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stay in Sweden furnished him with valuable documents for a political and social history of Sweden and France at the end of the 18th century. In 1864 and 1865 he published in the Revue des deux mondes a series of articles on Gustavus III. and the French court, which were republished in book form in 1867. To the second volume he appended a critical study on Marie Antoinette et Louis XVI apocryphes, in which he proved, by evidence drawn from documents in the private archives of the emperor of Austria, that the letters published by Feuillet de Conches (Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, 1864–1873) and Hunolstein (Corresp. inédite de Marie Antoinette, 1864) are forgeries. With the collaboration of Alfred von Arneth, director of the imperial archives at Vienna, he edited the Correspondance secrète entre Marie-Thérèse et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., 1874), the first account based on trustworthy documents of Marie Antoinette's character, private conduct and policy. The Franco-German War drew Geffroy's attention to the origins of Germany, and his Rome et les Barbares: &tude sur la Germanie de Tacite (1874) set forth some of the results of German scholarship. He was then appointed to superintend the opening of the French school of archaeology at Rome, and drew up two useful reports (1877 and 1884) on its origin and early work. But his personal tastes always led him back to the study of modern history. When the Paris archives of foreign affairs were thrown open to students, it was decided to publish a collection of the instructions given to French ambassadors since 1648 (Recueil des instructions données aux ambassadeurs et ministres de France depuis le traité de Westphalie), and Geffroy was commissioned to edit the volumes dealing with Sweden (vol.ii., 1885) and Denmark (vol.xiii., 1895). In the interval he wrote Madame de Maintenon d'après sa correspondance authentique (2 vols., 1887), in which he displayed his penetrating critical faculty in discriminating between authentic documents and the additions and corrections of arrangers like La Beaumelle and Lavallée. His last works were an Essai sur la formation des collections d'antiques de la Suède and Des institutions et des maurs du paganisme scandinave: l'Islande avant le Christianisme, both published posthumously. He died at Bièvre on the 16th of August 1895. GEFLE, a seaport of Sweden on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, chief town of the district (län) of Gefleborg, 112 m. N.N.W. of Stockholm by rail. Pop. (1900) 29,522. It is the chief port of the district of Kopparberg, with its iron and other mines and forests. The exports consist principally of timber and woodpulp, iron and steel. The harbour, which has two entrances about 20 ft. deep, is usually ice-bound in mid-winter. Large
vessels generally load in the roads at Graberg, 6 m. distant.”
There are slips and shipbuilding yards, and a manufacture of sail-cloth. The town is an important industrial centre, having tobacco and leather factories, electrical and other mechanical works, and breweries. At Skutskär at the mouth of the Dal river are wood-pulp and saw mills, dealing with the large quantities of timber floated down the river; and there are large wood-yards in the suburb of Bomhus. Gefle was almost destroyed by fire in 1869, but was rebuilt in good style, and has the advantage of a beautiful situation. The principal buildings are a castle, founded by King John III. (1568–1592), but rebuilt later, a council-house erected by Gustavus III., who held a diet here in 1792, an exchange, and schools of commerce and navigation. GEGENBAUR, CARL (1826-1903), German anatomist, was born on the 21st of August 1826 at Würzburg, the university of which he entered as a student in 1845. After taking his degree in 1851 he spent some time in travelling in Italy and Sicily, before returning to Würzburg as Privatdocent in 1854. In 1855 he was appointed extraordinary professor of anatomy at Jena, where after 1865 his fellow-worker, Ernst Haeckel, was professor of zoology, and in 1858 he became the ordinary professor. In 1873 he was appointed to Heidelberg, where he was professor of anatomy and director of the Anatomical Institute until his retirement in 1901. He died at Heidelberg on the 14th of June 1903. The work by which perhaps he is best known is his Grundriss der vergleichenden Anatomie (Leipzig, 1874; 2nd
edition, 1878). This was translated into English by W. F. Jeffrey Bell (Elements of Comparative Anatomy, 1878), with additions by E. Ray Lankester. While recognizing the importance of comparative embryology in the study of descent, Gegenbaur laid stress on the higher value of comparative anatomy as the basis of the study of homologies, i.e. of the relations between corresponding parts in different animals, as, for example, the arm of man, the foreleg of the horse and the wing of afowl. A distinctive piece of work was effected by him in 1871 in supplementing the evidence adduced by Huxley in refutation of the theory of the origin of the skull from expanded vertebrae, which, formulated independently by Goethe and Oken, had been championed by Owen. Huxley demonstrated that the skull is built up of cartilaginous pieces; Gegenbaur showed that “in the lowest (gristly) fishes, where hints of the original vertebrae might be most expected, the skull is an unsegmented gristly brain-box, and that in higher forms the vertebral nature of the skull cannot be maintained, since many of the bones, notably those along the top of the skull, arise in the skin.” Other publications by Gegenbaur include a Text-book of Human Anatomy (Leipzig, 1883, new ed. 1903), the Epiglottis (1892) and Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates in relation to the Invertebrates (Leipzig, 2 vols., 1898-1901). In 1875 he founded the Morphologisches Jahrbuch, which he edited for many years. In 1901 he published a short autobiography under the title Erlebtes und Erstrebles. See Fürbringer in Heidelberger Professoren aus dem 19ten, Jahrhundert (Heidelberg, 1903). GEGENSCHEIN (Ger. gegen, opposite, and schein, shine), an extremely faint luminescence of the sky, seen opposite the direction of the sun. Germany was the country in which it was first discovered and described. The English rendering “counterglow" is also given to it. Its faintness is such that it can be seen only by a practised eye under favourable conditions. It is invisible during the greater part of June, July, December and January, owing to its being then blotted out by the superior light of the Milky Way. It is also invisible during moonlight and near the horizon, and the neighbourhood of a bright star or planet may interfere with its recognition. When none of these unfavourable conditions supervene it may be seen at nearly any time when the air is clear and the depression of the sun below the horizon more than 20°. (See ZoDIACAL LIGHT.) GEIBEL, EMANUEL (1815–1884), German poet, was born at Lübeck on the 17th of October 1815, the son of a pastor in the city. He was originally intended for his father's profession. and studied at Bonn and Berlin, but his real interests lay not in theology but in classical and romance philology. In 1838 he accepted a tutorship at Athens, where he remained until 1840. In the same year he brought out, in conjunction with his friend Ernst Curtius, a volume of translations from the Greek. His first poems, Zeitstimmen, appeared in 1841; a tragedy, König Roderich, followed in 1843. In the same year he received a pension from the king of Prussia, which he retained until his invitation to Munich by the king of Bavaria in 1851 as honorary professor at the university. In the interim he had produced König Sigurds Brautfahrt (1846), an epic, and Juniuslieder (1848, 33rd ed. 1901), lyrics in a more spirited and manlier style than his early poems. A volume of Neue Gedichte, published at Munich in 1857, and principally consisting of poems on classical subjects, denoted a further considerable advance in objectivity, and the series was worthily closed by the Spätherbstblatter, published in 1877. He had quitted Munich in 1869 and returned to Lübeck, where he died on the 6th of April 1884. His works further include two tragedies, Brunhild(1858, 5th ed. 1890), and Sophonisbe (1869), and translations of French and Spanish popular poetry. Beginning as a member of the group of political poets who heralded the revolution of 1848, Geibel was also the chief poet to welcome the establishment of the Empire in 1871. His strength lay not, however, in his political songs but in his purely lyric poetry, such as the fine cycle Ada and his still popular love-songs. He may be regarded as the leading representative of German lyric poetry between 1848 and 1870.
Geibel's Gesammelte Werke were published in 8 vols. (1883, 4th ed. 1906); his Gedichte have gone through about 130 editions. An excellent selection in one volume appeared in 1904. For biography and criticism, see K. Goedeke, E. Geibel (1869); W. Scherer's address on Geibel (1884); K. T. Gaedertz, Geibel-Denkwurdigkeiten (1886); C. C. T. Litzmann, E. Geibel, aus Erinnerungen, Briefen und Tagebûchern (1887), and biographies by C. Leimbach (2nd ed., 1894), and K. T. Gaedertz (1897). GEIGE (O. Fr. gigue, gige; O. Ital. and Span. giga; Prov. gigua; O. Dutch gighe), in modern German the violin; in medieval German the name applied to the first stringed instruments played with a bow, in contradistinction to those whose strings were plucked by fingers or plectrum such as the cithara, rotta and fidula, the first of these terms having been very generally used to designate various instruments whose strings were plucked. The name gige in Germany, of which the origin is uncertain, and its derivatives in otherlanguages, were in the middle ages applied to rebecs having fingerboards. As the first bowed instruments in Europe were, as far as we know, those of the rebab type, both boat-shaped and pear-shaped, it seems probable that the name clung to them long after the bow had been applied to other stringed instruments derived from the cithara, such as the fiddle (videl) or vielle. In the romances of the 12th and 13th centuries the g!ge is frequently mentioned, and generally associated with the rotta. Early in the 16th century we find definite information concerning the Geige in the works of Sebastian Virdung (1511), Hans Judenkünig (1523), Martin Agricola (1532), Hans Gerle (1533); and from the instruments depicted, of two distinct types and many varieties, it would appear that the principal idea attached to the name was still that of the bow used to vibrate the strings. Virdung qualifies the word Geige with Klein (small) and Gross (large), which do not represent two sizes of the same instrument but widely different types, also recognized by Agricola, who names three or four sizes of each, discant, alto, tenor and bass. Virdung's Klein Geige is none other than the rebec with two C-shaped soundholes and a raised fingerboard cut in one piece with the vaulted back and having a separate flat soundboard glued over it, a change rendered necessary by the arched bridge. Agricola's Klein Geige with three strings was of a totally different construction, having ribs and wide incurvations but no bridge; there was a rose soundhole near the tailpiece and two C-shaped holes in the shoulders. Agricola (Musica instrumentalis) distinctly mentions three kinds of Geigen with three, four and five strings. From him we learn that only one position was as yet used on these instruments, one or two higher notes being occasionally obtained by sliding the little finger along. A century later Agricola's Geige was regarded as antiquated by Praetorius, who reproduces one of the bridgeless ones with five strings, a rose and two C-shaped soundholes, and calls it an old fiddle; under Geige he gives the violins. (K. S.) GEIGER, ABRAHAM (1810-1874), Jewish theologian and orientalist, was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 24th of May 1810, and educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn. As a student he distinguished himself in philosophy and in philology, and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of Judaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which was afterwards published in 1833 under the title Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judentum aufgenommen? (English trans. Judaism and Islam, Madras, 1898). In November 1832 he went to Wiesbaden as rabbi of the synagogue, and became in 1835 one of the most "The words gige, g!gen, geic appear suddenly in the M. H. German of the 12th century, and thence passed apparently into the Romance languages, though some would reverse the process (e.g. Weigand, Deutsches Wörterbuch). An elaborate argument in the Deutsches Wörterbuch of J. and W. Grimm (Leipzig, 1897) connects the word with an ancient common Teut. root gag-meaning to sway to and fro, as preserved in numerous forms: e.g. M.H.G. gagen, gugen, “ to sway to and fro" (gugen, gagen, the rocking of a cradle), the Swabian gigen, gagen, in the same sense, the Tirolese gaiggern, to sway, doubt, or the old Norse geiga, to go astray or crooked. The referenge is to the swaying motion of the violin bow. The English “jig" is derived from g?ge through the O. Fr. gigue (in the sense of a stringed instrument); the modern French gigue (a dance) is the English "jig" re-imported (Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, Dictionnaire). This opens up another possibility, of the origin of the name of the instrument in the dance which it accompanied. (W.A.P.)
active promoters of the Zeitschrift für jiidische Theologie (1835– 1839 and 1842-1847). From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote some of his most impertant works, including Lehr- und Lesebuch zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and Urschrift und Übersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857). The lastnamed work attracted little attention at the time, but now enjoys a great reputation as a new departure in the methods of studying the records of Judaism. The Urschrift has moreover been recognized as one of the most original contributions to biblical science. In 1863 Geiger became head of the synagogue of his native town, and in 1870 he removed to Berlin, where, in addition to his duties as chief rabbi, he took the principal charge of the newly established seminary for Jewish science. The Urschrift was followed by a more exhaustive handling of one of its topics in Die Sadducder und Pharisãer (1863), and by a more thorough application of its leading principles in an elaborate history of Judaism (Das Judentum und seine Geschichte) in 18651871. Geiger also contributed frequently on Hebrew, Samaritan and Syriacsubjects to the Zeitschriftderdeutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, and from 1862 until his death (on the 23rd of October 1874) he was editor of a periodical entitled Jüdische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Leben. He also published a Jewish prayerbook (Israélitisches Gebetbuch) and a variety of minor monographs on historical and literary subjects connected with the fortunes of his people. (I.A.) An Allgemeine Einleitung and five volumes of Nachgelassene Schriften were edited in 1875 by his son LUDw1G GEIGER (b. 1848), who in 1880 became extraordinary professor in the university of Berlin. Ludwig Geiger published a large number of biographical and literary works and made aspecial study of German humanism. He edited the Goethe-Jahrbuch from 1880, Vierteljahrsschrift für Kultur und Litteratur der Renaissance (1885–1886), Zeitschr, für die Gesch. der Juden im Deutschland (1886-1891), Zeitschr, für vergleichende Litteraturgeschichte und Renaissance-Litteratur (1887-1891). Among his works are Johann Reuchlin, sein Leben wnd seine Werke (Leipzig, 1871); and Johann Reuchlin's Briefwechsel (Tübingen, 1875); Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und Deutschland (1882, 2nd ed. 1901); Gesch. des geistigen Lebens der preussischen Hauptstadt (1892-1894); Berlin's geistiges Leben (1894-1896). See also J. Derenbourg in Jüd. Zeitschrift, xi. 299-308; E. Schricber, Abraham Geiger als. Reformator des Judentums (1880), art. (with portrait) in Jewish Encyclopedia. Abraham Geiger's nephew LAzARUs GEIGER (1829-1870), philosopher and philologist, born at Frankfort-on-Main, was destined to commerce, but soon gave himself up to scholarship and studied at Marburg, Bonn and Heidelberg. From 1861 till His sudden death in 1870 he was professor in the Jewish high school at Frankfort. His chief aim was to prove that the evolution of human reason is closely bound up with that of language. He further maintained that the origin of the IndoGermanic language is to be sought not in Asia but in central Germany. He was a convinced opponent of rationalism in religion. His chief work was his Ursprung und Entwickelung der menschlichen Sprache und Vernunft (vol. i., Stuttgart, 1868), the principal results of which appeared in a more popular form as Der Ursprung der Sprache (Stuttgart, 1869 and 1878). The second volume of the former was published in an incomplete form (1872, 2nd ed. 1899) after his death by his brother Alfred Geiger, who also published a number of his scattered papers as Zur Entwickelung der Menschheit (1871, 2nd ed. 1878; Eng. trans. D. Asher, Hist, of the Development of the Human Race, Lond., 1880). See L. A. Rosenthal, Las. Geiger: seine Lehre vom Ursprung d. Sprache und Vernunft und sein Leben (Stuttgart, 1883); E. Peschier, L. Geiger, sein Leben und Denken (1871); J. Keller, L. Geiger und d. Kritik.d. Vernunft (Wertheim, 1883) and Der Ursprung d. Vernunft (Heidelberg, 1884). GEIJER, ERIK GUSTAF (1783–1847), Swedish historian, was born at Ransäter in Värmland, on the 12th of January 1783, of a family that had immigrated from Austria in the 17th century He was educated at the university of Upsala, where in 1803 he carried off the Swedish Academy's great prize for his Areminne ofver Sten Sture den äldre. He graduated in 1806, and in 181o returned from a year's residence in England to become docent in his university. Soon afterwards he accepted a post in the public record office at Stockholm, where, with some friends, he founded the “Gothic Society,” to whose organ Iduna he contributed a number of prose essays and the songs Manhem, Vikingen, Den siste kâmpen, Densiste skalden, Odalbonden, Kolargossen, which he set to music. About the same time he issued a volume of hymns, of which several are inserted in the Swedish Psalter.
Geijer's lyric muse was soon after silenced by his call to be assistant to Erik Michael Fant, professor of history at Upsala, whom he succeeded in 1817. In 1824 he was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. A single volume of a great projected work, Svea Rikes Hāfder, itself a masterly critical examination of the sources of Sweden's legendary history, appeared in 1825. Geijer's researches in its preparation had severely strained his health, and he went the same year on a tour through Denmark and part of Germany, his impressions from which are recorded in his Minnen. In 1832–1836 he published three volumes of his Svenska folkets historia (Eng. trans by J. H. Turner, 1845), a clear view of the political and social development of Sweden down to 1654. The acute critical insight, just thought, and finished historical art of these incomplete works of Geijer entitle him to the first place among Swedish historians. His chief other historical and political writings are his Teckning of Sveriges tillständ 1718–1772 (Stockholm, 1838), and Feodalism och republikanism, ett bidrag till Samhâllsförfattningens historia (1844), which led to a controversy with the historian Anders Fryxell regarding the part played in history by the Swedish aristocracy. Geijer also edited, with the aid of J. H. Schröder, a continuation of Fant's Scriptores rerum svecicarum medii aevi (1818–1828), and, by himself, Thomas Thorild's Samlade skrifter (1819-1825), and Konung Gustaf III.'s efterlemnade Papper (4 vols., 1843–1846). Geijer's academic lectures, of which the last three, published in 1845 under the title Om vår tids inre samhillsforhällanden, i synnerhet med afseende på Föderneslandel, involved him in another controversy with Fryxell, but exercised a great influence over his students, who especially testified to their attachment after the failure of a prosecution against him for heresy. A number of his extempore lectures, recovered from notes, were published in 1856. He also wrote a life of Charles XIV. (Stockholm, 1844). Failing health forced Geijer to resign his chair in 1846, after which he removed to Stockholm for the purpose of completing his Svenska folkets historia, and died there on the 23rd of April 1847. His Samlade skrifter (13 vols., 1849–1855; new ed., 1873-1877) include a large number of philosophical and political essays contributed to reviews, particularly to Litteraturbladet (1838–1839), a periodical edited by himself, which attracted great attention in its day by its pronounced liberal views on public questions, a striking contrast to those he had defended in 1828-1830, when, as again in 1840-1841, he represented Upsala University in the Swedish diet. His poems were collected and published as Skaldestycken (Upsala, 1835 and 1878).
Geijer's style is strong and manly. His genius bursts out in sudden flashes that light up the dark corners of history. A few strokes, and a personality stands before us instinct with life. His language is at once the scholar's and the poet's; with his profoundest thought there beats in unison the warmest, the noblest, the most patriotic heart. Geijer came to the writing of history fresh from researches in the whole field of Scandinavian antiquity, researches whose first-fruits are garnered in numerous articles in Iduna, and his masterly treatise Om den gamla nordiska folkvisan, prefixed to the collection of Svenska folkvisor which he edited with A. A. Afzelius (3 vols., 1814–1816). The development of freedom is the idea that gives unity to all his historical writings.
For Geijer's £ see his own Minnen (#): which contains copious extracts from his letters and diaries; B. E. Malmström, Minnestal ofter E. G. Geijer, addressed to the Upsala students # 6, 1848), and printed among his Tal och esthetiska afhandlingar
1868), and Grunddrogen af Svenska vitterhetens hafder (1866–1868);
and S.A. Hollander, Minne af E. G. Geijer (Örebro, 1869). See also lives of Geijer by J. Hellstenius (Stockholm, 1876) and J. Niekson (Odense, 1902).
GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD (1835– ), Scottish geologist, was born at Edinburgh on the 28th of December 1835. He was educated at the high school and university of Edinburgh, and in 1855 was appointed an assistant on the Geological Survey. Wielding the pen with no less facility than the hammer, he inaugurated his long list of works with The Story of a Boulder; or, Gleanings from the Note-Book of a Geologist (1858). His ability at once attracted the notice of his chief, Sir Roderick Murchison, with whom he formed a lifelong friendship, and whose biographer he subsequently became. With Murchison some of his earliest work was done on the complicated regions of the Highland schists; and the small geological map of Scotland published in 1862 was their joint work: a larger map was issued by Geikie in 1892. In 1863 he published an important essay “On the Phenomena of the Glacial Drift of Scotland,” Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, in which the effects of ice action in that country were for the first time clearly and connectedly delineated. In 1865 appeared Geikie's Scenery of Scotland (3rd edition, 1901), which was, he claimed, “the first attempt to elucidate in some detail the history of the topography of a country.” In the same year he was elected F.R.S. At this time the Edinburgh school of geologistsprominent among them Sir Andrew Ramsay, with his Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain—were maintaining the supreme importance of denudation in the configuration of landsurfaces, and particularly the erosion of valleys by the action of running water. Geikie's book, based on extensive personal knowledge of the country, was an able contribution to the doctrines of the Edinburgh school, of which he himself soon began to rank as one of the leaders. In 1867, when a separate branch of the Geological Survey was established for Scotland, he was appointed director. On the foundation of the Murchison professorship of geology and mineralogy at the university of Edinburgh in 1871, he became the first occupant of the chair. These two appointments he continued to hold till 1881, when he succeeded Sir Andrew Ramsay in the joint offices of director-general of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and director of the museum of practical geology, London, from which he retired in February 1901. A feature of his tenure of office was the impetus given to microscopic petrography, a branch of geology to which he had devoted special study, by a splendid collection of sections of British rocks. Later he wrote two important and interesting Survey Memoirs, The Geology of Central and Western Fife and Kinross (1900), and The Geology of Eastern Fife (1902). From the outset of his career, when he started to investigate the geology of Skye and other of the Western Isles, he took a keen interest in volcanic geology, and in 1871 he brought before the Geological Society of London an outline of the Tertiary volcanic history of Britain. Many difficult problems, however, remained to be solved. Here he was greatly aided by his extensive travels, not only throughout Europe, but in western America. While the canyons of the Colorado confirmed his long-standing views on erosion, the eruptive regions of Wyoming, Montana and Utah supplied him with valuable data in explanation of volcanic phenomena. The results of his further researches were given in an elaborate and charmingly written essay on “The History of Volcanic Action during the Tertiary Period in the British Isles,” Trans. Roy, Soc. Edin., (1888). His mature views on volcanic geology were given to the world in his presidential addresses to the Geological Society in 1891 and 1892, and afterwards embodied in his great work on The Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain (1897). Other results of his travels are collected in his Geological Sketches at Home and Abroad (1882). His experience as a field geologist resulted in an admirable text-book, Outlines of Field Geology (5th edition, 1900) After editing and practically re-writing Jukes's Student's Manual of Geology in 1872, he published in 1882 a Text-Book and in 1886 a Class-Book of geology, which have taken rank as standard works of their kind. A fourth edition of his Text-Book, in two vols., was issued in 1903. His writings are marked in a high degree by charm of style and power of vivid description. His literary ability has given him peculiar qualifications as a writer of scientific biography, and the Memoir of Edward Forbes (with G. Wilson), and those of his old chiefs, Sir R. I. Murchison (2 vols., 1875) and Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay (1895), are models of what such works should be. His Founders of Geology consists of the inaugural course of Lectures (founded by Mrs G. H. Williams) at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, delivered in 1897. In 1897 he issued an admirable Geological Map of England and Wales, with Descriptive Notes. In 1898 he delivered the Romanes Lectures, and his address was published under the title of Types of Scenery and their Influence on Literature. The study of geography owes its improved position in Great Britain largely to his efforts. Among his works on this subject is The Teaching of Geography (1887). His Scottish Reminiscences (1904) and Landscape in History and other Essays (1905) are charmingly written and full of instruction. He was foreign secretary of the Royal Society from 1890 to 1894, joint secretary from 1903 to 1908, president in 1909, president of the Geological Society in 1891 and 1892, and president of the British Association, 1892. He received the honour of knighthood in 1891.
GEIKIE, JAMES (1839– ), Scottish geologist, younger brother of Sir Archibald Geikie, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of August 1839. He was educated at the high school and university of Edinburgh. He served on the Geological Survey from 1861 until 1882, when he succeeded his brother as Murchison professor of geology and mineralogy at the university of Edinburgh. He took as his special subject of investigation the origin of surface-features, and the part played in their formation by glacial action. His views are embodied in his chief work, The Great Ice Age and its Relation to the Antiquity of Man (1874; 3rd ed., 1894). He was elected F.R.S. in 1875. James Geikie became the leader of the school that upholds the allimportant action of land-ice, as against those geologists who assign chief importance to the work of pack-ice and icebergs. Continuing this line of investigation in his Prehistoric Europe (1881), he maintained the hypothesis of five inter-Glacial periods in Great Britain, and argued that the palaeolithic deposits of the Pleistocene period were not post- but inter- or pre-Glacial. His Fragments of Earth Lore: Sketches and Addresses, Geological and Geographical (1893) and Earth Sculpture (1898) are mainly concerned with the same subject. His Outlines of Geology (1886), a standard text-book of its subject, reached its third edition in 1896; and in 1905 he published an important manual on Structural and Field Geology. In 1887 he displayed another side
of his activity in a volume of Songs and Lyrics by H. Heine and
other German Poets, done into English Verse. From 1888 he was honorary editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. GEIKIE, WALTER (1795-1837), Scottish painter, was born at Edinburgh on the 9th of November 1795. In his second year he was attacked by a nervous fever by which he permanently lost the faculty of hearing, but through the careful attention of his father he was enabled to obtain a good education. Before he had the advantage of the instruction of a master he had attained considerable proficiency in sketching both figures and landscapes from nature, and in 1812 he was admitted into the drawing academy of the board of Scottish manufactures. He first exhibited in 1815, and was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1831, and a fellow in 1834. He died on the 1st of August 1837, and was interred in the Greyfriars churchyard, Edinburgh. Owing to his want of feeling for colour, Geikie was not a successful painter in oils, but he sketched in India ink with great truth and humour the scenes and characters of Scottish lower-class life in his native city. A series of etchings which exhibit very high excellence were published by him in 1829-1831, and a collection of eighty-one of these was republished posthumously in 1841, with a biographical introduction by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart. GEILER (or GEYLER) VON KAISERSBERG, JOHANN (14451510), “the German Savonarola,” one of the greatest of the popular preachers of the 15th century, was born at Schaffhausen
on the 16th of March 1445, but from 1448 passed his childhood and youth at Kaisersberg in Upper Alsace, from which place his current designation is derived. In 1460 he entered the university of Freiburg in Baden, where, after graduation, he lectured for some time on the Sententiae of Peter Lombard, the commentaries of Alexander of Hales, and several of the works of Aristotle. A living interest in theological subjects, awakened by the study of John Gerson, led him in 1471 to the university of Basel, a centre of attraction to some of the most earnest spirits of the time Made a doctor of theology in 1475, he received a professorship at Freiburg in the following '#. his tastes, no less than the spirit of the age, began to incline him morestrongly to the vocation of a preacher, while his fervour and eloquence soon led to his receiving numerous invitations to the larger towns. Ultimately he accepted in 1478 a call to the cathedral of Strassburg, where he continued to work with few interruptions until within a short time of his death on the 10th of March 1510. The beautiful pulpit erected for him in 1481 in the nave of the cathedral, when the chapel of St Lawrence had proved too small, still bears witness to the popularity he enjoyed as a preacher in the immediate sphere of his labours, and the testimonies of Sebastian Brant, Beatus Rhenanus, Johann Reuchlin, Melanchthon and others show how great had been the influence of his personal character. His sermons-bold, incisive, denunciatory, abounding in quaint illustrations and based on texts by no means confined to the Bible, -taken down as he spoke them, and circulated (sometimes without his knowledge or consent) by his friends, told perceptibly on the German thought as well as on the German speech of his time. Among the many volumes published under his name only two appear to have £ the benefit of his revision, namely, Der Seelen dradies von waren und volkommen Tugenden, and that entitled Das irrig Schaf. Of the rest, probably the best-known is a series of lectures on his friend Seb. Brant's work, Das Narrenschaff or the Navicula or Speculum fatuorum, of which an edition was published at Strassburg in 1511 under the following title:-Navicula sive # fatuorum praestantissimi sacrarumliterarumdoctoris Joannis eiler Keysersbergii. See F. W. von Ammon, Geyler's Leben, Lehren und Predigten (1826); L. Dacheux, Un Réformateur catholique d la fin du XV* siècle, J. G. de K (Paris, 1876); R. Crucl, Gesch. der deutschen Predigt, pp. 538-576 #9: P. de Lorenzi, Geiler's ausgewahite Schriften (4 vols., 1881); T. M. Lindsay, History of the Reformation, i. 118 (1906); and G. Kawerau in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie, vi. 427. GEINITZ, HANS BRUNO (1814–1900), German geologist, was born at Altenburg, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the 16th of October 1814. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Jena, and gained the foundations of his geological knowledge under F. A. Quenstedt. In 1837 he took the degree of Ph.D with a thesis on the Muschelkalk of Thuringia. In 1850 he became professor of geology and mineralogy in the Royal Polytechnic School at Dresden, and in 1857 he was made director of the Royal Mineralogical and Geological Museum, he held these posts until 1894. He was distinguished for his researches on the Carboniferous and Cretaceous rocks and fossils of Saxony, and in particular for those relating to the fauna and flora of the Permian or Dyas formation. He described also the graptolites of the local Silurian strata, and the flora of the Coal-formation of Altai and Nebraska. From 1863 to 1878 he was one of the editors of the Neues Jahrbuch. He was awarded the Murchison medal by the Geological Society of London in 1878 He died at Dresden on the 28th of January 1900. His son FRANz EUGEN GEINITz (b. 1854), professor of geology in the university of Rostock, became distinguished for researches on the geology of £ Mecklenburg, &c H. B. Geinitz's publications were Das Quadersandsleingebirge oder eutschland (1849–1850), Die Versteinerungen der
Kreidegebirge in 1855), Dyas, oder die Zechstein
Stevnkohlenformation in Sachsen
formation and das Rothliegende (1861-1862); Das Elbthalgebirge in
Sachsen (1871-1875) GEISHA (a Chino-Japanese word meaning “person of pleasing accomplishments”), strictly the name of the professional dancing and singing girls of Japan. The word is, however, often loosely used for the girls and women inhabiting Shin Yoshiwara, the prostitutes' quarter of Tokyo. The training of the true Geisha or singing girl, which includes lessons in dancing, begins often as early as her seventh year. Her apprenticeship over, she contracts with her employer ior a number of years, and is seldom able to reach independence except by marriage. There is a capitation fee of two yen per month on the actual singing girls, and of one yen on the apprentices. See Jukichi Inouye, Sketches of Tokyo Life. GEISLINGEN, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Württemberg, on the Thierbach, 38 m. by rail E.S.E. of Stuttgart. Pop. (1905) 7050. It has shops for the carving and turning of bone, ivory, wood and horn, besides iron-works, machinery factories, glass-works, brewing and bleaching works, &c. The church of St Mary contains wood-carving by Jörg Syrlin the Younger. Above the town lic the ruins of the castle of Helfenstein, which was destroyed in 1552. Having been for a few years in the possession of Bavaria, the town passed to Württemberg in 181o. See Weitbrecht, Wanderungen durch Geislingen und seine Umgebung (Stuttgart, 1896). GEISSLER, HEINRICH (1814–1879), German physicist, was born at the village of Igelshieb in Saxe-Meiningen on the 26th of May 1814 and was educated as a glass-blower. In 1854 he settled at Bonn, where he speedily gained a high reputation for his skill and ingenuity of conception in the fabrication of chemical and physical apparatus. With Julius Plücker, in 1852, he ascertained the maximum density of water to be at 3.8° C. He also determined the coefficient of expansion for ice between –24° and -7°, and for water freezing at o”. In 1869, in conjunction with H. P. J. Vogelsang, he proved the existence of liquid carbon dioxide in cavities in quartz and topaz, and later he obtained amorphous from ordinary phosphorus by means of the electric current. He is best known as the inventor of the sealed glass tubes which bear his name, by means of which are exhibited the phenomena accompanying the discharge of electricity through highly rarefied vapours and gases. Among other apparatus contrived by him were a vaporimeter, mercury airpump, balances, normal thermometer, and areometer. From the university of Bonn, on the occasion of its jubilee in 1868, he received the honorary degree of doctor of philosophy. He died at Bonn on the 24th of January 1879. See A. W. Hofmann, Ber. d. deut. chem. Ges. p. 148 (1879). GELA, a city of Sicily, generally and almost certainly identified with the modern Terranova (q.v.). It was founded by Cretan and Rhodian colonists in 688 B.C., and itself founded Acragas (see AGRIGENTUM) in 582 B.C. It also had a treasure-house at Olympia. The town took its name from the river to the east (Thucydides vi. 2), which in turn was so called from its winter frost (YêXa in the Sicel dialect; cf. Lat. gelidus). The Rhodian settlers called it Lindioi (see LINDUs). Gela enjoyed its greatest prosperity under Hippo rates (498–491 B.C.), whose dominion extended over a considerable part of the island. Gelon, who seized the tyranny on his death, became master of Syracuse in 485 B.c., and transferred his capital thither with half the inhabitants of Gela, leaving his brother Hiero to rule over the rest. Its prosperity returned, however, after the expulsion of Thrasybulus in 466 B.C.," but in 405 it was besieged by the Carthaginians and abandoned by Dionysius' order, after his failure (perhaps due to treachery) to drive the besiegers away (E. A. Freeman, Hist. of Sic. iii. 562 seq.). The inhabitants later returned and rebuilt the town, but it never regained its position. In 311 B.C. Agathocles put to death 50oo of its inhabitants; and finally,
after its destruction by the Mamertines about 281 B.C., Phintias'
of Agrigentum transferred the remainder to the new town of Phintias (now Licata, q.v.). It seems that in Roman times they still kept the name of Gelenses or Geloi in their new abode (Th. Mommsen in C.I.L. x., Berlin, 1883, p. 737). (T. As.) GELADA, the Abyssinian name of a large species of baboon, différing from the members of the genus Papio (see BABooN) by the nostrils being situated some distance above the extremity of the muzzle, and hence made the type of a separate genus, under the name of Theropithecus gelada. In the heavy mantle of long brown hair covering the fore-quarters of the old males, * Aeschylus died there in 456 B.C.
with the exception of the bare chest, which is reddish flesh-colour, the gelada recalls the Arabian baboon (Papio hamadryas), and from this common feature it has been proposed to place the two species in the same genus. The gelada inhabits the mountains of Abyssinia, where, like other baboons, it descends in droves to pillage cultivated lands. A second species, or race, Theropithecus obscurus, distinguished by its darker hairs and the presence of a bare flesh-coloured ring round each eye, inhabits the eastern confines of Abyssinia. (R. L.") GELASIUS, the name of two popes. GELASIUs I., pope from 492 to 496, was the successor of Felix III. He confirmed the estrangement between the Eastern and Western churches by insisting on the removal of the name of Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, from the diptychs. He is the author of De duabus in Christo naturis adversus Eutychen et Nestorium. A great number of his letters has also come down to us. His name has been attached to a Liber Sacramentorum anterior to that of St Gregory, but he can have composed only certain parts of it. As to the so-called Decretum Gelasii de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis, it also is a compilation of documents anterior to Gelasius, and it is difficult to determine Gelasius's contributions to it. At all events, as we know it, it is of Roman origin, and 6th-century or later. (L. D.") GELASIUs II. (Giovanni Coniulo), pope from the 24th of January 1118 to the 29th of January 1119, was born at Gaeta of an illustrious family. He became a monk of Monte Cassino, was taken to Rome by Urban II., and made chancellor and cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria in Cosmedin. Shortly after his unanimous election to succeed Paschal II. he was seized by Cencius Frangipane, a partisan of the emperor Henry V., but freed by a general uprising of the Romans in his behalf. The emperor drove Gelasius from Rome in March, pronounced his election null and void, and set up Burdinus, archbishop of Braga, as antipope under the name of Gregory VIII. Gelasius fled to Gaeta, where he was ordained priest on the 9th of March and on the following day received episcopal consecration. He at once excommunicated Henry and the antipope and, under Norman protection, was able to return to Rome in July; but the disturbances of the imperialist party, especially of the Frangipani, who attacked the pope while celebrating mass in the church of St Prassede, compelled Gelasius to go once more into exile. He set out for France, consecrating the cathedral of Pisa on the way, and arrived at Marseilles in October. He was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier and other cities, held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at Cluny. His successor was Calixtus II. ... His letters are in J. P. Migne, Patrol. Lat, vol. 163. The original life by Pandulf is in J. M. Watterich, Pontif. Roman. vitae (Leipzig, 1862), and there is an important digest of his bulls and official acts in Jaffé-Wattenbach, Regesta pontif. Roman. (1885-1888). J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. his Innocenz III. (Bonn, 1893); F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 4, trans, by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1896); A. Wagner, Die unteritalischen Normannen und das Papsttum, 10861156 (Breslau, 1885); W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, Bd. iii. (Brunswick, 1890); G. Richter, Annalen der deutschen Geschichte im Mittelalter, iii. (Halle, 1898); H. H. Milman, Latin Christianity, vol.4 (London, 1899). (C. H. H.A.) GELATI, a Georgian monastery in Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Kutais, 11 m. E. of the town of Kutais, standing on a rocky spur (705 ft. above sea-level) in the valley of the Rion. It was founded in 11oo by the Georgian king David the Renovator. The principal church, a sandstone cathedral, dates from the end of the preceding century, and contains the royal crown of the former Georgian kingdom of Imeretia, besides ancient MSS., ecclesiological furniture, and fresco portraits of the kings of Imeretia. Here also, in a separate chapel, is the tomb of David the Renovator (1089–1125) and part of the iron gate of the town of Ganja (now Elisavetpol), which that monarch brought away as a trophy of his capture of the place. GELATIN, or GetATINE, the substance which passes into solution when “collagen,” the ground substance of bone, cartilage and white fibrous tissue, is treated with boiling water