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armonica is an inferior production. He published a number of equipped, each of whom was attended by at least three archers, solos for the violin, thrce sets of violin concertos, twelve violin one coulillier (soldier armed with a cutlass) and one verlel (soldier's trios, The Art of Accompaniment on the Harpsichord, Organ, &c., servant). The states-general of Orleans (1439) had voted a Lessons for Ihc Harpsichord and some other works.

yearly subsidy of 1,200,000 livres in perpetuity to keep up this GEMISTUS PLETHO (or PLETHON), GEORGIUS (c. 1355-1450), national soldiery, which replaced, and in fact was recruited Greek Platonic philosopher and scholar, one of the chief chiefly amongst, the bands of mercenaries who for about a pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe, was century had made France their prey. The number and coma Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnese, position of the compagnies d'ordonnance were changed more than the site of ancient Sparta. He changed his name from once before the reign of Louis XIV. This sovereign on his Gerist us to the equivalent Pletho (“ the full ”), perhaps accession to the throne found only eight companies of gendarmes owing to the similarity of sound between that name and surviving out of an original total of more than one hundred, but ibat of his master Plato. He invented a religious system after the victory of Fleurus (1690), which had been decided by founded on the speculative mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and their courage, he increased their number to sixteen. The four founded a sect, the members of which believed that the new first companies (which were practically guard troops) were creed would supersede all existing forms of belief. But he is designated by the names of Gendarmes écossais, Gendarmes chicfly memorable for having introduced Plato to the Western anglais, Gendarmes bourgaignons and Gendarmes flamands, from world. This took place upon his visit to Florence in 1439, as the nationality of the soldiers who had originally composed them; one of the deputies from Constantinople on occasion of the general but at that time they consisted entirely of French soldiers and council. Cardinal Bessarion became his disciplc; he produced officers. These four companies had a captain-general, who was a great impression upon Cosimo de' Medici; and though not the king. The fifth company was that of the queen; and the himself making any very important contribution to the study others bore the name of the princes who respectively commanded of Plato, he cffcctually shook the exclusive domination which them. This organization was dissolved in 1788. The Revolution Aristotle had exercised over European thought for eight centuries. swept away all these institutions of the monarchy, and, with He promoted the union of the Greek and Latin Churches as far the exception of a short revival of the Gendarmes de la garde at as possible, but his efforts in this direction borc no permanent the Restoration, henceforward the word “gendarmerie fruit. He probably died before the capture of Constantinople. possesses an altogether different significance—viz. military The most important of his published works arc treatises on the police. distinction between Plato and Aristotle as philosophers (published GENEALOGY (from the Gr. yevos, family, and loyos, at Venice in 1540); on the religion of Zoroaster (Paris, 1538); theory), a pedigree or list of ancçstors, or the study of family on the condition of the Peloponnese (ed. A. Ellissen in Analcklen history. der millel- und neugriechischen Lileralur, iv.); and the Nópol (ed. 1. Biblical Genealogics.--The aims and methods of ancient C. Alexandre, Paris, 1858). In addition to these he compiled genealogists require to be carefully considered before the value several volumes of excerpts from ancient authors, and wrote a of the numerous ancestral lists in the Bible can be properly number of works on geography, music and other subjects, many estimated. Many of the old “genealogies,” like those of Greece, of which still exist in MS. in various European libraries.

have arisen from the desire to explain the origin of the various See especially F. Schultze, Geschichte der Philosophie der Renais groups which they include. Information relating to the subsance, i. (1874); also 1: A Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy division of tribes, their relation to each other, the intermingling (1877), ii. p. 198; H. F. Tozer, A Byzantine Reformer," in Journal of populations and the like are thus frequently represented in of Hellenic Studies, vii. (1886), chiefly on Pletho's scheme of political the form of genealogies. The "sons ” of a "father” often stand and social reform for the Peloponnese, as set forth in the painphlets merely for the branches of a family as they existed at some one of the Morca; W. Gass, Gennadius und Pletho (1844). Most of. period, and since in course of time tribal relations would vary, Pletho's works will be found in J. P. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, clx.; lists which have originated at different periods will present for a complete list see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed. Harles), xii. discrepancies. It is obvious that many of the Biblical names are

GEMMI PASS, a pass (7641 ft.) lcading from Frutigen in the nothing more than personifications of nations, tribes, towns; Swiss canton of Bern to Leukerbad in the Swiss canton of the &c., which are grouped together to convey somc idea of the bond Valais. It is much frequented by travellers in summer. From by which they were believed to be connected. Kandersteg (71 m. by road above Frutigen, which is 12 m. by For the personification of a people or tribe, cp. Gen. xxxiv, 30 rail from Spiez on the Berne-Interlaken line) a mule path leads Jacob said... I am a few men"), Josh. xvii. 14. ("the children to the summit of the pass, passing over the Spitalmatte plain, of Joseph said where in 1782 and again in 1895 a great avalanche

fell from the said, Ict me flee"), Jos. ix. 7 .! Sam. v. 10, &c.; see G. B. Gray on

Numbers, xx. 14 (Internal. Eri..comm.).O'Thus we find among the Altels (11,930 ft.) to the S.E., causing on both occasions great

of Japhet: (the nations) Gomer, Javan, Tubal; Canaan loss of life and property. The mule path descends on the south begat " Sidon and Heth; the " sons" of Ishmael include the side of the pass by an extraordinary series of zigzags, made well-known tribes Kedar and Jetur; Jacob, or the synonym Israel, accessible for mules (though no rider is now allowed to descend personifies the children of Israel" (cf. use of “1." *** thou" of the

Israelites in Deut., and in poetical passages). The recognition of on mule-back) by a band of Tirolese workmen in 1740-1741. this characteristic usage often furnishes an ethnological interpreThey are cut in a very steep wall of rock, about 1800 ft. in height, tation to those genealogical stories which

obviously do not relate and lead down to the village of Leukerbad, which is 91 m. by to persons, but to tribes or peoples personified. The Edomites


Israelites are regarded as “brothers" (cf. Num. xx. 14, Deut. ii. 4, carriage road past Leuk above the Susten station in the Rhône

Am. i. 11), and since Esau (Edom) was born before Jacob (Israel) valley and on the Simplon line.

(W. A.-B. C.)

it would appear that the Edomites were held to be the older nation. GENDARMERIE, originally a' body of troops in France The union of two clans is expressed as a marriage, or the wife is the composed of gendarmes or men-at-arms. In the days of chivalry territory which is dominated by the husband (tribe); scc Caleb. they were mounted and armed cap-à-pie, exactly as were the lf the woman is not of noble blood, but is a handmaiden or concubine, lords and knights,with whom they constituted the most important wife; consequently the descendants of Ishmael, the son of Hagar

her children are naturally not upon the same footing as those of the part of an army. They were attended each by five soldiers of (Sarah's maid), are inferior to Isaac and his descendants, whilst the inferior rank and more lightly armed. In the later middle.ages children of Keturah ("incense"), Abraham's concubine, are still the men-at-arms were furnished by owners of fiefs. But after terms of relationship

is characteristic of the Semites. The father" the Hundred Years' War this feudal gendarmerie was replaced of the Rechabites is their head or founder (cf. 1 Sam. x. 12: “ who by the compagnies d'ordonnance which Charles VII. formed when is their father?"), and a common bond, which is not necessarily the English were driven out of France, and which were distributed physical, unites all" sons," whether they are " sons of the prophets throughout the whole extent of the kingdom for preserving order (members of prophetic guilds) or "sons of Belial" (worthless men). and maintaining the king's authority. These companies, fifteen The interpretation of cthnological or statistical genealogies in number, were composed of ico lances or gendarmes fully I may easily be pushed too far. Every case has to be judged upor

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its own merits, and due allowance must be made both for the (N. Palestine). It has been urged that (b) and (d) stood upon a lower ambition of the weaker to claim or to strengthen an alliance with looting than the rest, or were of later origin; or that Bilhah


to an old clan associated with Reuben (Gen. xxxv. 22) or Edom the stronger, and for the not unnatural desire of clans or indi- (Bilhan, Gen. xxxvi. 27), whilst Zilpah represents an Aramaean viduals to magnify the greatness of their ancestry. The first strain. Tradition may have combined distinct schemes, and the step must always be the careful comparison of related lists in belief that the wives were Aramaean at least coincides with the order to test the consistency of the tradition. Next, these must circumstance that Aramacan elements predominated in certain of

the twelve tribes. The number "twelve" is artificial and can be be critically studied in the light of all available historical material, obtained only by counting Manasseh and Ephraim as one or by though indeed such evidence is not necessarily conclusive. omitting Levi, and a careful study of Old Testament history makes it Finally,(a) literary criticism must be employed to determine if cxtremely difficult to recover the tribes as historical units. Sce, on possible the dates of such lists, since obviously a contemporary alitest."Wissens. (1901), pp. 1 sqq.; G. B. Gray. Expositor (March

these points, the articles on the several tribes, B. Luther, Zeil. d. register is more trustworthy than one which is centuries later; (6) 1902), pp. 225-240, and in Ency. Bib., art.“ Tribes": and H. W. a critical estimate of the character of the names and of their use Hogg's thorough treatment of the tribes in the last-mentioned work, in various periods of Old Testament history is of importance in The ideal of purity of descent shows itself conspicuously in estimating the antiquity of the list?-for example, many of the portions of Deuteronomic law (Deut. vii. 1-3, xxiii. 2-8), and in the names in Chronicles attributed to the time of David are indubit, reforms of Nehemiah and Ezra (Ezr. ix. 1-4, 11 sqq.; Neh. xiii. ably exilic or post-exilic; and (c) principles of ordinary historical 1-3). The desirc to prove the continuity of the race, enforced probability are as necessary here as in dealing with the genealogies by the experience of the exile, gave the impetus to genealogical of other ancient peoples, and attention must be paid to such zeal, and many of the extant lists proceed from this age when the features as fluctuation in the number of links, representation of true historical succession of names was a memory of the past. theories inconsistent with the growth of national life, schemes of This applics with special force to the lists in Chronicles which relationship not in accordance with sociological conditions, &c.

present finished schemes of the Levitical divisions by the side of The Biblical genealogies commence with the generations of carlier attempts, with consequent confusion and contradiction. the heaven and earth," and by a process of elimination pass from Thus the immediate ancestors of Ethan appear in the time of Adam and Eve by successive steps to Jacob and to his sons Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxix. 12), but he with Asaiah and Heman ara (the tribes), and finally to the subdivisions of each tribe (cp: contemporaries of David, and their genealogies from Levi down. 1 Chron. i.-ix. 1). According to this theory every Israelite could wards contain a very unequal number of links (1 Chron. vi.). trace back his descent to Jacob, the common father of the whole By another application of genealogical method the account of the nation (Josh. vii

. 17 seq., 1 Sam. x, 21). Such a scheme, however, institution of priests and Levites by David (1 Chron. xxiv.) is full of manifest improbabilities. It demands that every tribe presents many names which belong solely to post-exilic days, thus and every clan should have been a homogeneous group which had suggesting that the

scribes desired to show that the honourable preserved its unity from the earliest times, that family records families of their time were not unknown centuries previously. extending back for several centuries were in existence, and that Everywhere we find the results of much skill and labour, often in such a tribe as Simeon was able to maintain its independence in accordance with definite theories, but a thorough investigation spite of the tradition that it lost its autonomy in very early reveals their weakness and often quite incidentally furnishes times (Gen. xlix. 7). The whole conception of the unity of valuable evidence of another nature. the tribes cannot be referred to a date previous to the time

The intricate Levitical genealogies betray the result of successive of David, and in the older writings a David or a Jeroboam genealogists who sought to give effe to the development of the was sufficiently described as the son of Jesse or of Nebat. The hierarchal system (see Levites). The climax is reached when all genealogical zcal as represented in the Old Testament is chiefly of Levites are traced back to Gershon, Kehath

and Merari, to which later growth, and the exceptions are due to interpolation (Josh. The last two were not originally Levites in the later accepted sense

are ascribed respectively Asaph, Heman and Ethan (or Jcduthun). vii. I 18, contrast v. 24), or to the desire to modify or qualify an of the term (see i Kings iv. 31). To Kehath is reckoned an important older notice. This, in the case of Saul (1 Sam. ix. I), has led to subdivision descended from Korah, but in 2 Chron. xx. 19 the two textual corruption; a list of such a length as his should have are distinct groups, and Korah's name is that of an Edomite clan reached back to one of the “sons” of Benjamin (cf, e.g. Gen. (Gen. xxxvi. 5, 94: 18) related to Caleb, and thus included among the xlvi. 21), else it were purposeless. The genealogies, too, are often distribution and Levitizing" of individuals are frequent. There inconsistent amongst themselves and in contradiction to their are traces of varying divisions both of the singers (Neh. xi. 17) and of object. They show, for example, that the population of southern the Levites (Num. xxvi. 58; Ezr. ii. 40, iii. 9: 1 Chron. xv. 5-10, Judah, so far from being “Israelite” was half-Edomite (see xxii.), and it is noteworthy that in the case of the latter we have

mention of such families as Hebroni (Hebronite), Libni (from Libnah) Judah), and several of the clans in this district bear names --ethnics of South Judacan towns. In fact, a significant number of which indicate their original affinity with Midian or Edom. Levitical names find their analogy in the lists of names belonging to Moreover, there was a frec intermixture of races, and many cities Judah, Simeon and even Edom, or are closely connected with the had a Canaanite (i.e. pre-Israelite) population which must have Gershom and Eliczer, sons of Moses). The Levites bcar a class

family of Moses; e.g. Mushi (i.e. Mosaïte), Gershon and Eleazar(cp. been gradually absorbed by the Israelites (cf. Judg. i.). That name, and the genealogies show that many of them were connected spirit of religious exclusiveness which marked later Judaism did with the minor clans and families of South Palestine which included not become prominent before the Deuteronomic reformation (see among them Moses and his kin., Hence, it is not unnatural that

Obed-edom, for example, obviously a southerner, should have been DEUTERONOMY), and it is under its influence that the writings reckoned later as a Levite, and the work ascribed by the chronicler's begin to emphasize the importance of maintaining the purity of history to the closing years of David's life may be influenced by Israelite blood, although by this time the fusion was complete the tradition that it was through him these mixed populations first (see Judg. iii. 6) and for practical purposes a distinction between attained importance. See further DAVID; Jews; Levites. Canaanites and Israelites within the borders of Palestine could In the time of Josephus every priest was supposed to be able scarcely be discerned.

to prove his descent, and perhaps from the time of Ezra downMany of the genealogical data are intricate. Thus, the interpre- wards lists were carefully kept. But when Anna is called an tation of Gen. xxxiv. is particularly obscure (sce LEVITES ad fin:; Asherite (Luke ii. 36), or Paul a Benjamite (Rom. xi. 1), family their division among the four wives of Jacob; viz. (a) the sons of tradition was probably the sole support to the claim, although the Leah are Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah (S! Palestine), Issachar tribal feeling had not become entirely extinct. The genealogies of and Zebulun (in the north), and Dinah (associated with Shechem); Jesus prefixed to two of the gospels are intended to prove that He (6) of Leah's maid Zilpah, Gad and Asher (E, and N. Palestine); (c) of Rachel, Joseph (Manasseh and Ephraim, i.e. central Palestine)

was a son of David. But not that alone, for in Matt. i. he is and Benjamin; (d) of Rachel's maid Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali traced back to Abraham the father of the Jews, whilst in Luke iii. "G. B. Gray's Hebrew Proper Names (1896), with his article in He, as the second Adam, is traced back to the first man. The

t'wo lists are hopelessly inconsistent; not because one of them application and range of Hebrew names in O.T. genealogies and follows the line of Mary, but because they represent independent lists.

attempts. That in Matthew is characteristically arranged in

three series of fourteen generations each through the kings of pedigree were kept during the earlier centuries of the Roman Judah, whilst Luke's passes through an almost unknown son of commonwealth, although the leading houses drew up genealogical David; in spite of this, however, both converge in the person of tables, and their family pedigree was painted on the walls of the Zerubbabel.

entrance hall. In later times, it is true, even plebeian families See further, A. C. Hervey, Genealogies of Our Lord; H. von Soden, began to establish a prescriptive right (known as the jus imaginum) Ency. Bib. ii. col.

1666 sqq.: B. W. Bacon, Hastings' Dict. Bib, i. to preserve in small wooden shrines in their halls the busts (or pp. 138 seq. On the subject generally see J. F. M'Lennan's Studies rather, wax portrait masks fastened on to busts) of those of their (2nd ser., ch. ix., "fabricated genealogies "); S. A. Cook, Ency, Bib. ii. col. 1657 sqq. (with references); W. R. Smith, Kinship and members who had attained to curule office, and to exhibit these Marriage (2nd ed., especially ch. i.).

(S.A.C.) in public on appropriate occasions. Under these imagines 2. Greek and Roman Genealogies.-A passing reference only is majorum it became usual to inscribe on the wall their respective needed to the intricate genealogies of gods and sons of gods tituli, the relationship of each to each being indicated by means of which form so conspicuous a feature in classical literature. In connecting lines; and thus arose the stemmala gentilicia, which every one of the numerous states into which ancient Greece was at a later time began to be copied into family records. In the divided there were aristocratic families, whose genealogics as a case of plebeian families (whose stemmata in no case went rule went back to prehistoric times, their first ancestor being farther back than. 366 B.c.) these written genealogies were some hero of divine descent, from whom, or from some distin- probably trustworthy enough; but in the case of patricians who guished younger ancestor, they derived their names. Many of went back to Aeneas, so much cannot, it is obvious, be said; these families were, as families, undoubtedly of great antiquity and from a comparatively early period it was clearly recognized even at the beginning of the historical period; and in several that such records lent themselves too readily to the devices of the instances they continued to maintain a conspicuous and separate falsifier and the forger to deserve confidence or reverence (Pliny, existence for centuries. The element of family pride is prominent II.N. xxxv. 2; Juv. viii. 1). in the poetry of the Megarian Theognis; and in an inscription

Thus, parvenus were known to place the busts of fictitious belonging to the 2nd century B.C. the recipient of certain honours ancestors in the shrines and to engage needy literary men to trace from the community of Gythium is represented as the thirty- back their descent even to Aeneas himself. ninth in direct descent (rom the Dioscuri and the forty-first from

The many and great social changes which marked the closing Heracles. Even in Athens, long after the constitution had centuries of the Western empire almost invariably militated become thoroughly democratic, some of the clans continued to be with great strength against the maintenance of an aristocracy known as Eupatridae (of noble family); and Alcibiades, for of birth; and from the time of Constantine the dignity of patrician example, as a member of the phratria of the Eurysacidae, traced ceased to be hereditary. his origin through many generations to Eurysaces, who was

3. Modern.-Two forces have combined to give genealogy represented as having been the first of the Aeacidae to settle in its importance during the period of modern history: the laws Attica. The Corinthian Bacchiadae traced their descent back to of inheritance, particularly those which govern the descent of Heracles, but took their name from Bacchis, a younger ancestor. real estate, and the desire to assert the privileges of a hereditary It is very doubtful, however, whether such pedigrees as this were aristocracy. But it is long before genealogies are found in the very seriously put forward by those who claimed them; and it is possession of private families. The succession of kings and princes certain that, almost along the whole line, they were unsupported are in the chronicle book; the line of the founders and patrons by evidence. We have the authority of Pollux (viii. 111) for of abbeys arc recorded by the monks with curious embellishment stating that the Athenian yévn, of which there were thirty in each of legend. But the famous suit of Scrope against Grosvenos Oparpia, were organized without any exclusive regard being will illustrate the late appearance of private genealogies in had to blood-relationship; they were constantly receiving England. In 1385 Sir Richard Scrope, lord of Bolton, displaying acccssions from without; and the public written registers of his banner in the host that invaded Scotland, found that his births, adoptions and the like do not appear to have been pre-arms of a golden bend in a blue field were borne by a knight of served with such care as would have made it possible to verify a

the Chester palatinate, one Sir Robert Grosvenor. He carried pedigree for any considerable portion even of the strictly historical the dispute to a court of chivalry, whose decision in his favour period.'

was confirmed on appeal to the king. Grosvenor asserted that The great antiquity of the early Roman (patrician) genles, who he derived his right from an ancestor, Sir Gilbert Grosvenor, universally traced themselves back to illustrious ancestors, is who had come over with the Conqueror, while an intervening indisputable; and the rigid exclusiveness with which each pre- claimant, a Cornish squire named Thomas Carminowe, boasted served its hereditales gentiliciae or sacra gentilicia is sufficiently that his own ancestors had borne the like arms since the days of illustrated by the fact that towards the close of the republic King Arthur's Round Table. It is remarkable that in support of there were not more than fifty patrician families (Dion. Halic. i. !he false statements made by the claimants no written genealogy 85). Yet even in these it is obvious that, owing to the frequency is produced. The evidence of tombs and monuments and the of resort to the well-recognized practice of adoption, while there reports of ancient men are advanced, but no pedigree is exhibited was every guarantee for the historical identity of the family, in a case which hangs upon genealogy. It is possible that the art there was none (documents apart) for the personal genealogy of of pedigree-making had its first impulse in England from the the individual. There is no evidence that sufficient records of many genealogies constructed to make med familiar with the 1 On the subject generally see articles “Genos" and "

claims of Edward III. to the crown of France, a second crop of

Gens," by A. H. Greenidge, in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman such royal pedigrees being raised in later generations during Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890), where the chief authorities are given.

the contests of York and Lancaster. But it is not until after * The fondness of Euripides for genealogies is ridiculed by Aris- the close of the middle ages that genealogies multiply in men's tophanes (Acharnians, 47). narratives on assumed genealogical bases. The four books of knight or squire, although proud of the nobility of his race,

All the earlier Greek historians appear to have constructed their houses and are collected into volumes. The medieval baron, Hecataeus of Miletus dealt respectively with the traditions about was content to let it rest upon legend handed down the Deucalion, about Heracles and the Heraclidae, about the early * The chief authority on this subject is Polybius (vi. 53); see also settlements in Peloponnesus, and about those in Asia Minor; he T. Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, i. (1887), p. 442. further made a pedigree for hinsels, in which his sixteenth ancestor - Ac the funeral of Drusus the images of Aeneas, of the Alban was a god. The works of Hellanicus of Lesbos bore titles kings, of Romulus, of the Sabine nobles, of Attus Clausus, and of (Acuratcoreca and the like) which sufficiently explain their nature; the rest of the Claudians" were exhibited (Tac. Ann. iv. 9). his disciplc, Damastes of Sigeum, was the author of gencalogical € The Roman stemmata had, as will be seen afterwards, great histories of Trojan heroes; Apollodorus of Athens made use of three interest for the older modern genealogists. Reference may be made books of l'ereal oyixá by Acusilaus of Argos; Pherecydes of Leros to J. Glandorp's Descriptio gentis Antoniac (1557); to the Descriptio also wrote reveadoyia.. See J. A. F. Töpffer, Allische Genealogie gentis Juliae (1576) of the same author; and to J. Hübner's Genea. (1889); also 1. H. Schubart, Quaestt. geneal. historicae (1832): logische Tabellen. See also G. A. Ruperti's Tabulae genealogicae G. Marckschefiel, De genealogica Groccorum poësi (1840).

sive' stemmala nobiliss. genl. Rom. (1794).


generations. The exact line of his descent was sought only when makers. Much raw material of genealogy has been made it was demanded for a plca in the king's courts to support his available for all by the publication of parish registers, marriage. title to his lands.

licence allegations, monumental inscriptions and the like, and From the first the work of the genealogist in England had that above all by the mass of evidences contained in the volumes taint of inaccuracy tempered with forgery from which it has issued by the Public Record Office. not yet been cleansed. The medieval kings, like the Welsh Within a small space it is impossible to set forth in detail the gentry of later ages, traced their lines to the household of Eden methods by which an English genealogy may be traced. But garden, while lesser men, even as early as the 14th century, those who are setting out upon the task may be warned at the eagerly asserted their descent from a companion of the Conqueror. outset to avoid guesswork based upon the possession of a surname Yet beside these false imaginations we find the law courts, which may be shared by a dozen families between whom is no whose business was often a clash of pedigrees, dealing with tie of kinship. A man whose family name is Howard may be genealogies' centuries long which, constructed as it would seem presumed to descend from an ancestor for whom Howard was from worthy évidences, will often bear the test of modern a personal name: it may not be presumed that this ancestor criticism.

was he in whom the dukes of Norfolk have their origin. A Genealogies in great plenty are found in manuscripts and genealogy should not be allowed to stray from facts which can printed volumes from the 16th century onward. Remarkable be supported by evidence. A man may know that his grand. among these are the descents recorded in the Visitation Books father was John Stiles who died in 1850 at the age of fifty-five. of the heralds, who, armed with commissions from the crown, It does not follow that this John is identical with the John Stiles the first of which was issued in 20 Hen. VIII., perambulated who is found as baptized in 1795 at Blackacre, the son of William the English counties, viewing arms and registering pedigrees. Stiles. But if John the grandfather names in his letters a sister The notes in their register books range from the simple registra- named Isabel Nokes, while the will of William Stiles gives legacies tion of a man's name and arms to entries of pedigrees many to his son and daughter John Stiles and Isabel Nokes, we may generations long. To the heralds these visitations were rare agree that reasonable proof has been given of the added generaopportunities of obtaining fees from the visited, and the value tion. A new pedigree should begin with the carefully tested of the pedigrees registered is notably unequal. Although it statements of living members of a family. The next step should has always been the boast of the College of Arms that Visitation be to collate such family records as bible entries, letters and records may be produced as evidence in the law courts, few of diaries, and inscriptions on mourning rings, with monumental these officially recorded genealogies are wholly trustworthy. inscriptions of acknowledged members of the family. From Many of the officers of arms who recorded them were, even by such beginnings the genealogist will continue his search through the testimony of their comrades, of indifferent character, and the registers of parishes with which the family has been connected; even when the visiting herald was an honourable man and an wills and administrations registered in the various probate courts industrious he had little time to spare for the investigation of form, with parish registers, the backbone of most middle-class any single genealogy. Deeds and evidences in private hands family histories. Court rolls of manors in which members of the may have been hastily examined in some instances-indeed, a family were tenants give, when existing and accessible, proofs herald's summons invites their production--and monuments which may carry back a line, however obscure, through many were often viewed in the churches, but for the most part men's descents. When these have been exhausted the records of legal memories and the hearsay of the country-side made the backbone proceedings, and notably those of the court of chancery, may be of the pedigree. The further the pedigree is carried beyond the scarched. Few English households have been able in the past memory of living men the less trustworthy does it become. The to avoid an appeal to the chancery court, and the bill and answer principal visitations took place in the reigns of Elizabeth, James of a chancery plaintiff and defendant will often tell the story of a I. and Charles II. No commission has been issued since the family quarrel in which a score of kinsfolk are involved, and the accession of William and Mary, but from that time onwards pleadings may contain the material for a family tree of many large numbers of genealogies have been recorded in the registers branching generations. Coram Rege and De Banco rolls may of the College of Arms, the modern ones being compiled with a even, in the course of a dispute over a knight's fce or a manor care which contrasts remarkably with the unsupported state- carry a pedigree to the Conquest of England, although such good ments of the Tudor heralds.

fortune can hardly be expected by the searcher out of an unOutside the doors of the College of Arms genealogy has now distinguished line. In proving a gencalogy it must be remembered been for some centuries a favourite study of antiquaries, whose that in the descent of an estate in land must be sought the best researches have been of the utmost value to the historian, the evidence for a pedigree. topographer and the biographer. County histories, following At the present time the study of genealogy grows rapidly in the example of Dugdale's Warwickshire folios, have given much English estimation. It is no less popular in America, where space to the elucidation of genealogies and to the amassing of societies and private persons have of late years published a vast material from which they may be constructed. Dugdale's number of genealogies, many of which combine the results of great work on the English baronage heads another host of works laborious research in American records with extravagant and occupied with the genealogy of English noble families, and the unfounded claims concerning the European origin of the families second edition of “G.E.C.'sComplete Peerage shows the mighty dealt with. A family with the surname of Cuthbert has been advance of the modern critical spirit. Nevertheless, the 20th known to hail St Cuthbert of Lindisfarne as its progenilor, and century has not yet seen the abandoning of all the genealogical one surnamed Eberhardt has incorporated in its pedigree such fables nourished by the Elizabethan pedigree-mongers, and the German princes of old times as were found to have Eberhardt ancestry of many noble houses as recorded in popular works of for a Christian name. reference is still derived from mythical forefathers. Thus the Genealogy in modern France has, with a few honourable dukes of Norfolk, who, by their office of earl marshal are patrons exceptions, fallen into the hands of the popular pedigree-makers, of the heralds, are provided with a roth-century Hereward for an whose concern is to gratify the vanity of their employers. Italy ancestor; the dukes of Bedford, descendants of a 15th-century likewise has not yet shaken off the influence of those venal burgess of Weymouth, are traced to the knightly house of genealogists who, three hundred years ago, sold pedigrees cheaply Russell of Kingston Russell, and the dukes of Westminster to to all comers. But much laborious genealogical inquiry had the mythical Gilbert le Grosvenor who "came over in the been made in Germany since the days of Hübner, and even in train of the Conqueror."

Russia there has been some attempt to apply modern standards Genealogical research has, however, made great advance of criticism to the chronicles of the swarming descendants of the during the last generation. The critical spirit shown in such blood of Rurik. worksas Round's Studies in Peerage and Family History (1901) has In no way is the gap made by the Dark Ages between ancient assailed with effective ridicule the methods of dishonest pedigree- I and modern history more marked than by the fact that no

European family makes a serious claim to bridge it with its includes genealogies of the ancient English county, families still genealogy. The unsupported claim of the Roman house of among the land-owning classes... English pedigrees of the age before Massimo to a descent from Fabius Maximus is respectable beside the Conquest are collected in W. G. Searle's Anglo-Saxon Bishops, such legends as that which made Lévis-Mirepoix head of the Genealogical dictionaries of noble French families include Victor priestly tribe of Levi, but even the boast of such remote ancestry de Saint Allais's Nobiliaire universel (21 vols., 1872-1877) and Aubert has now become rare. The ancient sovereign houses of Europe de la Chenaye-Desbois' Dictionnaire de la noblesse (15 vols., 1863are, for the most part, content to attach themselves to some

1876). A sumptuous work on the genealogy and heraldry of the

ancient duchy of Savoy by Count Amédée de Foras began to appear ancestor who, when the mist that followed the fall of the Western in 1863. Spain has Lopez de Haro's Nobiliario, genealogico de los empire begins to lift, is seen rallying with his sword some group reyes y títulos de España, Italy has the Teatro araldico of Tettoni of spearmen.

and Saladini (1841-1848), Litti's Famiglie celebri and an Annuario AUTHORITIES.-Genealogical works have been published in such mittently in many European countries. Finland has a Ridderscap

della nobilità. Such annuals are now published more or less interabundance that the bibliographies of the subject are already sub- och Adels Kalender, Belgium the Annuaire de la noblesse, the Dutch stantial volumes. Amongst the earlier books from the press may be Netherlands an Adelsboek, Denmark the Adels-Garbog and Russia noted Benvenuto de San Georgio's Montisferrati marchionum the Annuaire of Ermerin. But chief of all such publications is the et principum regiae propagium successionumque series (1515): ancient Almanach de Gotha, containing the modern kinship of royal Pingonius's Arbor gentilitiae Sabaudiae Saxoniaeque domus 1:521)

, and princely houses, and now accompanied by volumes dealing with Gebwciler's Epitome regii ac velustissimi ortus Caroli V. el Ferdinandi the houses of German and Austrian counts and barons, and with I., omniumque archiducum Austriae et comitum Habsburgiensium houses ennobled in modern times by patent. A useful modern (1527): Meyer's work on the counts of Flanders (1531), and Du reference book for students of history is Stokvis's Manuel d'histoire Boulay's genealogies of the dukes of Lorraine (1547). Later in the et de généalogie de tous les états du globe. (1888–1893). The best same century Reineck of Helmstadt put forth many works having manual for the English genealogist is Walter Rye's Records and a wider genealogical scope, and we may cite Henninges's Genealogiae Record Searching (1897), while an ill-arranged but valuable biblioSaxonicae (1587) and Theatrum genealogicum (1598), and Reusner's graphy of English and foreign works on the subject is that of George Opus genealogicum catholicum (1589-1592). For the politically in Gatfield (1892). convenient falseness of François de Rosières' Stemmala Lotharingiae

(O. BA.) ac Barri ducum (1580), wherein the dukes of Lorraine were deduced

GENELLI, GIOVANNI BUONAVENTURA (1798 – 1868), from the line of Charlemagne, the author was sent to the Bastille by German painter, was born at Berlin on the 28th of September the parlement of Paris and his book suppressed. The 17th century saw the production in England of Dugdale's 1798. He was the son of Janus Genelli

, a painter whose landgreat Baronage (1675-1676), a work which still holds a respectablescapes are still preserved in the Schloss at Berlin, and grandson place by reason of its citation of authorities, and of Sandford's to Joseph Genelli, a Roman embroiderer employed to found a history of the royal house. In the same century André Duchesne, school of gobelins by Frederick the Great. Buonaventura the historian of the Montmorencys, Pierre d'Hozier, the chronicler Genelli first took lessons from his father and then became a of the house of La Rochefoucauld, Rittershusius, Imhoff, Spener, student of the Berlin academy. After serving his time in the Lenneier and many others contribute to the body of continental genealogies, Pierre de Guibours, known as Pere Anselme de Ste guards he went with a stipend to Rome, where he lived ten years, Marie, published in 1674 the first edition of his magnificent Histoire a friend and assistant to Koch the landscape painter, a colleague généalogique de la maison royale de France, des puirs, grands of the sculptor Ernst Hähnel (1811-1891), Reinhart, Overbeck officiers de la couronne et de la maison du roy et des anciens barons and Führich, all of whom made a name in art. In 1830 he was edition appeared in 1726-1733. A modern edition under the editor-commissioned by Dr Härtel to adorn a villa at Leipzig with ship of M. Potier de Courcy began to be issued in 1873, but remains frescoes, but quarrelling with this patron he withdrew to Munich, incomplete. Among 18th-century work Johann Hübner's Biblio- where he earned a scanty livelihood at first, though he succeeded theca genealogica (1729) and Genealogische Tabellen (1725-1733), at last in acquiring repute as an illustrative and figure draughtswith Lenzen's commentary on the latter work (c. 1756), may be signalized, with Gatterer's Handbuch der Genealogie (1761) and his

man. In 1859 he was appointed a professor at Weimar, where Abriss der Genealogie (1788), the latter an early manual on the he died on the 13th of November 1868. Genelli painted few science of genealogy; Hergott's Genealogia diplomatica augustae pictures, and it is very rare to find his canvases in public gentis Habsburgicae (1737) is the imperial genealogy compiled by galleries, but there are six of his compositions in oil in the Schack the emperor's own historiographer.

Modern pcerages in England may be said to date from that of collection at Munich. These and numerous water-colours, as Arthur Collins, whose one-volume first edition was published in well as designs for engravings and lithographs, reveal an artist 1709: The fifth edition appeared in 1778, in eight volumes, to be of considerable power whose ideal was the antique, but who republished in 1812 by Sir Egerton Brydges, the “* Baptist Hatton "

was also fascinated by the works of Michelangelo. Though a of Disraeli's novel, who corrected many legendary pedigrees, besides inserting his own forged descent from a common ancestor with the German by birth, his spirit was unlike that of Overbeck or dukes of Chandos. From this work and from the Irish peerage of Führich, whose art was reminiscent of the old masters of their Lodge (as re-edited by Archdall) most of the later peerages have own country. He seemed to hark back to the land of his fathers quarried their material. With these may be named the baronetages and endeavour to revive the traditions of the Italian Renaissance, of Wotton and Betham. Of modern popular peerages and baronet. ages that of Burke has been published since 1822 in many editions Subtle in thought and powerfully conceived, his compositions and now appears yearly. Most important for the historian are the are usually mythological, but full of matter, energetic and fiery Complete Peerage of G. E. Clockayne) (2nd ed., 1910), and the in execution, and marked almost invariably by daring effects of (1769) of Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie came to a second edition foreshortening. Impeded by straitened means, the artist seems in 1813, edited by J. P. Wood, and the whole work has been revised frequently to have drawn from imagination rather than from and re-edited by Sir James Balfour Paul (1904, &c.). Of the popular life, and much of his anatomy of muscle is in consequence manuals of English untitled families, Burkc's Genealogical and conventional and false. But none the less Genelli merits his Heraldic Dictionary of the Commoners (1833-1838) is now brought reputation as a bold and imaginative artist, and his name up to date from time to time and reissued as the Landed Gentry.

Lists of pedigrees in English printed works are supplied by Mar- deserves to be remembered beyond the narrow limits of the shall's Genealogist's Guide (1903), while pedigrees in the manuscript early schools of Munich and Weimar. collections of the British Museum are indexed in the list of R. Sims GENERAL (Lat. generalis, of or relating to a genus, kind or (1849). Valuable genealogical material will be found in such class), a term which, from its pointing to all or most of the grapher and Genealogist

, Collectanea topographica et genealogica, members of a class, the whole of an area, &c., as opposed to" par Miscellanea genealogita ei heraldica and the

Ancestor. In Germany ticular" or to “ local,” is hence used in various shades of meaning, the Deutscher Herold is the organ of the Berlin Heraldic and Genea for that which is prevalent, usual, widespread or miscellaneous, logical Society. The Nederlandsche Leeuw is a similar publication indefinite, vague. It has been added to the titles of various in the Low Countries.

Modern criticism of the older genealogical methods will be found officials, military officers and others; thus the head of a religious in J. H. Round's Peerage and Pedigree, 2 vols. (London, 1910), order is the "superior-general,” more usually the “ general," and in other volumes by the same author. The Harleian Society and we find the same combination in such offices as that of has published many volumes of the Herald's Visitations; and the

“accountant-general," "postmaster-general," "attorney." or British Record Society's publications, supplying a key to a vast mass of wills, Chancery suits and marriage licences, are of still "solicitor-general,"and many others, the additional word implying greater importance. The Victoria History of the Counties of England | that the official in question is of superior rank, as having a wider

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