proud of his difficulty in inducing several of them to form a scheme for his genius, and displayed something of his energy in all departments ruin. Russia and Saxony entered into it heartily, and France, of life. Lessing, who as a youth of twenty came to Berlin in laying aside her ancient enmity towards Austria, joined the 1749, composed enthusiastic odes in his honour, and Gleim, empress against the common object of dislike. Frederick, the Halberstadt poet, wrote of him as of a kind of demi-god. meanwhile, had turned towards England, which saw in him a These may be taken as fair illustrations of the popular feeling possible ally of great importance against the French. A conlong before the Seven Years' War.

vention between Prussia and Great Britain was signed in January He despised German as the language of boors, although it is 1756, and it proved of incalculable value to both countries, remarkable that at a later period, in a French essay on German leading as it did to a close alliance during the administration of literature, he predicted for it a great future. He habitually Pitt. Through the treachery of a clerk in the Saxon foreign office wrote and spoke French, and had a strong ambition to rank Frederick was made aware of the future which was being prepared as a distinguished French author. Nobody can now read his for him. Seeing the importance of taking the initiative, and verses, but his prose writings have a certain calm simplicity if possible, of securing Saxony, he suddenly, on the 24th of and dignity, without, however, giving evidence of the splendid August 1756, crossed the frontier of that country, and shut in mental qualities which he revealed in practical life. To this the Saxon army between Pirna and Königstein, ultimately period belong his Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Brandebours compelling it, after a victory gained over the Austrians at and his poem L'Art de la guerre. The latter, judged as literature, Lobositz, to surrender. Thus began the Seven Years' War, is intolerably dull; but the former is valuable, throwing as it in which, supported by England, Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel, does considerable light on his personal sympathies as well as on he had for a long time to oppose Austria, France, Russia, Saxony the inotives of important epochs in his career. He continued to and Sweden. Virtually the whole Continent was in arms against correspond with French writers, and induced a number of them a small state which, a few years before, had been regarded by most to settle in Berlin, Maupertuis being president of the Academy. men as beneath serious notice. But it happened that this small In 1752 Voltaire, who had repeatedly visited him, came at state was led by a man of high military genius, capable of infusing Frederick's urgent entreaty, and received a truly royal welcome. into others his own undaunted spirit, while his subjects had The famous Hirsch trial, and Voltaire's vanity and caprice, learned both from him and his predecessors habits of patience, greatly lowered him in the esteem of the king, who, on his side, perseverance and discipline. In 1757, after defeating the irritated his guest by often requiring him to correct bad verses, Austrians at Prague, he was himself defeated by them at Kolin; and by making him the object of rude banter. The publication and by the shameful convention of Closter-Seven, he was freely of Doctor Akakia, which brought down upon the president of the exposed to the attack of the French. In November 1757, howAcademy a storm of ridicule, finally alienated Frederick; while ever, when Europe looked upon him as ruined, he rid himself of 'Voltaire's wrongs culminated in the famous arrest at Frankfort, the French by his splendid victory over them at Rossbach, and the most disagreeable elements of which were due to the mis- in about a month afterwards, by the still more splendid victory understanding of an order by a subordinate official.

at Leuthen, he drove the Austrians from Silesia. From this time The king lived as much as possible in a retired mansion, to the French were kept well employed in the west by Prince which he gave the name of Sanssouci-not the palace so called, Ferdinand of Brunswick, who defeated them at Crefeld in 1758, which was built after the Seven Years' War, and was never a and at Minden in 1759. In the former year Frederick triumphed, favourite residence. He rose regularly in summer at five, in at a heavy cost, over the Russians at Zorndorf; and although, winter at six, devoting himself to public business till about eleven. through lack of his usual foresight, he lost the battle of HochDuring part of this time, after coffee, he would aid his reflections kirch, he prevented the Austrians from deriving any real by playing on the flute, of which he was passionately fond, advantage from their triumph, Silesia still remaining in his being a really skilful performer. At eleven came parade, and an hands at the end of the year. The battle of Kunersdorf, fought hour afterwards, punctually, dinner, which continued till two, on the 12th of August 1759, was the most disastrous to him in or later, is conversation happened to be particularly attractive. the course of the war. He had here to contend both with the After dinner he glanced through and signed cabinet orders written Russians and the Austrians; and although at first he had some in accordance with his morning instructions, often adding success, his army was in the end completely broken.“ All is lost marginal notes and postscripts, many of which were in a caustic save the royal family," he wrote to his minister Friesenstein; tone. These disposed of, he amused himself for a couple of hours “the consequences of this battle will be worse than the battle with literary work; between six and seven he would converse itself. I shall not survive the ruin of the Fatherland. Adieu for with his friends or listen to his reader (a post held for some time ever!” But he soon recovered from his despair, and in 1760 by La Mettrie); at seven there was a concert; and at half-past gained the important victories of Liegnitz and Torgau. He had eight he sat down to supper, which might go on till midnight. now, however, to act on the defensive, and fortunately for him, He liked good eating and drinking, although even here the cost the Russians, on the death of the empress Elizabeth, not only was sharply looked after, the expenses of his kitchen mounting withdrew in 1762 from the compact against him, but for a time to no higher figure than 1800 a year. At supper he was always became his allies. On the 29th of October of that year he gained surrounded by a number of his most intimate friends, mainly his last victory over the Austrians at Freiberg. Europe was by Frenchmen; and he insisted on the conversation being perfectly 1 that time sick of war, every power being more or less exhausted.

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