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or dilute acids. It is especially characterized by its property of cold water; nevertheless the solutions yield on precipitation with forming a jelly at ordinary temperature, becoming liquid when
alcohol a substance identical in composition with gelatin.
By prolonged boiling in contact with hydrolytic agents, such as heated, and resolidifying to a jelly on cooling. The word is sulphuric acid or caustic alkali, it yields quantities of leucin and derived from the Fr. gélatine, and Ital gelatina, from the Lat. glycocoll (so-called " sugar of gelatin," this being the method by gelata, that which is frozen, congealed or stiff. It is, therefore, in which glycocoll was first prepared), but no tyrosin. In this last origin cognate with “ jelly," which came through the Fr. gelee respect it differs from the great body of proteids, the characteristic from the same Latin original.
solíd products of the decomposition of which are leucin and tyrosin. The "collagen," obtained from tendons and connective
Gelatin occurs in commerce in varying degrees of purity, the tissues, also occurs in the cornea and sclerotic coat of the eye, purer form obtained from skins and bones (to which this article and in fish scales. Cartilage was considered to be composed of a
is restricted) is named gelatin; a preparation of great purity is substance chondrigen, which gave chondrin or cartilage-glue on
“ patent isinglass,” while isinglass (9.0.) itself is a fish-gelatin; boiling with water. Recent researches make it probable that less pure forms constitute glue (q.v.), while a dilute aqueous cartilage contains (1) chondromucoid, (2) chondroitin-sulphuric solution appears in commerce as size (4.v.). The manufacture acid, (3) collagen, (4) an albumoid present in old but not in follows much the same lines as that of glue, but it is essential young cartilage, whilst chondrin is a mixture of gelatin and that the raw materials must be carefully selected, and in view of mucin. "Bone collagen,” or “ossein,” constitutes, with calcium the consumption of most of the gelatin in the kitchen--for soups, salts, the ground substance of bones. Gelatin consists of two jellies, &c.-great care must be taken to ensure purity and substances, glutin and chondrin; tbe former is the main con
cleanliness. stituent of skin-gelatin, the latter of bone-gelatin.
In the manufacture of bone-gelatin the sorted bones are deTrue gelatigenous tissue occurs in all mature vertebrates, with to vats containing a dilute hydrochloric acid, by which means most
greased as in the case of glue manufacture, and then transferred the single exception, according to E. F I. Hoppe-Seyler, of the of the mineral matter is dissolved out, and the bones become flexible. Amphiorus lanceolatus. Gelatigenous tissue was discovered by Instead of hydrochloric acid some French makers use phosphoric Hoppe-Seyler in the cephalopods Octopus and Sepiola, but in an
acid. After being well wished with water to remove all traces of extension of his experiments to other invertebrates, as cock dioxide. They are now transferred to the extractors, and heated
hydrochloric acid, the bunes are bleached by Icading in sulphur chasers and Anodon and Unio, no such tissue could be detected. by steam, care being taken that the temperature does not exceed Neither glutin nor chondrin occurs ready formed in the animal 85° C. The digestion is repeated, and the runnings are clarified, kingdom, but they separate when the tissues are boiled with concentrated, re-bleached and jellied as with glue. Skin-gelatin
is manufactured in the same way as skin-glue. Aster stecping in water A similar substance, vegetable gelatin, is obtained from lime pits the selected skins are digested three times; the first and certain mosses.
second runnings are worked up for gelatin, while the third are Pure gelatin is an amorphous, brittle, nearly transparent filtered for substance, faintly yellow, tasteless and inodorous, neutral in
Vegetable gelatin is manufactured from a seaweed, genus Lamin. reaction and unaltered by exposure to dry air. Its com
ana; from the tengusa, an American seaweed, and from Irish moss.
The Laminaria is first extracted with water, and the residue with position is in round numbers C = 50, H=7, N=18, 0= 25%; sodium carbonate; the filtrate is acıdified with hydrochloric acid sulphur is also present in an amount varying from 0.25 to and the precipitated alginic acid washed and bleached. It is then 0-7%
dissolyed in an alkali, the solution concentrated, and cooled down Nothing is known with any certainty as to its chemical con- by running over horizontal glass plates. Flexible colourless sheets stitution, or of the mode in which it is formed from albuminoids. resembling animal gelatin are thus obtained. In America the wecd It exhibits in a general way a connexion with that large and im
is simply boiled with water, the solution filtered, and cooled to a portant class of animal substances called proleids, being, like them,
thick jelly. Irish moss is treated in the same way. Both tengusa amorphous, soluble in acids and alkalis, and giving in solution a
and Irish moss yield a gelatin suitable for most purposes; ļengusa left-handed rotation of the plane of polarization. Nevertheless, the gelatin clarifies liquids in the same way as isinglass, and forms a ordinary, well-recognized reactions for proteids are but faintly harder and former jelly than ordinary gelatin. observed in the case of gelatin, and the only substances which at
Applications of Gelalın.--First and foremost is the use of gelatin once and frecly precipitate it from solution are mercuric chloride, ISINGLASS and Size for the special applications of these forms of
as a lood-stuff—in jellies, soups, &c. Referring to the articles Glue, strong alcohol and tannic acid.
Although gelatin in a dry state is unalterable by exposure to air, gelatin, we here cnumerate the more important uses of ordinary its solution exhibits, like all the proteids, a remarkable tendency gelatin. In photography is employed in carbon-processes, its to putrefaction; but a characteristic feature of this process in the use depending on the fact that when treated with potassium bi. case of gelatin is that the solution assumes a transient acid reaction. chromate and exposed to light, it is oxidized to insoluble comThe ultimate products of this decomposition are the same as are pounds; it plays a part in many other processes. A solution of produced by prolonged boiling with acid. It has been found that gelatin containing readily crystallized salts-alum, nitre, &c. oxalic acid, over and above the action common to all dilute acids solidifies with the formation of pretty designs; this is the basis of of preventing the solidification of gelatin solutions, has the further
the so-called “ crystalline glass " used for purposes of ornamentproperty of preventing in a large measure this tendency to putrefy ation. It is also used for coating pills to prevent them adhering when the gelaun is treated with hot solutions of this acid, and then together and to make them tasteless. Compounded with various freed from adhering acid by means of calcium carbonate. Gelatin mineral salts, the carbonates and phosphates of calcium, magnesium so treated has been called melagelatın
and aluminium, it yields a valuable ivory substitute. It also plays In spite of the marked tendency of gelatin solutions to develop a part in the manufacture of artificial leather, of India inks, and of ferment-organisms and undergo putrefaction, the stability of the artificial silk (the Vanduara Company processes). substance in the dry state is such that it has even been used, and GELDERLAND, GELDERS, or GUELDERS, formerly a duchy of with some success, as a means of preserving perishable foods. The the Empire, on the lower Rhine and the Yssel, bounded by process, invented by Dr Campbell Morfit, consists in impregnating Friesland, Westphalia, Brabant, Holland and the Zuider Zee; the foods with gelatin, and then drying them till about 10% or less of water is present. Milk gelatinized in this way is superior in part of which has become the province of Holland, dealt with several respects to the products of the ordinary condensation process, separately below. The territory of the later duchy of Gelderland more especially in the retention of a much larger proportion of was inhabited at the beginningof the Christian era by the Teutonic albuminoids. Gelatin has a marked affinity for water, abstracting it from ad
tribes of the Sicambri and the Batavi, and later, during the mixture with alcohol, for example. Solid gelatin stccped for some period of the decline of the Roman empire, by the Chamavi and hours in water absorbs a certain amount and swells up, in which other Frank peoples. It formed part of the Caroling kingdom of condition a gentle heat serves to convert it into a liquid: or this Austrasia, and was divided into pagi or gauen, ruled by official may be readily produced by the addition of a trace of alkali or mineral acıd, or by strong acetic acid. In the last case, however,
counts (comites-greren). In 843, by the treaty of Verdun, it or if we use the mineral acids in a more concentrated form, the became part of Lotharingia (Lorraine), and in 879 was annexed solution obtained has lost its power of solidifying, though not that to the kingdom of East Francia (Germany) by the treaty of of acting as a glue. This property is utilized in the preparation Meerssen. The nucleus of the later county and duchy was the of liquid glue (sce Glue). By prolonged boiling of strong aqucous solutions at a high, or of weak solutions at a lower temperature, the between the Meuse and the Niers, and since 1715 included in
gau or district surrounding the town of Gelder or Gelre, lying destroyed. After this treatment it acts less powerfully as a glue, Rhenish Prussia. loses its tendency to solidify, and becomes increasingly soluble in The early history is involved in much obscurity. There were in
the rith century a number of counts ruling in various parts of claiming the inheritance, the elder, Matilda (Machteld), in her what was afterwards known as Gelderland. Towards the close own right, the younger Maria on behalf of her seven-year-old boy of that century Gerard of Wassenburg, who besides the county of William of Jülich, as the only male representative of the family. Gelre ruled over portions of Hamalant and Teisterbant, acquired The Hekeren supported Matilda, the Bronkhorsten William of a dominant position amongst his neighbours. He is generally Jülich. The war of succession lasted till 1379, and ended in reckoned as the first hereditary count of Gelderland (d. 1917/8). William's favour, the emperor Wenceslas (Wenzel) recognizing His son, Gerard II.—the Long-(d. 1131), married Irmin-him as duke four years later, gardis, daughter and heiress of Otto, count of Zutphen, and Duke William was able, restless and adventurous, an ideal their son, Henry I. (d. 1182), inherited both countships. His knight of the palmy days of chivalry. He took part in no less successors Otto I. (1182-1207) and Gerard III. (1207-1229) than five crusades with the Teutonic order against the heathen were lovers of peace and strong supporters of the Hohenstaufen Lithuanians and Prussians. In 1393 he inherited the duchy of emperors, through whose favour they were able to increase their Jülich, and died in 1402. He was succeeded by his brother, territories by acquisitions in the districts of Veluwe and Betuwc. Reinald IV (d. 1423), in the united sovereignty of Gelderland, He acted as guardian to his nephew Floris IV of Holland during Zutphen and Jülich, who, in accordance with a promise made his minority Oito II., the Lame (1229-1271), fortified several before his accession, ceded the town of Emmerich to Duke Adolf towns and bestowed privileges upon them for the purpose of of Cleves. He took the part of his brother-in-law, John of Arkel, encouraging trade. He became a person of so much importance against William VI. of Holland, and in a war of several years' that he was urged to be a candidate for the dignity of emperor. duration was not successful in preventing the Arkel territory He preferred to support the claims of his cousin, William II. of being incorporated in Holland. On his death without legitimate Holland In return for the loan of a considerable sum of money issue, Gelderland passed to the young Arnold of Egmont, grandWilliam gave to him the city of Nijmwegen in pledge. His son son of his sister Johanna, who had married John, lord of Arkel, Rcinald I. (d. 1326) married Irmingardis, heiress of Limburg, their daughter Maria (d 1415) being the wise of John, count of and in right of his wife laid claim to the duchy against Adolf of Egmont (d. 1451) Arnold was recognized as duke in 1424 by Berg, who had sold his rights to John I. of Brabant, War the emperor Sigismund, but in the following year the emperor followed, and on the 5th of June 1288 Reinald, who meantime revoked his decision and bestowed the duchy upon Adolf of Berg. had also sold his rights to the count of Luxemburg, was defeated Arnold in retaliation laid claim to the duchy of Jülich, which had and taken prisoner at the battle of Woeringen. In this battle the likewise been granted to Adolf by Sigismund, and a war followed count of Luxemburg was slain, and Reinald had to surrender his in which the cities and nobles of Gelderland stood by Arnold, it claims as the price of his defeat to John of Brabant In 1310, in ended in Arnold retaining Gelderland and Zutphen, and Gerard, return for his support, Reinald received from the emperor Henry the son of Adoli (d. 1437), being acknowledged as duke of Jülich. VII for all his territories privilegium de non evocando, 1.e. the To gain the support of the estates of Gelderland in this war of exemption of his subjects from the liability to be sued before any succession, Arnold had been compelled to make many concessions court outside his jurisdiction. In 1317 he was made a prince of limiting the ducal prerogatives, and granting large powers to a the Empire A wound received at the battle of Woeringen had council consisting of representatives of the nobles and the four affected his brain, and an insurrection against him was in 1316 chief cities, and his extravagance and exactions led to continual headed by his son Reinald, who assumed the government under conflicts, in which the prince was compelled to yield to the dethe title of “Son of the Count." Reinald I. was finally in 1320 mands of his subjects. In his later years a conspiracy was formed immured in prison, where he died in 1326.
against him, headed by his wise, the violent and ambitious Reinald II., the Black (1326-1343), was one of the foremost Catherine of Cleves, and his son Adolf. Arnold was at first princes in the Netherlands of his day He married (1) Sophia, successful and Adolf had to go into exile; but he returned, and in heiress of Mechlin, and (2) in 1331 Eleanor, sister of Edward III. 1405, having taken his father prisoner by treachery, interned him of England. By purchase or conquest he added considerably to in the castle of Buren. Charles the Bold of Burgundy now seized his territories. He did much to improve the condition of the the opportunity to intervene. In 1471 he forced Adolf to release country, to foster trade, to promote the prosperity of the towns, his father, who sold the reversion of the duchy to the duke of and to maintain order and security in his lands by wise laws and Burgundy for 92,000 golden gulden. On the 23rd of February firm administration. In 1338 the title of duke was bestowed 1473 Arnold died, and Charles of Burgundy became duke of upon him by the emperor Louis the Bavarian, who at the same Gelderland. His succession was not unopposed. Nijmwegen time granted to him the fief of East Friesland. He died in 1343, offered an heroic resistance and only fell after a long siege. After leaving three daughters by his first marriage, and two sons, Charles's death in 1477 Adolf was released from the captivity in Reinald and Edward, both minors, by Elcanor of England. His which he had been held, and placed himself at the head of a party elder son was ten years of age, and succeeded to the duchy under in the powerful city of Ghent, which sought to settle the disputed the guardianship of his mother Eleanor. Declared of age two succession by forcing a match between him and Mary, the heiress years later, the youthful Reinald III. found himself involved in of Burgundy. On the 29th of June 1477, however, he was killed many difficulties through the struggles between the rival factions at the siege of Tournai; and Mary gave her hand to Maximilian named after the two noble families of Bronkhorst and Hekeren. of Austria, afterwards emperor. Catherine, Adolf's sister, made What was the quarrel between them, and what the causes they an attempt to assert the rights of his son Charles to the duchy, represented, cannot now be ascertained with certainty. There is but by 1483 Maximilian had crushed all opposition and estabgood reason, however, to believe that they were the counterparts lished himself as duke of Gelderland. of the contemporary Cod and Hook parties in Holland, and of Charles of Egmont, however, did not surrender his claims, but the Schieringers and Vetkoopers in Friesland. In Gelderland the with the aid of the French collected an army, and in the course quarrel between them was converted into a dynastic struggle, of 1492 and 1493 succeeded in reconquering his inheritance. The the Hekeren recognizing Duke Reinald, while the Bronkhorsten efforts of Maximilian to recover the country were vain, and the set up his younger brother Edward. At the battle of Tiel (1361) successive governors of the Netherlands, Philip the Fair and his Reinald was defeated and taken prisoner, and Edward held the sister Margaret, fared no better. In 1507 Charles of Egmont duchy till 1371. He was a good and successful ruler, and his invaded Holland and Brabant, captured Harderwijk and Bommel death by an arrow wound; after a brilliant victory over the duke in 1511, threatened Amsterdam in 1512, and took Groningen. of Brabant near Baesweller (August 1371), was a loss to his It was, undoubtedly, a great and heroic achievement for the ruler country. He was in his thirty-fifth year and left no heirs. of a petty state like Gelderland thus to assert and maintain his Reinald was now taken from the prison in which he had been independence for a long period against the overwhelming power confined to reign once more, but his health was broken and he of the house of Austria. It was not till 1528 that the emperor died childless three years afterwards. The war of factions again Charles V. could force him to accept the compromise of the treaty broke out, the half-sisters of Reinald III. and Edward both l of Gorichen, by which he received Gelderland and Zutphen for
life as fiefs of the Empire. In 1534 the duke, who was childless, upon this and the river-banks are the most fertile spots, woods, attempted to transfer the reversion of Gelderland to France, but cultivated land, pastures, towns and villages. The highlands of this project was violently resisted by the estates of the duchy, and the Veluwe lying west of the Ysel really extend as far as the Charles was compelled by them in 1538 to appoint as his successor Crooked Rhine and the Vecht in the province of Utrecht, but are William V.-the Rich--of Cleves (d. 1592). Charles died the slightly detached from the Utrecht hills by the go-called Gelders same year, and William, with the aid of the French, succeeded in valley, which forms the boundary between the two provinces. maintaining his position in Gelderland for several years. The This valley extends from the Rhine along the Grift, the Luntersche Habsburg power was, however, in the end too great for him, and Beek, and the Eem to the Zuider Zee, and would still offer an he was forced to cede the duchy to Charles V. by the treaty of outlet in this direction to the Rhine at high water if it were not for Venloo, signed on the 7th of September 1543.
the river dikes. The two main ridges of the Veluwe hills (164 and Gelderland was now definitely amalgamated with the Habsburg 360 ft.) extend from the neighbourhood of Arnhem north to dominions in the Netherlands, until the revolt of the Low Harderwyk and north-east to Hattem. In the south they stretch Countries led to its partition. In 1579 the northern and greater themselves along the banks of the Rhine, forming a strip of part, comprising the three " quarters" of Nijmwegen, Arnhem picturesque river scenery made up of the varied elements of and Zutphen, joined the Union of Utrecht and became the sandhills and trees, clay-lands and pastures. A large number of province of Gelderland in the Dutch republic. Only the quarter country-houses and villas are to be found here, and the river-side of Roermonde remained subject to the crown of Spain, and was villages of Dieren, Velp and Renkum. All over the Veluwe are called Spanish Gelderland. By the treaty of Utrecht (1715) this heaths, scantily cultivated, with fields of rye and buckwheat, was ceded to Prussia with the exception of Venloo, which fell to cattle of inferior quality, and sheep, and a sparse population. the United Provinces, and Roermonde, which, with the remaining There is also a considerable cultivation of wood, especially of fir Spanish Netherlands, passed to Austria. Of this, part was ceded and copse, while tobacco plantations are found at Nykerk and to France at the peace of Basel in 1795, and the whole by the Wageningen. treaty of Lunéville in 1801, when it received the name of the The southern division of the province presents a very different department of the Roer. By the peace of Paris of 1814 the bulk aspect, and contains many old towns and villages. It is watered of Gelderland was incorporated in the United Netherlands, the by the three large rivers, the Rhine, the Waal and the Maas, and remainder falling to Prussia, where it forms the circle of has a level clay soil, varied only by isolated hills and a sandy, Düsseldorf.
wooded stretch between Nijmwegen and the southern border. The rise of the towns in Gelderland began in the 13th century, The region enclosed between the Rhine and the Waal and river commerce and markets being the chief cause of their watered by the Linge is called the Betuwe (“good land "), and prosperity, but they never attained to the importance of the gave its name to the Germanic tribe of Batavians, who are somelarger cities in Holland and Utrecht, much less to that of the times wrongly regarded as the parent stock of the Dutch people. great Flemish municipalities. They differed also from the Flemish There is here a denser population, occupied in the cultivation cities in the nature of their privileges and immunities, as they did of wheat, beetroot and fruit, the breeding of excellent cattle, not possess the rights of communes, but only those of " free shipping and industrial pursuits. The principal centres of cities” of the Rhenish type. The power of the feudal lord over population, such as Zutphen, Arnhem (the chief town of the them was much greater. The states of Gelderland first became a province), Nijmwegen and Tiel, lie along the large rivers. Smaller, considerable power in the land during the reign of Arnold of but of equal antiquity, are the riverside towns of Doesburg, Egmont (1423-1473). Their claim to large privileges and a which is strongly fortified; Wageningen, with the State agriconsiderable share in the government of the county were formu- cultural schools; Doetinchem, with a bridge over the Old Ysel lated in a document drawn up at Nijmwegen in April 1436. which is mentioned as early as the 14th century; Zalt-Bommel, These the duke had to concede, and to agree further to the appoint- with an old church (1304), and a railway bridge over the Waal; ment of a council to assist him in his administration. From this and Kuilenburg, with a fine railway bridge (1863-1868) over the time the absolute authority of the sovereign in Gelderland was Rhine. Five m. S. of Zalt-Bommel, on the Maas, is the medieval broken. The states consisted of two members—the nobility and castle of Ammerzode or Ammersooi, also called Amelroy during the towns. The towns were divided into four separate districts the French occupation in 1674. It is in an excellent state of or “ quarters " named after the chief town in each-Nijmwegen, preservation and has been restored in modern times. The first Arnhem, Zutphen and Roermonde. In the time of the republic, authentic record of the castle is its possession by John de Herlar as has been stated above, the province of Gelderland comprised of the noble family of Loo at the end of the 13th century. In the three first-named “ quarters ” only. The three quarters had 1480 it passed by marriage to the powerful lords van Arkel, and each of them peculiar rights and customs, and their representa- was partly destroyed by fire at the end of the 16th century. tives met together in a separate assembly before taking part in The chapel dates from the 15th century, and the keep from the diet (landdag) of the states. The nobility possessed great 1564. Among the family portraits are works by Albert Dürer. influence in Gelderland and retained it in the time of the Zetten, on the railway between Nijmwegen and Tiel, is famous republic.
(G. E.) for the charitable institutions founded here by the preacher GELDERLAND (Guelders), a province of Holland, bounded S. Otto Gerhard Heldring (d. 1876). They comprise a penitentiary by Rhenish Prussia and North Brabant, W. by Utrecht and (1849) for women; an educational home (1858) for girls; a South Holland, N. by the Zuider Zee, N.E. by Overysel, and S.E. theological training college (1864); and a Magdalen hospital. by the Prussian province of Westphalia. It has an area of 1906 Nykerk, Harderwyk and Elburg are fishing towns on the Zuider sq. m. and a pop. (1900) of 566,549. Historically it was part of Zee. Apeldoorn is situated on the edge of the sand-grounds, the duchy of Gelderland, which is treated separately above. Heerenberg on the south-eastern border is remarkable for its
The main portion of Gelderland north of the Rhine and the ancient castle near the seat of the powerful lords van den Bergh. Old Ysel forms as it were an extension of the province of Overysel, Other ancient and historical towns bordering on the Prussian being composed of diluvial sand and gravel, covered with sombre frontier are Zevenaar, which was for long the cause of dispute heaths and patches of fen. South of this line, however, the soil between the houses of Cleves and Gelder and was finally attached consists of fertile river-clay. The northern portion is divided by to the kingdom of the Netherlands in 1816; Breedevoort, once the New (or Gelders) Ysel into two distinct regions, namely, the the seat of a lordship of the same name belonging to the counts Veluwe (“bad land”) on the west, and the former countship of van Loon or Lohn, who built a castle here in the beginning of Zutphen on the east. In this last division the ground slopes the 13th century which was destroyed in 1646–the lordship downwards from south-east to north-west (131 to 26 ft.) and is was presented to Prince William III. in 1697; Winterswyk, now intersected by several fertilizing streams which flow in the same an important railway junction, and of growing industrial imdirection to join the Ysel. The extreme eastern corner is occupied portance; and Borkeloo, or Borkulo, the seat of an ancient by older Tertiary loam, which is used for making bricks, and I lordship dating from the first half of the 12th century, which
finally came into the possession of Prince William V. of Orange | raise the religious and moral character of the people, and toʻrhis Nassau in 1777. The castle was formerly of importance. end employed language which, though at times prolix, was always
Gelderland is intersected by the main railway lines, which correct and clear. He thus became one of ihe most popular are largely supplemented by steam-tram railways. Steam- German authors, and some of his poems enjoyed a celebrity out tramways connect Arnhem and Zutphen, Wageningen, Nijmwegen, of proportion to their literary value. This is more particularly Velp, Doetinchem (by way of Dieren and Doesburg), whence true of his Fabeln und Erzählungen (1746-1748) and of his there are various lines to Emmerich and Gendringen on the Geistliche Oden und Lieder (1757). The fables, for which he took Prussian borders. Groenlo and Lichtenvorde, Borkulo and La Fontaine as his model, arc simple and didactic. The Deventer are also connected.
“spiritual songs," though in force and dignity they cannot GELDERN, a town of Germany, in Rhenish Prussia, on the compare with the older church hymns, were received by Catholics Niers, 28 m. N. W. of Düsseldorf, at the junction of railways to and Protestants with equal favour. Some of them were set to Wesel and Cologne. Pop. (1905) 6551. It has an Evangelical music by Beethoven. Gellert wrote a few comedies: Die and two Roman Catholic churches and a town hall with a fine Belschwester (1749), Die kranke Frau (1748), Das Los in der council chamber. Its industries include the manufacture of Lollerie (1748), and Die zärllichen Schwestern (1748), the last of buttons, shoes, cigars and soap. The town dates from about which was much admired. His novel Die schwedische Gräfin 1100 and was early an important fortified place; until 1371 it von G. (1746), a weak imitation of Richardson's Pamela, is was the residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland. Having remarkable as being the first German attempt at a psychological passed to Spain, its fortifications were strengthened by Philip novel.. Gellert's Briefe (letters) were regarded at the time as II., but they were razed by Frederick the Great, the town having models of good style. been in the possession of Prussia since 1703:
See Gellert's Sämtliche Schriften (first edition, to vols., Leipzig, See Nettesheim, Geschichte der Stadt und des Amles Geldern | 1769-1774; last edition, Berlin, 1867). Samtliche Fabeln und Ersah. (Crefeld, 1863); Henrichs, Beiträge zur innern Geschichte der Stadt lungen have been olten published separately, the latest cdition in Geldern (Geldern, 1893); and Real, Chronik der Stadt und Umgegend 1896. A selection of Gellert's poctry (with an excellent introduction) von Geldern (Geldern, 1897).
will be found in F. Muncker, Die Bremer Beiträge (Stuttgart, 1899). GELL, SIR WILLIAM (1777–1836), English classical archaeo- A translation, by 1 A. Murke, Gellert's Fables and other Poems
For a further account of Gellert's life and work logist, was born at Hopton in Derbyshire. He was educated at see lives by J. A. Cramer (Leipzig, 1774), H. Döring (Greiz, 1833). Jesus College, Cambridge, and subsequently clected a fellow of and H., O. Nietschmann (2nd ed., Halle, 1901); also Gellerts Emmanuel College (B.A. 1798, M.A. 1804). About 1800 he was
Tagebuch aus dem Jahre 1701 (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1863) and Gellerts sent on a diplomatic unission to the lonian islands, and on his Briefwechsel mit Demoiselle Lucius (Leipzig, 1823). return in 1803 he was knighted. He went with Princess (after
GELLERT, or KILLHART, in Welsh traditional history, the dog wards Queen) Caroline to Italy in 1814 as one of her chamber of Llewellyn, prince of Wales. The dog, a greyhound, was lains, and gave evidence in her favour at the trial in 1820 (see left to guard the cradle in which the infant heir slept. A wolf G. P. Clerici
, A Queen of Indiscretions, Eng. trans., London, enters, and is about to attack the child, when Gellert flies at him. 1907). He died at Naples on the 4th of February 1836. His In the struggle the cradle is upset and the infant falls underncaih. numerous drawings of classical ruins and localities, executed Gellert kills the wolf, but when Prince Llewellyn arrives and with great detail and exactness, are preserved in the British
sees the empty cradle and blood all around, he does not for the Museum. Gell was a thorough dilettante, fond of society and
moment notice the wolf, but thinks Gellert has killed the baby. possessed of little real scholarship. None the less his topo
He at once stabs him, but almost instantly finds his son sale graphical works became recognized text-books at a time when
under the cradle and realizes the dog's bravery. Gellert is Greece and even Italy were but superficially known to English supposed to have been buried near the village of Beddgelert travellers. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and the Society (“grave of Gellert "), Snowdon, where his tomb is still pointed of Antiquaries, and a member of the Institute of France and the
out to visitors. The date of the incident is traditionally given Berlin Academy.
as 1205. The incident has given rise to a Welsh proverb, “I His best-known work is Pompeiana; the Topography, Edifices and repent as much as the man who slow his greyhound." The whole Ornaments of Pompeii (1817-1832), in the first part of which he was story is, however, only the Welsh version of a tale long before assisted by ). P. Candy. It was followed in 1834 by the Topography current in Europe, which is traced to the Indian Panchatantra of Rome and ils Vicinity (new ed. by E. H. Bunbury, 1896). He and perhaps as far back as 200 B.C. wrote also Topography of Troy and its Vicinity (1804): Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca (1807); Itinerary, of Greece, with a Com Jenkins, Beddgelert, its Facts, Fairies and Folklore (Portmadoc,
Sce W. A. Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions (1887); D. E. mentary on Pausanias and Strabo (1810, enlarged ed. 1827); Itiner
1899). ary of the Morea (1816; republished as Narrative of a Journey in thé Morea, 1823). All these works have been superseded by later GELLIUS, AULUS (c. A.D. 130-180), Latin author and grampublications.
marian, probably born at Rome. He studied grammar and GELLERT, CHRISTIAN FÜRCHTEGOTT (1715-1769), German rhetoric at Rome and philosophy at Athens, alter which he poct, was born at Hainichen in the Saxon Erzgebirge on the 4th returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office. His tcachers of July 1715. After attending the famous school of St Afra in and friends included many. distinguished men-Sulpicius Meissen, he entered Leipzig University in 1734 as a student of Apollinaris, Herodes Atticus and Fronto. His only work, the thcology, and on completing his studies in 1739 was for two ycars Nocles Allicae, takes its name from having been begun during a private tutor. Returning to Leipzig in 1741 he contributed the long nights of a winter which he spent in Altica. He alterto the Bremer Beiträge, a periodical founded by former disciples wards continued it at Rome. It is compiled out of an Adversaria, of Johann Christoph Gottsched, who had revolted from the or commonplace book, in which he had jotted down everything pedantry of his school. Owing to shyness and weak health of unusual interest that he heard in conversation or read in Gellert gave up all idea of entering the ministry, and, establishing books, and it comprises notes on grammar, geometry, philosophy, himself in 1745 as privaldocent in philosophy at the university history and almost every other branch of knowledge. The work, of Leipzig, lectured on poetry, rhetoric and literary style with which is utterly devoid of sequence or arrangement, is divided much success. In 1751 he was appointed extraordinary professor into twenty books. All these have come down to us except of philosophy, a post which he held until his death at Leipzig the eighth, of which nothing remains but the index. The on the 13th of December 1769.
Nocles Alicae is valuable for the insight it affords into the nature The esteem and veneration in which Gellert was held by the of the society and pursuits of those times, and for the numerous students, and indeed by persons in all classes of society, was excerpts it contains from the works of lost ancient authors. unbounded, and yet due perhaps less to his unrivalled popularity Gronovius (11706) and M. Hertz (1883-1885: cditio minor, 1886.
Editio princeps (Rome, 1469); the best editions are those of as a lecturer and writer than to his personal character. He was the noblest and most amiable of men, generous, tender-hearted lation in English by' w. Beloe (1795), and in French by various and of unaffected piety and humility. He wrote in order to hands (1896). See Sandys, Hist. Class. Schol. i. (1906), 210.
GELLIVARA (GELLIVARE), a mining town of Sweden in the pods, containing numerous flat-winged seeds. The stem often district (lån) of Norrbotten, 815 m. N. by E. of Stockholm by runs underground for a considerable distance, and indiscriminately rail. It lies in the well-nigh uninhabited region of Swedish with the root it is used in medicine. The plant is a native of Lapland, 43 m. N. of the Arctic Circle. It owes its importance the United States, growing on rich clay soil by the side of streams to the iron mines in the mountain Malmberget 4 m. to the north, near the coast, from Virginia to the south of Florida. In the rising to 2024 ft. above sea-level (830 ft. above Gellivara town). United States it is commonly known as the wild, yellow or During the dark winter months work proceeds by the aid of Carolina jessamine, although in no way related to the true electric light. In 1864 the mines were acquired by an English jessamines, which belong to the order Oleaceae. It was first company, but abandoned in 1867. In 1884 another English described in 1640 by John Parkinson, who grew it in his garden company took them up and completed a provisional railway from seed sent by Tradescant from Virginia; at the present time from Malmberget to Luleå at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia it is but rarely seen, even in botanical gardens, in Great Britian. (127 m. S.S.E.), besides executing a considerable portion of the The drug contains a volatile oil and two potent alkaloids, preliminary works for the continuation of the line on the gelseminine and gelsemine. Gelseminine is a yellowish, bitter Norwegian side from Ofoten Fjord upwards (see NARVIK). But substance, readily soluble in ether and alcohol. It is not emthis company, after extracting some 150,000 tons of ore in 1888- ployed therapeutically. Gelsemine has the formula C,H,9N02, 1889, went into liquidation in the latter year. Two years later and is a colourless, odourless, intensely bitter solid, which is the mines passed into the hands of a Swedish company, and the insoluble in water, but readily forms a soluble hydrochloride. railway was acquired by the Swedish Government. The output of ore was insignificant until 1892, when it stood at 178,000 tons; but in 1902 it amounted to 1,074,000 tons. Three miles S.W. rises the hill Gellivara Dundret (2700 ft.), from which the sun is visible at midnight from June 5 to July 11. The population of the parish (about 6500 sq. m.) in 1900 was 11,745; the greater part of the population being congregated at the town of Gellivara and at Malmberget.
GELNHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the Kinzig, 27 m. E.N.E. of Frankfort-onMain, on the railway to Bebra. Pop. 4500. It is romantically situated on the slope of a vine-clad hill, and is still surrounded by ancient walls and towers. On an island in the river are the ivy-covered ruins of the imperial palace which Frederick I. (Barbarossa) built before 1170, and which was destroyed by the Swedes during the Thirty Years' War. It has an interesting and beautiful church (the Marien Kirche), with four spires (of which that on the transept is curiously crooked), built in the 13th century, and restored in 1876-1879; also several other ancient buildings, notably the town-hall, the Fürstenhof (now administrative offices), and the Hexenthurm. India-rubber goods are manufactured, and wine is made. Gelnhausen became an imperial town in 1169, and diets of the Empire were frequently held within its walls. In 1634 and 1635 it suffered severely from the Swedes. In 1803 the town became the property of Hesse
Gelsemium nitidum, half riatural size; flower, nat. size. Cassel, and in 1866 passed to Prussia.
The dose of this salt is from oth to oth of a grain. The British GELO, son of Deinomenes, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse. On Pharmacopoeia contains a tincture of gelsemium, the dose of the death of Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela (491 B.C.), Gelo, who which is from five to fifteen minims. had been his commander of cavalry, succeeded him; and in 485, The drug is essentially a nerve poison. It has no action on his aid having been invoked by the Gamori (the oligarchical the skin and no marked action on the alimentary or circulatory landed proprietors) of Syracuse who had been driven out by systems. Its action on the cerebrum is slight, consciousness the populace, he seized the opportunity of making himself despot. being retained even after toxic doses, but there may be headache From this time Gelo paid little attention to Gela, and devoted and giddiness. The drug rapidly causes failure of vision, diplopia, himself to the aggrandizement of Syracuse, which attained ptosis or falling of the upper eyelid, dilatation of the pupil, and extraordinary wealth and influence. When the Greeks solicited a lowering of the intra-ocular tension. This last action is bis aid against Xerxes, he refused it, since they would not give doubtful. The symptoms appear to be due to a paralysis of him command of the allied forces (Herodotus vii. 171). In the the motor cells that control the internal and external ocular same year the Carthaginians invaded Sicily, but were totally muscles. The most marked action of the drug is upon the anterior defeated at Himera, the result of the victory being that Gelo cornua of grey matter in the spinal cord. It can be shown by a became lord of all Sicily. After he had thus established his process of experimental exclusion that to an arrest of function power, he made a show of resigning it; but his proposal was of these cells is due the paralysis of all the voluntary muscles of rejected by the multitude, and he reigned without opposition the body that follows the administration of gelsemium or gelse. vill his death (478). He was honoured as a hero, and his memory mine. Just before death the sensory part of the spinal cord was held in such respect that when all the brazen statues of is also paralysed, general anaesthesia resulting. The drug kills tyrants were condemned to be sold in the time of Timoleon by its action on the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata. (150 years later) an exemption was made in favour of the statue Shortly after the administration of even a moderate dose the of Gelo.
respiration is slowed and is ultimately arrested, this being the Herodotus vii.; Diod. Sic. xi. 20-38; see also SICILY: History, cause of death. In cases of poisoning the essential treatment is and SYRACUSE; (or his coins see NUMISMATICS: Sicily.
artificial respiration, which may be aided by the subcutaneous GELSEMIUM, a drug consisting of the root of Gelsemium exhibition of strychnine. nitidum, a clinging shrub of the natural order Loganiaceae, having Though the drug is still widely used, the rational indications & milky juice, opposite, lanceolate shining leaves, and axillary for its employment are singularly rare and uncertain. The con. clusters of from one to five iarge, funnel-shaped, very fragrant ditions in which it is most frequently employed are convulsions, yellow flowers, whose perfume has been compared with that of bronchitis, severe and purposeless coughing, myalgia or muscular the wallflower. The fruit is composed of two separable jointed | pain, neuralgia and various vague forms of pain.