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authority or sphere of activity. This is the use that accounts the personal history of Joseph, and the descent of his father for the application of the term, as a substantive, to a military Jacob (or Israel) and his brethren into the land of Egypt officer of superior rank, a “general officer," or " general,” who (xxxvii.-1.). The book of Genesis, as a whole, is closely connected commands or administers bodies of troops larger than a regiment, with the subsequent oppression of the sons of Israel, the revelation or consisting of more than one arm of the service (see also of Yahweh the God of their fathers (Ex. ii. 6, 15 seq., vi. 2-8), OFFICERS). It was towards the end of the 16th century that the the “exodus" of the Israelites to the land promised to their word began to be used in its present sense as a noun, and in the fathers (Ex. xiii. 5, Deut. i. 8, xxvi. 3 sqq., xxxiv. 4) and its conarmies of the time the “ general” was commander-in-chief, quest (Josh. i. 6, xxiv.); cf. also the summaries Neh. ix. 7 sqq., the “ licutenant-general" commander of the horse and second P:

cv. 6 sqq. in command of the army, and the “major-general” (strictly The words, “these are the generations of the heavens and of the “sergeant-major-general ") commander of the foot and chicf earth when they were created" (ii. 4), introduce an account of the of the staff. Field marshals, who have now the highest rank, creation of the world, which, however, is preceded by a were formerly subordinate to the general officers. These titles, differences between the two accounts lie partly in the style and

relatively later and less primitive record (i. 1-ii. 3). The

Analysis. general, lieutenant-general and major-general--are still applied partly in the form and contents of the narratives. i. 1-ii. 3 is marked in most armies to the first, second and third grades of general by stereotyped formulae ("and God (Elohim) said ... and it officer, and in the French service until 1870 the chief of the staff was so ... and God saw that it was good, and there was evening of the army bore the title of major-general. In the German ii. 4b-iii. is less systematic, fresher and more anthropomorphic.

and there was morning," &c.); it is precise and detailed, whereas and Russian services the three grades are qualified by the addition The former is cosmic, the latter is local. It is the latter which of the words “of cavalry," “ of infantry” and “of artillery."mentions the mysterious garden and the wonderful trees which The French service possesses only two grades, “general of Yahweh planted, and depicts Yahweh conversing with man and brigade " and " general of division.” The Austrian service has walking in the garden in the cool of the evening. The former, on

the other hand, has an enlightened conception of Elõhim; the two ranks of general officers peculiar to itself, “ lieutenant Deity, though grand, is a lifeless figure; several antique ideas field marshal,” equivalent to lieutenant-general, and Feldzeug- are nevertheless preserved. The account of the creation, too, is meister (master of the ordnance), equivalent to the German different; for example, in chap. i. man and woman are created general of infantry or artillery. There is also the rank of. together, whereas in ii. man is at first alone. The naiveness of the

story of the creation of woman is in line with the interest which general of cavalry.” The Spanish army still retains the old this more popular source takes in the origin or existence of phenoterm "captain-general.” In the German service General mena, customs and contemporary beliefs (the garden, the naming Oberst (colonel-general) and General Feldzeugmeister (master- of animals, &c.); The primitive record is continued in the story general of ordnance) are ranks intermediate between that of and the reference to other human beings (iv. 14 seq.) gave rise in pre

of Cain and Abel (iv.), where the old-time problem of Cain's wise full general and that of general field marshal. It may be noted critical days to the theory of pre-Adamites, as though Adam and Eve that during the 17th century“ general ” was not confined to a were not the only inhabitants of the earth. But all the indications commanding officer of an army, and was also equivalent to go to show that there were at least two distinct popular narratives, " admiral ", thus when under the Protectorate the office of | wanderer, now becomes the builder of a city, and his descendants

one of which ignores the flood. Cain the murderer, doomed to be a lord high admiral was put into commission, the three first com- introduce various arts (iv. 165-24). (See the articles ABEL;

ADAM; missioners, Blake, Edward Popham and Richard Deane, were CAIN;, COSMOGONY; Exoch; Eve; LAMECH.) From the genera: styled “ generals at sea."

tions” of the heavens and the earth (which one would have expected GENERATION (from Lat. generare, to beget, procreate; genus, The list of the “Sethites," with its characteristically stereotyped

at the head of ch. i.) we pass to the “ generations of Adam" (v. 1). stock, race), the act of procreation or begetting, hence any one of framework, has an older parallel in iv. 25 seq. (with the origin of the the various methods by which plants, animals or substances are worship of Yahweh contrast Ex. vi. 2. seq.), and a fragment from the produced. As applied to the result of procreation, “generation"

same source is found in v. 29. is used of the offspring of the same parents, taken as one degree 19 sqq.) comes the brief story of the demigods (vi. 1-4). It is no

After the birth of Noah the son of Lamech (v. 29, contrast iv. in descent from a common ancestor, or, widely, of the body part

of the account of the fall or of the flood (note verse 4 and Num. of living persons born at or near the same time; thus the word is xii. 33), least of all does it furnish grounds for the old view of the also used of the age or period of a generation, usually taken as division of the human race into evil Cainitesand God-fearing Sethites. about thirty years, or three generations to a century. As a term

The excerpt with its description of the fall of the angels is used to

form a prelude to the wickedness of man and the avenging flood in biology or physiology, generation is synonymous with the (vi

. 5). "Noah, the father of Ham, Shem and Japheth, appears as Gr. Broy eveous and the Ger. Zeugung, and may comprehend the the hero in the Hebrew version of the flood (see Deluge; Noau); whole history of the first origin and continued reproduction of Duplicates (vi. 5-8, 9-13) and discrepancies (vi. 19 sq. contrasted living bodies, whether plants or animals; but it is frequently with. vii. 2; or vii. 11, viii. 14 contrasted with vii. 8, 10, 12) point

to the use of two sources (harmonizing passages in vii. 3.,7-9). The restricted to the sexual reproduction of animals. The subject later narrative, which begins with the generations of Noah may be divided into the following branches, viz.: (1) the first vi. 9-22; vii

. 6, 11, 13-174, 18-21, 24; viii. 1-20, 35-5, 132, 14-19; origin of life and living beings, (2) non-sexual or agamic repro-jx. 1:17), is almost complete; note the superscription and the duction, and (3) gamic or sexual reproduction. For the first two length of the flood (365 days; according to other notices the flood

apparently lasted only 61 or 68 days). In the earlier source Noah of these topics see ABIOGENESIS, BIOGENESIS and BIOLOGY; for collects seven pairs of clean animals, one of each kind; he sacrifices the third and more extensive division, including (1) the formation after

Icaving the ark, and Yahwch promises not to curse the

ground and fecundation of the ovum, and (2) the development of the em or to smite living things again. But in the later, he takes only one bryo in different animals, see REPRODUCTION and EMBRYOLOGY.

pair, and subsequently Elohim blesses Noah and makes a covenant

never again to destroy all flesh by a flood? The covenant (characterGENESIS (Gr. yévegis

, becoming; the term being used in istic of the latest narratives in Genesis) also prohibits the shedding English as a synonym for origin or process of coming into being), of blood (cf. the story of Cain and Abcl in the earlier source). Man. the name of the first book in the Bible, which derives its title kind is now made to descend from the three sons of Noah. The from the Septuagint rendering of ch. ii. 4. It is the first of the civilization, and to Noah is ascribed the cult of the vine, the abuse

older story, however, continues with another step in the history of five books (the Pentateuch), or, with the inclusion of Joshua, of of which leads to the utterance of a curse upon Canaan and a blessing the six (the Hexateuch), which cover the history of the Hebrews upon Shem and Japheth (ix. 20-27); The table of nations in x. to their occupation of Canaan. The "genesis” of Hebrew (" the generations of the sons of Noah ") preserves several signs of

sq., Ludim v. 13 with history begins with records of antediluvian times: the creation of composite origin (contrast e.8. X. 7 with wv.

V. 22, and the Canaanite families v. 16 with the dispersion "afterthe world, of the first pair of human beings, and the origin of sin wards,” v. 18, &c.); see CANAAN; GENEALOGY; NIMROD. The (i.-iii.), the civilization and moral degeneration of mankind, the history of the primitive age concludes with the story of the tower history of man to the time of Noah (iv.-vi. 8), the flood (vi. 9-ix.), the confusion of languages and the divisions of the human 1 The abrupt introduction of a small poem (iv. 23 seq.) was long race (x.-xi.). Turning next to the descendants of Shem, the book ago regarded as due to the use of separate sources (so the Calvinist

Isaac de la Peyrère, 1654). deals with Abraham (xii.-xxv. 18), Isaac and Jacob (xxv. 19

2 The divergences of detail

, with corresponding stylistic variations, Xxxv.), the “ fathers " of the tribes of Israel, and concludes with I were recognized long ago (e.g. by Father Simon in 1682).

of Babel (xi. 1-9), which, starting from a popular etymology of Babel | The detailed account of the purchase of the cave of Machpelah ("* gate of God"), as though from Balbel (* confusion "), tells how (contrast the brevity of xxxiii. 19) is of great importance for the Yahweh seared lest mankind should become too powerful (cl. iii. 22-24), traditions of the patriarchs, and, like the references to the death of and seeks to explain the origin of the numerous languages in use. Sarah and Abraham, belongs to the latest source (xxiii., xxv. 7-110) It is independent of x., which already assumes a confusion of tongues The idyllic picture of life in xxiv. presupposes that Isaac is sole heir (vv. 5, 20, 31), the existence of Babel (v. 10), and gives a different (v. 36); since this is first stated in xxv. 5, it is probable that xxv. 5, account of the rise of the various races. This incident in the journey 110 (and perhaps v. 6, 18) are out of place. It is noteworthy that eastwards (xi. 2) is equally independent of the story of the Deluge the district is Abraham's native place (xxiv. 4, 7, 10; contrast the and of Noah's family (see Wellhausen, Prolegomena, P:,316). The Babylonian home specified in xi. 28, 31; xv. 7). In xxv. 1 sqq. continuation of the chapter, " the generations of Shem " (xi. 10-27, Abraham takes as wife (but concubine, i Chron. 1. 32 seq.) Keturah see the Shemite genealogy in x. 21 579., and contrast the ages with (“incense ") and becomes the father of various Arab tribes, e.g. vi. 3), is in the same stereotyped style as ch. V., and prepares the Sheba and Dedan (grandsons of Cush in x. 7). way for the history of the patriarchs.

After the generations of Ishmael" (xxv. 12 sqq.) the narrative The "generations of Terah" (xi. 27) lead to the introduction of turns to "the generations of Isaac" (xxv. 19 sqq.). The story of the first great patriarch Abraham (9.0.). There is a twofold account the events at the court of Abimelech (xxvi.) finds a parallel in the of his migration to Bethel with his nephew Lot; the more statistical now disjointed xx., xxi. 22-34; note the new explanation of Beerform in xi. 31 sq., xii. 4b, 5 belongs to the latest source. The state-sheba, the reference in xxvi. I to the parallel story in xii., the absence ment that the Canaanite was then in the land (xii. 6, cf. xiii. 7) points of allusion to xx., and the apparent cditorial references to xxi. in to a time long after the Israelite conquest, when readers needed v.15, 18. On the whole, the story of Isaac's wise at Gerar is brieser such a reminder (so Hobbes in his Leviathan, 1651). A famine forces and not so elevated as that of Sarah, but the parallel to xxi. 22-34 him to descend into Egypt, where a story of Sarai (here at least 65 is more detailed. The birth of Esau and Jacob (xxv. 21-34) intro years of age; see xii. 4, xvii. 17) is one of three variants of a similar duces the story of Jacob's craft when Isaac is on the point of death peculiar incident (cf. xx. 1-17, xxvi, 6-14). The passage is an in (xxvii.). Jacob flees to Laban at Haran to escape Esau's hatred sertion (xii

. 10-xiii. 2; xii. 9, xiii. 3 seq. being harmonistic). . The xxvii. 41-45); but, according to the latest source (P), he is charged thread is resumed in the account of the separation of the patriarch | by Isaac to go to Paddan-Aram, and take a wife there, and his father and his nephew Lot, who divide the land between them. Abraham transfers to him the blessing of Abraham (xxvii. 46-xxviii

. 9). On occupies Canaan, but moves south to Hebron, which, according to his way to Haran he stops at Bethel (formerly Luz, according to Josh. xiv. 15, was formerly known as Kirjath-Arba. Lot dwells in Judg. i. 22:26), where a vision prompts him to accept the God of the the basin of the Jordan, and his history is continued in the ory place should he return in peace to his father's home (xxviii. 10-22), of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (xviii.- xix.; Hos. xi. 8, He passes to the land of the children of the east" (xxix. 1), and Deut. xxix. 23 speak of Admah and Zeboim). Lot is saved and the scenes which follow are scarcely situated at Haran, the famous becomes the ancestor of the Moabites and Ammonites, who are and ancient seat of the worship of the moon-god, but in the desert. thus closely related to the descendants of Abraham (note xix. 37, Here he resides fifteen years or more, and by the daughters of Laban "unto this day"). The great war with Amraphcl and Chodorlaomer and their handmaidens becomes the father " of the tribes of Israel. --the defeat of a world-conquering army by 318 men--with the There are numerous traces of composition from different sources, episode of Melchizedek, noteworthy for the reference to Jerusalem but a satisfactory analysis is impossible. The flight of Jacob and (xiv. 18, cf. Ps. Ixxvi. 2), has nothing in common with the context his household (from Paddan-Aram, xxxi. 18 P) leads over "the (see ABRAHAM; MELCHIZEDEK). It treats as individuals the place River" (v. 21, i.e. the Euphrates); though the seven days' journey names Mamre and Eshcol (xiv. 13, cf. Num. xiii. 23 seq.), and by of this concourse of men and cattle suggests that he came to Gilead, mentioning Dan (v. 14) anticipates the events in Josh. xix. 47, Judg. not from Haran (300 m. distant), but from some nearer locality xviii. 29.2 A cycle of narratives deals with the promise that the This is to be taken with the evidence against Haran already noticed, barren Sarai (Sarah) should bear a child whose descendants would with the use of the term "children of the east ". (xxix. 1 ; cf. Jer. inhabit the land of Canaan. The importance of the tradition for the xlix. 28; Ezek. xxv, 4, 10), and with the details of Laban's kindred history of Israel explains both the prominence given to it (cf. already (xxii. 20-24). The arrival at Mahanaim ("{two ?} camps ") gives xii. 7, xiii. 14-17) and their present complicated character (due to rise to specific allusions to the meaning of the name (xxxii. 1 seq.. repeated revision).. The older narratives comprise (a) the promise 7-12, 13-21); cf. also the plays upon Jabbok, Israel and Peniel in that Abraham shall have a son of his own flesh (xv.)--the account | xxxii. 22-32. He meets 'Esau (xxxii. 3-21, xxxii. 1-16, another is composite;' (b) the birth of Ishmael, Abraham's son by Hagar, reference to Peniel, “ face of God," in v. 10), but they part. Jacob their exile, and Yahweh's promise (xvi., with a separate framework now comes to Shechem in peace" (cf. the phrase in xxviii. 21), in w. 10, 3, 15 seq.)--bcfore the birth of Isaac; and (c) the promise where he buys land and erects an altar (xxxiii. 18-20, cf. Abraham of a son to Sarai (xviii. 1-15), now combined with the story of Lot in xii. 6 seq.). There is a remarkable story of the violation of his and the overthrow of Sodom. The latest source (xvii.) is marked daughter Dinah by Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite (xxxiv.). by the solemn covenant between Yahweh and Abraham, the revela- It has been heavily revised; note the alternating prominence of tion of God Almighty (El-Shaddai, cf. Ex. vi. 3), and the institution Hamor and Shechem, the condemnation of Simeon and Levi for their of circumcision (otherwise treated in Ex. iv. 26, Josh. y. 2. seq.). vengeance (cf. the curse in xlix. 5-7), the destruction of the city The more elevated character of this source as contrasted with xv. Shechem by all the sons of Jacob, and the survival of the Hamorites and xviii. is as striking as the difference of religious tone in the two as a family centuries later (xxxiii. 19, Judg. ix. 28). The narrative accounts of the creation (above). Abraham now travels thence continues with Jacob's journey to Bethel, the death of Deborah (xx. I, Hebron, sce xviii. 1), and his adventure in the land of Abime (who accompanied Rebekah to Palestine 140 years previously, sce lech, king of Gerar (xx.), is a duplicate of xii. (above). It is con- xxiv. 59, and the latest source in xxv. 20, xxxv. 28), the death of tinued in xxi. 22-34, which has a close parallel in the life of Isaac Rachel (xXXV. 16-20, contrast xxxvii. 10), and ceases abruptly in the (xxvi., below). Isaac is born in accordance with the divine promise, middle of a sentence (xxxv. 22, but see xlix. 3-4). . The latest source (xviii. 1o at Hebron); the scene is the south of Palestine. The (xxxv. 9-13, 15, 226-29) gives another account of the origin of the story of the dismissal of Hagar and Ishmael, and the revelation names Ísrael (cl. xxxii. 28) and Bethel (cf. xxviii. 19), and the (xxi. 8-21) cannot be separated from xvi. 4-14, where ev. 9 seq. are genealogy wrongly includes Benjamin among the sons born outside intended to harmonize the passages. Although about sixteen years Palestine (w. 24-26). In narrating Jacob's leisurely return to Isaac intervene (see xvi. 16; xxi. 5, 8). Ishmael is a young child who has at Hebron, the writers quite ignore the many years, which have to be carried (xxi. 15), but the Hebrew text of xxi. 14 (not, however, elapsed since he left his father at the point of death in Beersheba the Septuagint) endeavours to remove the discrepancy:, "After (xxvii. 1, 2, 7, 10, 41). these things" comes the offering of Isaac which implicitly annuls "The generations of Esau, the same is Edom," provide much the sacrifice of the first-born, a not unfamiliar rite in Palestine as valuable material for the study of Israel's rival (xxxvi.). The the denunciations prove (cf. Ezek. xvi. 20 seq., XX. 26; Mic. vi. 7; chapter gives yet another account of the separation of Jacob and Is. lvii. 5), and thus marks an advance, e.g. upon the story of Esau (with w. 6-8, cf. Abraham and Lot, xiii. 5 seq.), and describes Jephthah's daughter (Judg. xi.). The story may be contrasted with the latter's withdrawal to Seir (cl. already xxxii. 3; xxxiii. 14, 16). the Phoenician account of the sacrifice by Cronos (to be identified It includes lists of diverse origin (e.g. w. 2-5. contrast xxvi. 34, with El) of his only son, which practically justified the horrid custom. xxviii. 9); various “dukes

YR.V. marg.

chiess "), or rather

As early as 1685 Jean le Clerc observed that Ur of the Chaldees • Points of resemblance in xxiii. with Babylonian usage have (Chasdim) in xi. 28 anticipates Chesed in xxii. 22, and implied some often been

exaggerated;comparison " shows noteworthy differences knowledge of the land of the Chaldaeans (cf. Ezek. i. 3, xi. 24). (T.G. Pinches, The Old Testament, p.238); see Carpenter and Harford.

: The Catholic priest Andrew du Macs (1570) already pointed to Battersby, Hexaleuck, i. 64, Driver, Gen. p. 230, and Addenda. the names Hebron and Dan as signs of post- Niosaic date.

Note, c.g., the sudden introduction of xxix. 15, the curious * Note the repetitions in rv. 2 and 3; Abraham's faith, w. 4-6, position of v. 24 (due to P), the double play upon the names Zebulun and his request, v. 8; contrast the time of day, v. 5 and 1. 12, and and Joseph, xxx. 20, 23 seq., the internal intricacies in the agreement, the dates, v. 13 and 8. 16. In w. 12-15 there is a reference to the ib. v. 31-43; the difficulties in the reference to the latter in xxxi. 6 bondage in Egypt.

s99. (especially v. 10). *These and other chronological embarrassments, now recognized See Ed. Meyer (and B. Luther), Die Israëliten und ihre Nachbar. as due to the framework of the post-exilic writer (P), have long been stämme (1906). pp. 238 sqq.; also the shrewd remarks of C. T. Beke, observed-by Spinoza, 1671.

Origines biblicoe (1834), pp. 123 sqq.


thousands or" clans"; and also the "sons" of Seir the Horite, , the most. obvious intricacies. The Gral-Wellhausen literary 1.e. Horite clans (w. 20 seq. and vv. 29 seq.). A summary of Edomite theory has gained the assent of almost all trained and unbiased Lather of the Edomites (vv. 40-43, cf. names in ov. 10-14, 15-19).' 31:39), and the record concludes with the " dukes" of Esau, the biblical scholars, it has not been shaken by the more recent light

from external evidence, and no alternative theory has as yet been Finally, Genesis turns from the patriarchs to the "generations of produced. The internal features of Genesis demand some formuJacob" (xxxvii. 2), and we have stories of the sons," the ancestors iated theory, more precise than the indefinite concessions of Simeon and Levi alone have, however, been adjusted to the general the 17th century, beyond which the opponents of modern literary history of Jacob and his family.) The first place is given to Joseph criticism scarcely advance, and the Graf-Wellhausen theory, in (xxxvii.), although xxxviii, crowds the early history of the family spite of the numerous difficulties which it leaves untouched, is of Judah into the twenty-two

years between xxxvii. 2 and Jacob's the only adequate starting-point for the study of the book. descent into Egypt (sce xli. 46, 47; xlv. 6). In xxxvii., xxxix: 599: According to this, Genesis is a post-exilic work composed of a from the patriarchal stories. The romance which has here been post-exilic priestly source (P) and non-priestly earlier sources utilized shows an acquaintance with Egypt; the narratives are which differ markedly from P in language, style and religious discursive, not laconic, everything is more detailed, and more under standpoint, but much less markedly from one and another.$ in it are not the characters which we meet in xxxiv., xxxv. 22, or in These sources can be traced elsewhere in the Pentateuch and the poem xlix. 3-7; and the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh do Joshua, and P itself is related to the post-exilic works Chronicles, not scruple to claim ancestry from Joseph and the daughter of an Ezra and Nehemiah. In its present form Genesis is an indisEgyptian priest at the seat of the worship of the sun god (xli, 45): pensable portion of the biblical history, and consequently its brethren because of Israel's partiality or because of his significant literary growth cannot be viewed apart from that of the dreams. He is at Shechem or at Dothan; and when the brothers books which follow. On internal grounds it appears that the seek to slay him, Judah proposes that he should be sold to Ishmaelites, Pentateuch and Joshua, as they now read, virtually come in or Reuben suggests that he should

be cast into a pit, where Midianites between an older history by “ Deuteronomic" compilers (easily eunuch Potiphar, but he appears in the service of a married house - recognizable in Judges and Kings), and the later treatment of the hoider (xxxix., the second clause of v. 1 harmonizes). Among other monarchy in Chronicles, where the influence of the circle which signs of dual origin are the alternation of Jacob" and " Israel," produced Pand the present Mosaic legislation is quite discernible. and the prominence of Judah (xliii

. 3,8; xliv. 14,18) or of Reuben There have been stages where earlier extant sources have been (xlii. 22, 37). The money is found in a "bag encamp (xlii. 27, 28a; xliii.),

or in a " sack" when they reach home cut down, adjusted or revised by compilers who have incorporated (xlii. 8-26, 29-35, 286, 36 sq.). When Israel and his family descend fresh material, and it is the later compilers of Genesis who have into Egypt, the latest source gives a detailed list which agrees in made the book a fairly knit whole. The technical investigation the main with the Israelite subdivisions (xlvi

. 6-27, cf. Num. xxvi. of the literary problems (especially the extent of the earlier east of the Delta, "for cvery shepherd is an abomination unto the sources) is a work of great complexity, and, for ordinary purposes, Egyptians ". (xlv. 10: xlvi. 28-34; xlvii. 1-6); or they are in it is more important to obtain a preliminary appreciation of the the " land of Rameses" (xlvii. 11, and Septuagint in xlvi. 28);' general features of the contents of Genesis. Joseph's policy during the famine is next described (xlvii. 13-26),

That the records of the pre-historic ages in Gen. i.-xi. are at although it would have been more in place after xli. (see ib. 34). There are several difficulties in Jacob's blessing of the sons of Joseph complete variance with modern science and archaeological (xlviii.). The blessing in xlix. is a collection of poetical passages research is unquestionable. But although it is impraising or blaming the various tribes, and must certainly possible to regard them any longer either as genuine traditions. date alter the Israelite settlement in Palestine: see further the history or as subjects for an allegorical interpretation 29-31) are continued in !. 1 sqq., his charge to his sons (xlix. 28 (which would prove the accuracy of any record) they are of sqq., P) in l. 12 seq. It is significant that Jacob's body is taken to distinct value as human documents. They reflect the ideas Palestine, but the brethren return to Egypt; in spite of a possible and thoughts of the Hebrews, they illustrate their conceptions of allusion to the famine in v. 21, the late chronological scheme would God and the universe, and they furnish material for a comparison imply that it had long ceased (see xlv. 6, xlvii. 28). The book closcs with the death of Joseph about fifty years later, after the birth of of the moral development of the Hebrews with that of other the children of Machir, who himself was a contemporary of Moses early races. Some of the traditions are closely akin to those forty years after the Exodus (Num. xxxii. 39-41). Joseph's body current in ancient Babylonia, but a careful and impartial comis embalmed, but it is not until the concluding chapter of the book parison at once illustrates in a striking manner the relative of Joshua (xxiv. 32) that his bones find their last resting-place.

moral and spiritual superiority of our writers. On these subjects Only on the assumption that the book of Genesis is a composite see. further COSMOGONY; DELUGE. work is it possible to explain the duplication of events, the varying The records of the patriarchal age, xii.-1. are very variously

use of the divine names Yahweh and Elohim, the estimated, although the great majority of scholars agree that

linguistic and stylistic differences, the internal intri- they are not contemporary and that they cannot be used, as they posite

cacies of the subject matter, and the differing stand-stand, for pre-Mosaic times. Apart from the ordinary arguments

points as regards tradition, chronology, morals and of historical criticism, it is to be noticed that external evireligion. The cumulative effect of the whole evidence is too dence does not support the assumption that the records preserve strong to be withstood, and already in the 17th century it was & On the course of modern criticism and on the various sources: recognized that the book was of composite origin. Immense P, ! (Judacan or Yahwist), E (Ephraimite or Elohist), see BIBLE labour has been spent in the critical analysis of the contents, but (Old Test. Criticism). The passages usually assigned to Pin


are: i. 1-ii. 40; v. 1-28, 30-32; vi. 9-22; vii. 6 (and parts of 7-9), it is only since the work of Graf (1866) and Wellhausen (1878) that

I, 13-160, 18-21, 24; viii. 1-2a, 36-5, 139, 14-19; ix. 1-17, 28-29; a satisfactory literary hypothesis has been found which explained X. 1-7, 20, 22-23, 31-32; xi. 10-27, 31-32; xii, 4b-5; xiii. 6, 116-12a;

xvi. 1a, 3, 15-16; xvii.; xix. 29; xxi. 16, 2b-5: xxiii.; xxv. 7-110, 1 It is interesting to find that the Spanish Rabbi Isaac (of Toledo, 12-17, 19-20, 26b; xxvi. 34-35; xxvii. 46-xxviii. 9; xxix. 24, 285, A.D. 982-1057), noticing that the royal list must be later than the 29; xxxi. 186; xxxiii. 180; xxxiv. 1-2, 4, 6, 8-10, 13-18, 20-24, time of Saul (also recognized by Martin Luther and others), proposed part of 25, 27-29; xxxv. 9-13, 15, 226-29; xxxvi. (in the main); to assign the chapter to the age of Jehoshaphat.

xxxvii. 1-2a; xli. 46; xlvi. 6-27; xlvii. 5-60, 7-11, 276-28; xlviii. ? But the chronology is hopeless, and only ten years are allowed 3-7;

xlix. 10, 28b-33, 1, 12-13 according to another and later scheme (xxv. 26, xxxv. 28, xlvii. 9). See on this, especially, S. R. Driver's Genesis in the "Westminster

* Cl. the account of the Israelites in Egypt, where they are in Commentaries" (seventh ed., 1909). Goshen, unaffected by the plagues (Ex. viii. 22, ix. 26), or, according * The above is typical of modern biblical criticism which is to another view, are living in the midst of the Egyptians (e.g. xii. 23). compelled to recognize the human element (and can thus have no

• V. 7 breaks the context; there is repetition in w. 10b and 136; a priori preconceptions in approaching the Old Testament), but at interchange of the names Jacob and Israel ; v. 12 suggests a blessing the same time reveals ever more decisively the presence of purifying upon Joseph himself; and with w. 15 seq. (the blessing of the sons, influences, without which the records of Israel would have had no not of Joseph), contrast v. 20 sqq. (the singular" in thee,” v. 20). permanent interest or value. They thus gain a new value which

"Only the more noticeable peculiarities have been mentioned in cannot be impaired when it is realized that their significance is quite the preceding columns.

independent of their origins.

Value of

A com


genuinc pre-Mosaic history. There are no grounds for any tiler Cain who becomes the typical nomad and the pastoral Abe! arbitrary distinction between the “ pre-historic "pre-Abrahamic (iv. 1-15). The interest of the struggles between Jacob and age and the later age. External evidence, which recognizes no Esau lay, not in the history of individuals of the distant past, universal deluge and no dispersal of mankind in the third millen- but in the fact that the names actually represented Israel and nium B.C., throws its own light upon the opening centuries of its near rival Edom. These features are in entire accordance the second. It has revealed conditions which are not reflected with Oriental usage and give expression to current belief, existing in Genesis, and important facts upon which the book is silent relationships, or to a poetical foreshadowing of historical vicissiunless, indeed, there is a passing allusion to the great Babylonian tudes. But in the effort to understand them as they were monarch Khammurabi in the Amraphel of Gen. xiv. Any careful originally understood it is very obvious that this method of perusal of modern attempts to recover historical facts or an interpretation can be pressed too far It would be precarious historical outline from the book will show how very inadequate to insist that the entrances into Palestine of Abraham and Jacob the material proves to be, and the reconstructions will be found to (or Israel) typificd two distinct immigrations. The separation depend upon an interpretation of the narratives which is often of Abraham from Lot (cf. Lotan, an Edomite name), of Isaac liberal and not rarely precarious, and to imply such reshaping and from Hagar-Ishmael, or of Jacob from Esau-Edom scarcely rewriting of the presumed facts that the cautious reader can place points to the relative antiquity of the origin of these nonlittle reliance on them. Whatever future research may bring, it Israelite peoples who, to judge from the evidence, were closely cannot remove the internal peculiarities which combine to show related. Or, if the “sons” of Jacob had Aramacan mothers, that Genesis preserves, not literal history, but popular traditions to prove that those which are derived from the wives were upon of the past. External evidence has proved the antiquity of a higher level than the “sons" of the concubines is more difficult various elements, but not that of the form or context in which than to allow that certain of the tribes must have contained they now appcar; and the difference is an important one. We some element of Aramacan blood (cf. 1 Chron. vii. 14, and see have now a background upon which to view the book, and, on the ASHER; GAD; MANASSEH). Some of the names are clearly one hand, it has become obvious that the records preserve as is not those of known clans or tribes (c.8. Abraham, Isaac), and only to be expected-Oriental customs, beliefs and modes of many of the details of the narratives obviously have no natural thought. But it has not been demonstrated that these are ethnological meaning. Stories of heroic ancestors and of tribal exclusively pre-Mosaic. On the other hand, a better acquaint- eponyms intermingle; personal, tribal and national traits are ance with the ancient political, sociological and religious con- interwoven. The entrance of Jacob or Israel with his sons ditions has made it increasingly difficult to interpret the records suggests that of the children of Israel. The story of Simcon as a whole literally, or even to find a place in pre-Mosaic Palestine and Levi at Shechem is clearly not that of two individuals, for the lives of the patriarchs as they are depicted. Nevertheless, sons of the patriarch Israel; in fact the story actually uses the though one cannot look to Genesis for the history of the early part term “ wrought folly in Israel " (cf. Jud. xx. 6, 10), and the of the second millennium B.C., the study of what was thought of individual Shechem, the son of Hamor, cannot be separated the past, proves in this, as in many other cases, to be more from the city, the scene of the incidents. Yet Jacob's life with instructive than the facts of the past, and it is distinctly more Laban has many purely individual traits. And, further, there important for the biblical student and the theologian to under- intervenes a remarkable passage with an account of his conflict stand the thought of the ages immediately preceding the founda- with the divine being who fears the dawn and is unwilling to tion of Judaism in the 5th century B.c. than the actual history of reveal his name. In a few verses the "wrestling” ('-6-k) of many centuries earlier.

Jacob (ya'dqöb) is associated with the Jabbok (yabbög); his A noteworthy feature is the frequent personification of peoples," striving" explains his name Israel; at Peniel he sees the tribes or clans (see GENEALOGY: Biblical). Midian (i.e. the face of God," and when touched on his vulnerable spot-the

Midianites) is a son of Abraham; Canaan is a son of hollow of the thigh-he is lamed, hence " the children of Israel Pusion of Ham (ix. 22), and Cush the son of Ham is the father eat not the sinew of the hip which is upon the hollow of the

of Ramah and grandfather of the famous S. Arabian thigh unto this day" (xxxii. 24-32). Other examples of the fusion

state Sheba and the traders of Dedan (x. 6 sq., cf. of different features can be readily found. Three divine beings Ezek. xxvii. 20-22). Bethuel the father of Rebekah is the brother appear to Abraham at the sacred tree of Hebron, and when the of the tribal pames Uz and Buz (xxii. 21 sqq., cf. Jer. XXV. 20, 23). birth of Isaac (from şaḥoq, “ laugh") is forctold, the account of Jacob is otherwise known as Israel and becomes the father of Sarah's behaviour is merely a popular and trivial story suggested the tribes of Israel; Joseph is the father of Ephraim and by the child's name (xviii. 12-15; see also xvii. 17, xxi. 6, 9). Manasseh, and incidents in the life of Judah lead to the birth | An extremely fine passage then describes the patriarch's interof Perez and Zerah, Judaean clans. This personification is cession for Sodom and Gomorrah, and the narrative passes on entirely natural to the Oriental, and though “primitive" is not to the catastrophe which explains the Dead Sea and its desert - Dècessarily an ancient trait. It gives rise to what may be region and has parallels elsewhere (e.g. the Greek legend of Zeus termed the “prophetical interpretation of history” (s. R. and Hermes in Phrygia). Lot escapes to Zoar, the name gives Driver, Genesis, p. 111), where the character, fortunes or history rise to the pun on the “ little” city (xix. 20), and his wife, on of the apparent individual are practically descriptive of the looking back, becomes one of those pillars of salt which still people or tribe which, according to tradition, is named after er invite speculation. Finally the names of his children Moab and descended from him. The utterance of Noah over Canaan, Ammon are explained by an incident when he is a cave-dweller Shem and Japheth (ix, 25 sqq.), of Isaac over Esau and Jacob. on a mountain. (xxvii.), of Jacob over his sons (xlix.) or grandsons (xlviii.), To primitive minds which speculated upon the "why and where would have no meaning to Israelites unless they had some con

fore of what they saw around them, the narratives of Genesis nexion with and interest for contemporary life and thought. afforded an answer. They preserve, in fact, some of the popular Herein lies the force of the description of the wild and

independent philosophy and belief of the Hebrews. They furnish what must Ishmael (xvi. 12), the “father” of certain well-known tribes Mahanaim and Succoth, Bethel, Beersheba, &c. They explain why (xxv. 13-15); or the contrast between the skilful hunter Esau Shechem, Be and Beersheba were ancient sanctuaries (see further and the quiet and respectable Jacob (xxy. 27), and between the below); why the serpent writhes along the ground (iii. 14); and

why the hip sinew might not be eaten (xxxii. 32). To these and a See the remarks of W. R. Smith, Eng. Hist. Rev. (1888), pp. 128 hundred other questions the national and tribal stories-of which seq, (from the sociological side), and for general considerations, no doubt only a lew have survived, and of which other forms, earlier A. A. Bevan, Cril. Rev. (1893), pp. 138 soq.; S. Ř. Driver, Genesis, or later, more crude or more refined, were doubtless current-furnish pp. xliii. sqq.

an evidently adequate answer. Myth and legend, fact and fiction, Cf. Amos i. 11; 1 Chron. ii. iv. (note iv. 10), the Book of Jubilces the common stock of oral tradition, have been handed down, and (see above), and also Arabian usage (W. R. Smith, Kinship and thus constitute one of the most valuable sources for popular Hebrew Marriage, ch. i.). For modern examples, see E. Littmann, Orient. thought. Stud. Theodor Noldeke (ed. Bezold, 1906), pp. 942-958.

The book is not to be judged from any one-sided estimate of its

diverse features.

of date.


contents. By the side of much that seems trivial, and even non- details which happen to be preserved, and these not necessarly moral—for the patriarchs themselves are not is noteworthy in their original or in their only form. Since the antiquity of how frequently the narratives are didactic. The characteristic sense of collective responsibility, which appears more incidentally elements of tradition is independent of the shape in which they in xx. 7, is treated with striking intensity in a passage (xviii. 23-33) appear before us, a careful distinction must be drawn between which uses the legend of Sodom and Gomorrah as a vehicle for the those details which do not admit of being dated or located and statement of a familiar problem (cf. Ezek. xviii., Ps. lxxiii., Job). those which do. There is evidence for the existence of the It will be observed that interviews with divine beings presented as little difficulty to the primitive minds of old as to the modern nomes Abram, Jacob and Joseph previous to 900 B.C., but native; even the idea of intercourse of supernatural beings with this does not prove the antiquity of the present narratives mortals (vi. 1-4) is to-day equally intelligible. The modern un- encircling them. Babylonian tablets of the creation date from tutored native "has a not dissimilar undeveloped and childlike the 7th century B.C., but their contents are many centuries attitude towards the divine, a naive theology and a simple cultus, The most circumstantial tales are told of imaginary figures, and earlier (viz. the age of Khammurabi), whereas the Phoenician the most incredible details clothe the lives of the historical heroes myths of the origin of things are preserved in a late form by the of the past. So abundant is the testimony of modern travellers to late writers Damascius and Philo of Byblus. Gen. xiv., which the extent to which Eastern custom and thought clucidate the interpretation of the Bible, that it is very important to notice

may preserve some knowledge of the reign of Khammurabi, is those features which illustrate Genesis. "'The Oriental," writes on internal literary grounds of the post-exilic age, and it is at S. 1. Curtiss (Bidl. sacra, Jan. 1901, pp. 103 sqq.). - is least of all a least a coincidence that the Babylonian texts, often quoted in scientific historian. He is the prince of story-tellers, narratives, support of the genuineness of the narrative, belong to about the portraiture of composite rather than individual Oriental life, though same period and use early Babylonian history for purely

didactic narrated under forms of individual experience." There are, there purposes. In general, just as the Book of Jubilees, while fore, many preliminary points which combine to show that the presenting many elements of old tradition, betrays on decisive critical student cannot isolate the book from Oriental life and internal grounds an age later than Gencsis itself, so, in turn, thought; its uniqueness lies in the manner in which the material

there is sufficient conclusive evidence that Genesis in its present has been shaped and the use to which it has been put.

form includes older features, but belongs to the age to which The Book of Jubilees (not earlier than the 2nd century B.c.) (on quite independent grounds) the rest of the Pentateuch must presents the history in another form. It retains some of the be ascribed.

canonical matter, often with considerable reshaping, Popular tradition often ignores events of historical importance, Questions

omits many details (especially those to which exception or, as repeated experience shows, will represent them in such a

could be taken), and adds much that is novel. The form that the true historical kernel could never have chronological system of the latest source in Genesis becomes an been recovered without some external clue. The

Historical elaborate reckoning of heavenly origin. Written under the absence of definite references to the events of the grounds. obvious influence of later religious aims, it is especially valuable Israelite monarchy does not necessarily point to the because one can readily compare the two methods of presenting priority of the traditions in Genesis or their later date. Neverthethe old traditions. There is the same kind of personification, less, somc allusion to national fortunes is reflected in the exaltafresh examples of the “ prophetical interpretation of history," tion of Jacob (Israel) over Esau (Edom), and in the promise that and by the side of the older “primitive” thought are ideas the latter should break the yoke from his neck. Israclite kings which can only belong to this later period. In each case we have are foreshadowed (xvii. 6, xxxv. 11, P), and Israel's kingdom has merely a selection of current traditional lore. For example, the ideal limits as ascribed to Solomon (xv. 18, sec 1 Kings iv. 21; Gen. vi. 1-4 mentions the marriage of divine beings with the but cf. art. Solomon). Judah is promised a world-wide kiug daughters of men and the birth of Nephilim or giants (cf. Num. (xlix.8-10), though elsewhere the supremacy of Joseph rouses the xiii. 33). Later allusions to this myth (e.g. Baruch iii. 26-28, jealousy of his brothers " (xxxvi. 8). Different dates and Book of Enoch vi. sqq., 2 Peter ii. 4, &c.) are not based upon this circles of interest are thus manifest. The cursing and dispersion passage; the fragment itself is all that remains of some more of Simeon and Levi (xlix. 5-7) recall the fact that Simcon's organic written myth which, as is well-known, has parallels cities were in the territory of Judah (Josh. xix. 1,9), and that the among other peoples. Old myths underlic the account of the Levitical priests are later scattered and commended to the creation and the garden of Eden, and traces of other versions benevolence of the Israelites. But the curse obviously represents or forms appear elsewhere in the Old Testament. Again, the an attitude quite opposed to the blessing pronounced upon Levi Old Testament throws no light upon the redemption of Abraham by Moses (Deut. xxxiii. 8-11). The Edomite genealogies (xxxvi.) (Is. xxix. 22), although the Targums and other sources profess represent a more extensive people than the rescrences in the to be well-informed. The isolated reference to Jacob's conquest popular stories suggest, and the latter by no means indicate that of Shechem in Gen. xlviii. 22 must have belonged to another Edom had so important a career as we actually gather from a few context, and later writings give in a later and thoroughly in allusions to its kings (xxxvi. 31-39). The references to Philiscredible form allied traditions. In Hosea xii. 4, Jacob's wrestling tines are anachronistic for the pre-Mosaic age, and it is clear that is mentioned before the scene at Bethel (Gen. xxxii. 24 sqq., the tradition of a solemn covenant with a Philistine king and his xxviii. 11 sqq.). The overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah is general (xxi. 22 seq., xxvi. 26 sqq.) does not belong to the age of described in Genesis (xviii. seq.), but Hosea refers only to that the circle which remembered the grievous oppressions of the of Admah and Zeboim (xi. 8, cf. Deut. xxix. 23, Gen. X. 19)- Philistines or felt contempt for these "uncircumcised” enemies different versions of the great catastrophe were doubtless current. of Israel. Finally, the thread of the tradition unmistak: Consequently investigation must start with the particular ably represents a national unity of the twelve sons (tribes) of

"The Book of Jubilces also enables the student to test the arguments based upon any study restricted to Genesis alone. Thus it : A. H. Sayce, Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl. Arck. (1907), pp. 13-17. shows that the primitive" features of Genesis afford a criterion . xxvii, 27-29, 39 seq. This is significantly altered in the later which is sociological rather than chronological. This is often writings (Jub. xxvi. 34 and the Targums). It is worth noticing that ignored. For example, the conveyance of the field of Machpolah in Jub. xxvi. 35 a new turn is given to Gen. xxvii. 41 by changing (xxiii.) is conspicuous for the absence of any reference to a written Isaac's approaching death (which raises serious difficulties in the contract in contrast to the "business" methods in Jer. xxxii. history of Jacob) into Esau's wish that it may soon come. This does not prove that Gen. xxiii. is early, because writing was 5 See E. Meyer (and B. Luther), Die Israéliten und ihre Nachbarused in Palestine about 1400 B.C., and, on the other hand, the more stämme (1906), pp. 386-389. 442-446. simple forms of agreement are still familiar after the time of Jeremiah See PHILISTINES. The covenant with Abimelech may be (e.g. Ruth, Proverbs). Similarly, no safe argument can be based compared with the friendship between David and Achish (1 Sam. upon the institution of blood-revenge in Gen. iv., when one observes xxvii.), who is actually called Abimelech in the heading of Ps. xxxiv. the undeveloped conditions among the Trachonites of the time of (see 1 Sam. xxi. 10). If this is a mistake (and not a variant tradiHerod the Great (Josephus, Ant. xvi. 9. 1), or the varying usages tion) it is a very remarkable one. The treatment of the covenant among

moun the jewish forms, see R. Ñ. Charles, Book of Jubilees (1902). intelligible when one recalls the attitude of Judah to the Philistine Pp. 33 seq.

cities in the 2nd century B.c.; see R. H. Charles, ad loc.

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