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Israel; but this unity was not felt at certain periods of dis- 1 appears to be buried beyond the fórdan, it is the latest source organization, and the idea of including Judah among the sons of which places his grave at Hebron (1. I-11 and 12 seq.). So in still Israel could not have arisen at a time when Israel and Judah later tradition, all the sons of Jacob with the exception of were rival kingdoms. In so far as the traditions can be read in the Joseph find their last resting-place at. Hebron, and in Jewish light of biblical history it is evident that they belong to different prayers for the dead it is besought that their souls may be ages and represent different national, tribal, or local standpoints. bound up with those of the patriarchs, or that they may go to the
Another noteworthy feature is the interest taken in sacred cave of Machpelah and thence to the Cherubim. The increasing siles. Certain places are distinguished by theophanies or by the prominence of the old Calebite locality is not the least interesting
erection of an altar (lil. place of sacrificial slaughter), phase in the comparative study of the patriarchal traditions.
and incidents are narrated with a very intelligible The association of the ancestors of Israel with certain sites is a places.
purpose. Mizpah in Gilead is the scene of a covenant feature which finds analogies even in modern Palestine. There
or treaty between Jacob and his Aramaean relative are old centres of cult which have never lost the veneration of the commemorated by a pillar (Maşsēbah). It was otherwise known people; the shrines are known as the tombs of saints or walis for an annual religious ceremony, the traditional origin of which is (patrons) with such orthodox names as St George, Elijah, &c. related in the story of Jephthah's vow and sacrifice (Judg. xi.), Traditions justify the reputation for sanctity, and not only are and its priests are denounced by Hosea (v. 1). Shechem, the similar stories told of distinct figures, but there are varying famous city of the Samaritans ("the foolish nation,” Ecclus. I. traditions of a single figure. The places have retained their 26), where Joseph was buried (Josh. xxiv. 32), had a sanctuary sacred character despite political and religious vicissitudes; and a sacred pillar and tree. It was the scene of the coronation they are far older than their present names, and such is the con(a religious ceremony) of Abimelech (Judg. ix.), and Rehoboam servatism of the east that it is not surprising when, for example, (1 Kings xii. 1). The pillar was ascribed to Joshua (Josh. xxiv. a sacred tomb at Gezer stands quite close to the site of an ancient 26 seq.), and although Jacob set up at Shechem an“ altar," the holy place, about 3000 years old, the existence of which was verb suggests that the original object was a pillar (Gen, xxxiii. first made known in the course of excavation. Genesis preserves 20). The first ancestor of Israel, on the other hand, is merely a selection of traditions relating to a few of the old Palestinian associated with a theophany at an oracular tree (xii. 6). The Ben- centres of cult. We cannot suppose that these first gained their jamite Bethd was especially famous in Israelite religious history. sacred character in the pre-Mosaic“ patriarchal " age, there is in The story tells how Jacob discovered its sanctity,-it was the any case the obvious difficulty of bridging the gap between the gate of heaven,-made a covenant with its God, established the descent into Egypt and the Exodus, and it is clear that when sacred pillar, and instituted its tithes (xxviii.). The prophetess the Israelites entered Palestine they came among a people whose Deborah dwelt under a palm-tree near Bethel (Judg. iv. 5), and religion, tradition and thought were fully cstablished. It is only her name is also that of the foster-mother of Rebekah who was in accordance with analogy is stories were current in Israel of buried near Bethel beneath the “oak of weeping" (xxxv. 8). the institution of the sacred places, and closer study shows that Bochim (“weeping ") elsewhere receives its name when an we do not preserve the original version of these traditions." angel appeared to the Israelites (Judg. ii. 1, Septuagint adds A venerated tree in modern Palestine will owe its sanctity Bethel). To the prophets Hosea and Amos the cultus of Bethel to some tradition, associating it, it may be, 'with some was superstitious and immoral, even though it was Yahweh saint; the Israelites in their turn held the belief that the himself who was worshipped there (see BETHEL). South of sacred tree at Hebron was one beneath which their first anHebron lay Beersheba, an important centre and place of pilgrim-cestor sat when three divine beings revealed themselves to him. age, with a special numen by whom oaths were taken (Amos But it is noteworthy that Yahweh alone is now prominent; viii. 14, see Sept. and the commentaries). Isaac built its allar, the tradition has been revised, apparently in writing, and, later, and Isaac's God guarded Jacob in his journeying (xxxi. 29, the author of Jubilces (xvi.) ignores the triad. At Beer-lahai-roi xlvi. 1). This patriarch and his brother ” Ishmael are closely an El (“god ") appeared to Hagar, whence the name of her associated with the district south of Judah, both are connected child Ishmael; but the writer prefers the unambiguous proper with Beer-lahai-roi (xxiv. 62, Sept. xxv. 11), whose fountain was name Yahweh, and, what is more, the divine being is now the scene of a theophany (xvi.), and their traditions are thus Yahweh's angel--the Almighty's subordinate (xvi.). The older localized in the district of Kadesh famous in the events of the traits show themselves partly in the manifestation of various Exodus (cf. xvi. 14, xxi. 21, XXV. 18, Ex. xv. 22). (See Exodus, Els, and partly in the cruder anthropomorphism of the earlier The.) Abrabam planted a sacred tree at Beersheba and invoked sources. Later hands have by no means eliminated or modified “the everlasting God" (xxi. 33). But the patriarch is more them altogether, and in xxxi. 53 one can still perceive that the closely identified with Hebron, which had a sanctuary (cf. 2 Sam. present text has endeavoured to obscure the older belief that XV. 7 seq.), and an altar which he built“ unto Yahweh ” (xiii. 18). the God of Abraham was not the God of his “brother" Nahor The sacred oak of Mamre was famous in the time of Josephus (see the commentaries). The sacred pillar erected by Jacob at (B. J. iv. 9, 7), it was later a haunt of “ angels " (Sozomen), and Bethel was solemnly anointed with oil, and it (and not the place) Constantine was obliged to put down the heathenish cultus. was regarded as the abode of the Deity (xxviii. 18, 22). This The place still has its holy tree. Beneath the oak there appeared agrees with all that is known of stone-cults, but it is quite obvious the three divine beings, and in the cave of Machpelah the illustrious that this interesting example of popular belief is far below the ancestor and his wise were buried. The story of his descent into religious ideas of the writer of the chapter in its present form. Egypt and the plaguing of Pharaoh is a secondary insertion There were many places where it could be said that Yahweh (xii. 10-xiii. 2), and where the patriarch appears at Beersheba it is had recorded his name and would bless his worshippers (Ex. in incidents which tend to connect him with his “son” Isaac. xx. 24). They were abhorrent to the advanced ethical teaching There is a very distinct tendency to emphasize the importance of of prophets and of those imbued with the spirit of Deuteronomy Hebron. Taken from primitive giants by the non-Israelite clan (cf. 2 Kings xvii. 4 with v. 22), and it is patent from Jeremiah, Caleb (9.0.) it has now become predominant in the patriarchal Cf. Josephus, Antiq. ii. 8, 2; Test. of xii. Patriarchs; Acts vii. traditions. Jacob leaves his dying father at Beersheba (xxviii. 16 (where Shechem is an error); Oesterley and Box, Religion and 10), but according to the latest source he returns to him at Hebron Worship of the Synagogue, pp. 340 seq.; M. G. Dampier, in Church (xxxv. 27), and here, north of Beersheba, he continues to live and Synagogue (1909), p. 78. (xxxvii. 14, xlvi. 1-5). The cave of Machpelah became the grave Cook, Relig. of Anc. Polestine (1908), pp. 19 sqq.
. See J. P. Peters, Early Heb. Story (1904), pp. 81 sqq.; S. A. of Isaac, Rebekah and Leah (but not Rachel); and though Jacob In like manner the Babylonian story of the Hood has been revised
and adapted to the Hebrew Noah (cf. Nippur, ad fin.). ' In 2 Sam. xix. 43 (original text) the men of Israel claim to be • The writer in Jub. xxvii. 27 treats the pillar as a
sign." the first-born rather than Judah; cl. 1 Chron. v. 1 seq., where the Another useful example of revision is to be found in Josh. xxii., birthright (alter Reuben was degraded) is explicitly conferred upon where what was regarded (by a reviser)
as an object unworthy of Josepb (Ephraim and Manasseh).
the religion of Yahweh is now merely commemorative.
Ezekiel and Is. Ivi.-Ixvi. that even at a late date opinion varied
The fact that one is not dealing with literal bistory complicates as to how Yahweh was to be served. It is significant, therefore, the question of the nomadic or semi-nomadic life of the Israclite that the narratives in Genesis (apart from P) reflect a certain xxiii. 4. xxviii. 4. xxxvi. 7, xxxvii. 1), and we breathe the air of the
ancestors. They are tent-dwellers, shepherds, sojourners (xvii. 8, tolerant attitude; there is much that is contrary to prophetical open country. But the impression gained from the narratives is thought, but even the latest compilers have not obliterated all of course due to the narrators. The movements of the patriarchs features that, from a strict standpoint, could appear distasteful. serve mainly to connect them with traditions
which were originally Although the priestly source shows how the lore could be reshaped, the land of Canaan," while Lot dwells in the citics of the plain
independent. When Abraham separates from Lot he settles in and Jubilees represents later efforts along similar lines, it is (xiii. 12). Isaac at Beersheba enters into an alliance with the evident that for ordinary readers the patriarchal traditions could Philistines (xxvi. 12 sqq.), while Jacob seems to settle at Shechem not be presented in an entirely new form, and that to achieve (xxxiv... and there or at Dothan, a few miles north, his sons pasture
their father's Rock (xxxvii. 12 sqq.). Indeed, according to an their aims the writers could not be at direct variance with
isolated fragment Jacob conquered Shechem and gave it to Joseph current thought.
(xlviii. 22), and this tradition underlies (and has not given birth to) It will now be understood why several scholars have sought to the late and fantastic stories of his warfare (Jub. xxxiv. 1-9. recover carlier forms of the traditions, the stages through which the Test. of Judah ji.). Judah, also, is represented as settling among material has passed, and the place of the earlier forms and stages the Canaanites (xxxviii.), and Simeon marries a Canaanite-accordin the history and religion of Israel. These labours are indispensable | ing to late tradition, a woman of Zephath (xlvi. 10: Jub. xxxiv. 20, for scientific biblical study, and are most fruitful when they depend xliv. 13; see Judg. i. 17). These representations have been subupon comprehensive methods of research. When, for example, ordinated to others, in particular to the descent into Egypt of Jacob one observes the usual forms of hero-cult and the tendency to regard (Israel) and his sons, and the Exodus of the Israelites. But the the occupant of the modern sacred shrine as the ancestor of his critical study of these events raises very serious historical problems. clients, deeper significance is attached to the references to the pro- Abraham's grandson, with his family-a mere handful of people tective care of Abraham and Israel (Is. Ixiii. 16), or to the motherly went down into Egypt during a famine (cf. Abraham xii. 10, and sympathy of Rachel (Jer. xxxi. 15). And, again, when one perceives Isaac xxvi, 1 seq.); 400 years pass, all memory of which is practically the tendency to look upon the alleged ancestor or weli as an almost obliterated, and the Israelite nation composed of similar subdivisions divine being, there is much to be said for the view that the patriarchal returns. Although the later genealogies from Jacob to Moses allow figures were endowed by popular opinion with divine attributes. only four generations (cf. Gen. xv. 16), the dificulties are not reBut here the same external evidence waras us that these considera- moved. Joseph lived to see the children of Machir (I. 23, note Ex. tions throw no light upon the original significance of the patriarchs. i. 8), though Machir
received Gilead from the hands of Moses (Num. It is impossible to recover the earliest traditions from the present xxxii. 40); Levi descended with Kehath, who became the grandnarratives, and these alone offer sufficiently perplexing problems. father of Aaron and Moses, while Aaron married a descendant in
From a careful survey of all the accessible material it is beyond the fifth generation from Judah (Ex. vi. 23). On the other hand doubt that Genesis preserves only a selection of traditions of Ephraim's children raid Gath,
his daughter founds certain cities, various ages and interests, and often not in their and Manasseh has an Aramaean concubine who becomes the mother Interests original form. We have relatively little tradition of Machir (1 Chron. vii. 14, 20-24). Moreover the whole course of
from North Israel; Beersheba, Beer-lahai-roi and the invasion and settlement of Israel (under Joshua) has no real Hebron are more prominent than even Bethel or Shechem, the history of the family and its descent into Egypt, and belittle
connexion with pre-Mosaic patriarchal history. If we reinterpret while there are no stories of Gilgal, Shiloh or Dan. Yet in the its increase into a nation, and if we figure to ourselves a more gradual nature of the case there must have been a great store of local occupation of Palestine, we destroy the entire continuity of history tradition accessible to some writers and at some periods. as it was understood by those who compiled the biblical history. Interest is taken not in Phoenicia, Damascus or the northern and we have no evidence for any confident reconstruction. With tribes, but in the cast and south, in Gilcad, Ammon, Moab and
such thoroughness have the compilers given effect to their views
that only on closer examination is it found that even at a relatively Ishmael. Particular attention is paid to Edom and Jacob, and late period fundamentally differing traditions still existed, and that there is good evidence for a close relationship between Edomite those which belonged to circles which did not recognize the Exodus and allied names and those of South Palestine (including Simeon have been subordinated and adjusted by writers to whom this was and Judah). Especially significant, too, is the interest in tradi- the profoundest event in their past. tions which affected the South of Palestine, that district which is
That the journey of Jacob-Israel from his Aramaean relatives of importance for the history of Israel in the wilderness and of into Palestine hints at some pre-Mosaic immigration is possible, the Levites. It is noteworthy, therefore, that while different but has not been either proved or disproved. The peoples had their own theories of their earliest history, the first details point rather to a reflection of the entrance of
Southera born of the first human pair is Cain, the eponym of the Kenites, the children of Israel, elsewhere ascribed to the leaderand the ancestor of the beginnings of civilization (iv. 17, 20-22). ship of Joshua (q.v.). Though the latter proceeded to This “ Kenite ” version had its own view of the institution of Gilgal, a variant tradition, now almost lost, seems to have rethe worship of Yahweh (iv. 26); it appears to have ignored corded an immediate journey to Shechem (Deut. xxvii
. 1-10, the Deluge, and it implies the existence of a fuller corpus of Josh. viii. 30-35) previous to Joshua's great campaigns (Josh. written tradition. Elsewhere, in the records of the Exodus, x. seq., cf. Jacob's wars). His religious gathering at Shechem there are traces of specific traditions associated with Kadesh, story of Cain and his murder of Abel really places the former in
several respects less primitive (contrast vi. 1 seq.), and the present Kenites, Caleb and Jeraḥmeel, and with a movement into
an unfavourable light. Judah, all originally independent of their present context. Like See the discussion between B. D. Eerdmans and G. A. Smith the prominence of the traditions of Hebron and its hero Abraham, in the Expositor (Aug.-Oct. 1908), and the former's Alttest. Studien, These features cannot be merely casual."
ii. (1908), passim.
1 xxxiv. (note v.9) indicates a possible alliance with Shechemites, For popular religious thought and practice (often described as and xxxv. 4 (taken literally) implies a residence long enough for a pre-prophetical, though non-prophetical would be a safer term), sce religious relorm to be necessary. Yet the present aim of the narra HEBREW RELIGION.
tives is to link together the traditions and emphasize Jacob's return 2 Among recent efforts to find and explain mythical elements, see from Laban to his dying father (xxviii. 21; xxxi. 3, 13, 18; xxxji. 9; especially Stucken, A stralmythen· H. Winckler, Geschichte Israels, xxxv. 1, 27). vol. ii.; and P. Jensen, Das Gilgamesch-Epos in der Weltlilleralur. *Cl. Benjamin's descendants in i Chron. viii. 6 scq, and see on
* Again the analogy of the modern East is instructive. Especially the naive and primitive character of these traditions, Kittel, cominteresting are the traditions associating the same figure or incident ment. ad loc. with widely separated localities.
That there are traditions in Genesis which do not form the See Exodus, The; Levites. On this feature see Luther and prelude to Exodus is very generally recognized by those who agree Meyer, op.cil. pp. 158 seq., 227. sq.9., 259, 279, 305, 386, 443. Their that the Israelites after entering Palestine took over some of the researches on this subject are indispensable for a critical study of indigenous lore (whether from the Canaanites or from a presumed Genesis.
earlier layer of Israelites). This adoption of native tradition by The notion of an Eve (hawah, " serpent ") as the first woman new settlers, however, cannot be confined to any single period. may be conjecturally associated with (a) the frequent traditions of See further, Luther and Meyer, op. cit. pp. 108, 110, 156, 227 seq.. che serpent-origin of clans, and (b) with evidence which seems to 254 seq., 414 seq., 433: on traditions related to the descent into connect the Levites and allied families with some kind of serpent Egypt,"ib. 122 sqq., 151 seq.. 260; and on the story of Joseph cult (see Meyer, op. cil. pp. 116, 426 seq. 443, and art. SERPENT (ch, xxxv., xxxvlll. sqq.). as an independent cycle used to form a Worshir). The account of mankind as it now reads (ii. seq.) is in connecting link, Luther, ib. pp. 142-154.
before the dismissal of the tribes finds its parallel in Jacob's | where, in 1 Chron. ii. and iv., the genealogics represent a Judani reforms before leaving for Bethel (xxiv.; cf. o. 26, Gen. xxxv. 4). composed of clans from the south (Caleb and Jerahmeel) and Owing, perhaps, to the locale of the writers, we hear relatively of small families or guilds, Shelah included. It is not the Judah little of the northern tribes. Judah and Simcon are the first of the monarchy or of the post-exilic Babylonian-Israelite to conquer their lot, and the “house of Joseph " proceeds south community. But the mixed elements were ultimately reckoned to Bethel, where the story of the "weeping" at Bochim finds a among the descendants of Judah, through Hezron the “ father parallel in the “oak of weeping” (Gen. xxxv. 8). In Gen. of Caleb and Jerahmeel, and just as the southern groups finally, xxxviii." at that time Judah went down from his brethren "became incorporated in Israel, so it is to be observed that in xxxvii. they are at Shechem or Dothan-and settled among although Hebron and Abraham have gained the first place in the Canaanites, and there is a fragmentary allusion to a similar patriarchal history, the traditions are no longer specifically alliance of Simeon (xlvi. 10) The trend of the two series of Calebite, but are part of the common Israelite heritage. traditions is too close to be accidental, yet the present sequence We are taken to a period in biblical history when, though the of the narratives in Joshua and Judges associates them with the historical sources are almost inexplicably scanty, the narratives Exodus. Further, Jacob's move to Shechem, Bethel and the of the past were approaching their present shape. Some time south is parallel to that of Abraham, but his history actually after the fall of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) there was a movement from represents a twofold course. On the one hand, he is the Aramaean the south of Judah northwards to the vicinity of Jerusalem (Deut. xxvi. s), the favourite son of his Aramaean mother. On (Bethlehem, Kirjath-jearim, &c.), where, as can be gathered from the other, Rebekah is brought to Beer-labai-roi (xxiv:), Jacob i Chron. ii., were congregated Kenite and Rechabite communities belongs to the south and he leaves Beersheba for his lengthy and families of scribes. Names related to those of Edomite and sojourn beyond the Jordan. His separation from Esau, the kindred groups are found in the late genealogies of both Judah revelation at Bethel, and the new name Israel are recorded twice, and Benjamin, and recur even among families of the time of and if the entrance into Palestine reflects one ethnological Nehemiah. The same obscure period witnessed the advent of tradition, the possibility that his departure from Beersheba southern families, the revival of the Davidic dynasty and its reflects another, finds support (a) in the genealogies which mysterious disappearance, the outbreak of fierce batred of Edom, associate the nomad "father" of the southern clans Caleb the return of exiles from Babylonia, the separation of Judab and Jera hmeel with Gilead (1 Chron. ii. 21), and (b) in the from Samaria and the rise of bitter anti-Samaritan feeling. It hints of an “exodus" from the district of Kadesh north-closes with the reorganization associated with Ezra and Nehemiah wards.
and the compilation of the historical books in practically their The history of an immigration into Palestine from beyond the present form. It contains diverse interests and changing standJordan would take various shapes in local tradition. In Genesis points by which it is possible to explain the presence of purely it is preserved from the southern point of view. The northern southern tradition, the southern treatment of national history, standpoint appears when Rachel, mother of Joseph and Benjamin, and the antipathy to northern claims. As has already been is the favoured wisc in contrast to the despised Leah, mother of mentioned, the specifically southern writings have everywhere Judah and Simeon; when Joseph is supreme among his brethren; becn modified or adjusted to other standpoints, or have been and when Judah is included among the “sons ” of Israel. It is almost entirely subordinated, and it is noteworthy, therefore, possible that the application of the traditional immigration to that in narratives elsewhere which reflect rivalries and conflicts the history of the tribes is secondary. This at all events suggests among the priestly families, there is sometimes an animus itself when xxxiv. extends to the history of all the sons, incidents against those whose names and traditions point to a southern which originally concerned Simeon and Levi alone, and which origin (see LEVITES). may have represented the Shechemite version of a "Levitical ” Thus the book of Genesis represents the result of efforts to tradition (see LEVITES). However this may be, it is necessary systematize the earliest history, and to make it a worthy prelude to account for the nomadic colouring of the narratives (cf. to the Mosaic legislation which formed the charter of
Summary, Meyer, pp. 305, 472) and the prominence of southern interests, Judaism as it was established in or about the sth and it would be in accordance with biblical evidence elsewhere century B.C. It goes back to traditions of the most varied if northern tradition had been taken over and adapted to the character, whose tone was originally more in accord with earlier standpoint of the southern members of Israel, with the incorpora- religion and thought. Though these have been made more tion of local tradition which could only have originated in the edifying, they have not lost their charm and interest. The latest south. These and other indications point to a late date in source, it is true, is without their freshness and life, but it is a biblical history. There is a manifest difference between the matter for thankfulness that the simple compilers were conreligious importance of. Shechem in the traditions of Joshua servative, and have neither presented a work entirely on the lines (xxiv.) and Jacob's reforms when he leaves behind him the of P, nor rewritten their material as was done by the author of heathen symbols before journeying to the holy site of Bethel Jubilees and by Josephus. It is obvious that from Jubilees alone (Gen. xxxv. 4). There is even some polemic against marriage it would have been impossible to conceive the form which the with Shechemites (xxxiv.; more emphatic in Jub. xxx.), while traditions bad taken a few centuries previously-viz. in Genesis, in the story of the Hebronite Abraham, Bethel itself is avoided | Also, from P alone it would have been equally impossible to and Shechem is of little significance. Again; the present object recover the non-priestly forms. But while there is no immeasur. of xxxviii. is to trace the origin of certain Judaean subdivisions able gulf between the canonical book of Genesis and Jubilees, the after the death of the wicked Er and Onan. It is purely local internal study of the former reveals traces of earlier traditions and is interested in Shelah, and more especially in Perez and most profoundly different as regards thought and contents. It Zerah, names of families or clans of the post-exilic age.? Else- The sympathies of these traditions are as suggestive as their presence
Cf. the late " Deuteronomic " form of Judges where a hero of in the canonical history, which, it must be remembered, ultimately Kenizzite origin (and therefore closely connected with Caleb) stands passed through the hands of Judaean compilers. at the head of the Israelite " judges"; also, from another aspect, * Neh. iii. 9, 14; see Meyer, pp. 300, 430; S. A. Cook, Critical the specifically Judaean and anti-Israelite treatment of the history Notes on O.T. History, P. 58 n. 2. While the evidence points to an of the monarchy. But in each case the feature belongs to a relatively early close relationship among S. Palestinian groups (Edom, Ishmael, late stage in the literary history of the books; see JUDGES; SAMUEL, &c.; cf. Meyer, p: 446), there are many allusions to subsequent BOOKS OF; KINGS.
treacherous attacks which made Edom execrable. Here again . Mahalalel. (son of Kenan, another form of Cain, v. 12) is also a biblical criticism cannot at present determine precisely when or prominent ancestor in Perez (Neh, xi. 4), and Zerah claimed the precisely why the changed' attitude began; see Edom; Jews, knowned sages of Solomon's day (1 Chron. ii. 6, 1 Kings iv. 31). 3$ 20, 22. je story implies that Perez surpassed his " brother" clan Zerah Although the movement reflected in 1 Chron. ü. is scarcely Daxviii, 27-30), and in fact Perez is ultimately reckoned the head pre-exilic, yet naturally there had always been a close relation of the Judacan subdivisions (1. Chron. ii. 4 sqq.), and thus is the between Judah and the south, as the Assyrian inscriptions of the reputed ancestor of the Davidic dynasty (Ruth' iv. 12, 18 sqq.). I latter part of the 8th century B.C. indicate.
is not otherwise when one looks below the traditional history | point the most notable are: W. H. Green's Unity of Genesis (1895): elsewhere (e.g. Samuel, Kings). An explanation may be found in and J. Orr, Problem of the 0. T. (which is nevertheless a great advance the vicissitudes of the age. The movement from the south, Westminster Series) deals thoroughly with all preliminary problems which seems to account for a considerable cycle of the patriarchal of criticism, and is the best for the ordinary reader; that of A. traditions, belongs to the age after the downfall of the Israelite Dillmann (6th ed., Eng: trans.) is more technical, that of W. H. and(later) the Judaean monarchies when there were vital political Notes on the Text of Genesis, and C. J. Ball (in Haupt's
Bennett (Century Bible) is more concise and popular. G. J. Spurrell, and social changes. The removal of prominent inhabitants, by of the O. T.) appeal to Hebrew students. W. E. Addis, Documents Assyria and later by Babylonia, the introduction of colonists of the Hexaleuch, Carpenter and Harford-Battersby, The Hexateuch, from distant lands, and the movements of restless tribes around and C. F. Kent, Beginnings of Hebrew History, are more important Palestine were more fatal to the continuity of trustworthy for the literary analysis. J. Wellhausen's sketch in his Proleg. to tradition than to the persistence of popular thought. New general Introduction (trans. by W. H. Carruth, 1907) to H. Gunkel's conditions arose as the population was reorganized, a new Israel valuable commentary. Of recent works bearing upon the subject claimed to be the heirs of the past (cf. e.g. the Samaritans, Ezr. iv. matter reference may be made to J. P. Peters, Early Hebrew Ślory 2, Joseph. Anliq. ix. 14, 3; xi. 8,6), and not until after these (1904), A. R. Gordon, Early Traditions of Genesis (1907), and vicissitudes did the book of Genesis begin to assume its present mention must be made of Eduard Meyer and B. Luther, to whose
T. K. Cheyne, Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel (1907). Special shape.' (See Jews; PALESTINE: History.)
Die Israëliten und ihre Nachbarstämme (1906) the present writer is The above pages handle only the more important details for the indebted for many valuable suggestions and hints. Fuller bibliostudy of a book which, as regards contents and literary history, graphical information
will be found in the works already mentioned, cannot be separated from the series to which it forms the intro- in the articles in the Ency. Bib. (G. F. Moore), and Hastings's Dict. duction. As regards the literary-critical problems it is clear that (G. A. Smith), and in the volume by J. Skinner in the elaborate and with the elimination of P we have the sources (minor adjustment encyclopaedic International Critical Series.
(S. A. C.) and revision excepted) which were accessible to the last compiler in the post-exilic age. Most critics have inclined to date these
GENET, typically a south European carnivorous mammal sources and E) as carly as possible, whereas the admitted presence referable to the Viverridac or family of civets, but also taken to of secondary and of relatively late passages (4.8. xviii. 22 $99.J: include several allied species from Africa. The true genet xxii., E) shows that one must work back from the sources as known (Genella vulgaris or Genetia genetta) occurs throughout the south can be approximately dated. It is usual to regard the more primitive of Europe and in Palestine, as well as North Africa. The fur is of character of J and E as a mark of antiquity; but this ignores the a dark-grey colour, thickly spotted with black, and having a dark regular survival of primitive modes of thought and of popular streak along the back, while the tail, which is nearly as long as the tradition outside more cultured circles. It is also recognized that J and E are non-prophetical and non-Deuteronomic, but it has not been proved that the present J and E are earlier than the prophets or the Deuteronomic reforms of Josiah (2 Kings xxii. seq.); J and e are linguistically almost identical (in contrast to P), and differ from Pin features which are often not of chronological but of sociological significance (e.g: the mentality of the writers). Their language is without some of the phenomena found in narratives which emanate from the north (2.8: Judges Y., stories of Elijah and Elisha), and their stylistic variations may be, as Gunkel suggests, the mark of a district or region; for this district one would look in the neighbour. hood of Jerusalem. The conclusion that P's narratives and laws in the Pentateuch are post-exilic was found by biblical scholars to be a necessary correction to the original hypothesis of Graf (1866) that P's narratives were to be retained (with J and E) at an early date. This view was influenced by the close connexion between the subject matter, J, E and P representing the same trend of tradition. But by still ascribing J and E as written sources to about the 9th or 8th century (individual opinion varies), many difficulties and inconsistencies are involved. The present J and E reflect a reshaping and readjustment of earlier tradition which is found else. where, and the suggestion that they are not far removed from the age of the priestly writers and redactors does not conflict with what is known of language, forms of religious thought, or tendencies of tradition. We reach thus approximately the age when post-Deuteronomic editors were able to utilize such records as Judg: ::, xvii. sqq., 2 Sam. ix. xx. (see JUDGES; SAMUEL, Books OF), which are equally valuable as specimens of current thought and of written tradition. In conclusion, the tendency of criticism has been to recognize "schools" of J and E extending into the exile, thus making the three sources J, E and P more nearly contempor.
The most recent conservative authority also inclines to a similar contemporaneity ("collaboration " or " co-operation "). but at an impossibly early date (J. Orr, Problem of the 0. T., 1905.
The Genet (Genetta vulgaris). pp. 216, 345, 354, 375 seq., 527). By admitting possible revision in the post-exilic age (pp. 226, 369, 375 seq.), the conservative theory recalls the old legend that Ezra rewrote the Old Testament (2 Esd. body, is ringed with black and white. The genet is rare in the xiv.) and thus restored the Law which had been lost; a view whichi south of France, but commoner in Spain, where it frequents the through the early Christian Fathers, gained currency and has en banks of streams, and feeds on small mammals and birds. It joyed a certain popularity to the present day. But when once differs from the true civets in that the anal pouch is a mere that the present Pentateuch is in any way identical with the five depression, and contains only a faint trace of the highly characterbooks which tradition ascribed to Moses (9.v.), and the necessity istic odour of the former. In south-western Europe and North for a comprehensive critical investigation of the present contents Africa it is sought for its soft and beautifully spotted fur. In makes itself felt. LITERATURE. -Only a few of the numerous works can be men: like a cat for destroying mice and other vermin.
some parts of Europe, the genet, which is easily tamed, is kept tioned. Of those written from a conservative or traditional stand
GENEVA, a city of Ontario county, New York, U.S.A., at the 1.The south of Palestine, if less disturbed by these changes, may N. end of Seneca Lake, about 52 m. S.E. of Rochester. Pop. well have had access to older authoritative material.
(1890) 7557; (1900) 10,433 (of whom 1916 were foreign-born); * For Orr's other concessions bearing upon Genesis, see op. cit., (1910 census) 12,446. It is served by the New York Central pp. 9 seq., 87, 93, and (on J. E, P) 196, 335, 340. These, like the concessions of other apologetic writers. lar outweigh the often
& Hudson River, and the Lehigh Valley railways, and by the hypercritical, irrelevant, and superficial objections brought against Cayuga & Sencca Canal. It is an attractively built city, and has the literary and historical criticism of Genesis.
good mineral springs. Malt, tinware, four and grist-mill products,
Statistica of cantoa
bollers, stoves and ranges, optical supplies, wall-paper, cereals, f In point of language 109,741 (84,259) were French-spcaking, canned goods, cutlery, tin cans and wagons are manufactured, 13,343 (12,004) German-speaking, and 7345 (6574) Italian. and there are also extensive nurseries. The total value of the speaking, while there were also 89 (76) Romonschfactory product in 1905 was $4,951,964, an increase of 82.3 % speaking persons. More remarkable are the results as since 1900. Geneva has a public library, a city hospital and to nationality: 43,550 (31,607) were Genevese citizens, and alty. hygienic institute. It is the seat of the New York State and 36,415 (30,582) Swiss citizens of other cantons. Agricultural Experiment Station and of Hobart College (non- of the 52,644 (42,607) foreigners, there were 34.277 (26,018) sectarian), which was first planned in 1812, was founded in 1822 French, 10,211 (9126) Italians, 4653 (4283) subjects of the German (the majority of its incorporators being members of the Protestant empire, 583 (468) British subjects, 832 (777) Russians, and 285 Episcopal church) as successor to Geneva Academy, received a (251) citizens of the United States of America. In the canton full charter as Geneva College in 1825, and was renamed there were 10,821 (5683) inhabited houses, while the number Hobart Free College in 1852 and Hobart College in 1860, in of separate households was 35,450 (28,621). Two points as to honour of Bishop John Henry Hobart. The college had in 1908- these statistics deserve to be noted. The number of foreign 1909 107 students, 21 instructors, and a library of 50,000 volumes residents is steadily rising, for in 1900 there were only 79,965 and 15,000 pamphlets. A co-ordinate woman's college, the (62,189) Swiss in all as against 52,644 (42,607) foreigners. One William Smith school for women, opened in 1908, was endowed in result of this foreign immigration, particularly from France and 1906 by William Smith of Geneva, who at the same time provided Italy, has been the rapid increase of Romanists, who now form for a Hall of Science and for further instruction in science, the majority in the canton, while in the city they were still especially in biology and psychology. In 1888 the Smith Observa- slightly less numerous than the Protestants in 1900; later tory was built at Geneva, being maintained by William Smith, (local) statistics give in the Canton 75,400 Romanists to 64,200 and placed in charge of Dr William Robert Brooks, professor of Protestants, and in the city 52,638 Romanists to 51,221 Proastronomy in Hobart College. The municipality owns its water- testants. Geneva has always been a favourite residence of supply system. Geneva was first settled about 1787 almost on foreigners, though few can ever have expected to hear that the the site of the Indian village of Kanadasega, which was destroyed “protestant Rome " has now a Romanist majority as regards in 1779 during Gen. John Sullivan's expedition against the its inhabitants. Galiffe (Genève hist. e archéolog.) estimates Indians in western New York. It was chartered as a city in 1898. the population in 1356 at 5800, and in 1404 at 6490, in both
GENEVA (Fr. Genève, Ger. Genf, Ital. Gincora, Late Lat. cases within the fortifications. In 1536 the old city acquired the Gebenna, though Genada in good Latin), a city and canton of outlying districts mentioned above, as well as the suburb of Switzerland, situated at the extreme south-west corner both of St Gervais on the right bank of the Rhone, so that in 1545 the the country and of the Lake of Geneva or Lake Leman. The number is given as 12,500, reduced by 1572 to 11,000. After canton is, save Zug, the smallest in the Swiss Confederation, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) it rose, by 1698, while the city, long the most populous in the land, is now sur to 16,934. Thenceforward the progress was fairly steady: passed by Zürich and by Basel.
18,500 (1711); 24,712 (1782); 26,140 (1789). After the creation The canton has an area of 108.9sq. m., of which 88.5 sq. m. are of the canton (1815) the numbers were (those for the city are classed as " productive” (forests covering 9-9 sq. m. and vine- enclosed within brackets) 48,489 (25,289), the city rising in 1837
yards 6.8 sq. m., the rest being cultivated land). Of to 33,714, and in 1843 to 36,452. The result of the Federal the" unproductive " 20-3 sq. m., 11} are accounted for censuses (begun in 1850) are as follows: in 1850, 64,146 (42,127);
by that portion of the Lake of Geneva which belongs to in 1860, 82,87 (59,826); in 1870, 88,791 (65,606); in 1880, the canton. It is entirely surrounded by French territory (the 99,712 (76,197), and in 1888, 105,509 (81,407). department of Haute Savoie lying to the south, and that of the The canton comprises 3 administrative districts: the 13 Ain to the west and the north), save for about 3) m. on the communes on the right bank and the 34 on the left bank each extreme north, where it borders on the Swiss canton of Vaud. form one, while the city proper, on both sides of the
Govern The Rhone flows through it from east to west, and then along its river, forms one district and one commune. From south-west edge, the total length of the river in or within the 1815 to 1842 the city and the cantonal government canton being about 13 m., as it is very sinưous. The turbid Arve is was the same. But at that date the city obtained its indeby far its largest tributary (left), and flows from the snows of the pendence, and is now ruled by a town council of 41 members, chain of Mont Blanc, the only other affluent of any size being and an executive of 5 members, the election in each case being the London (right). Market gardens, orchards, and vineyards made direct by the citizens, and the term of office being 4 years. occupy a large proportion of the soil (outside the city), the The existing cantonal constitution dates, in most of its main apparent fertility of which is largely due to the unremitting features, from 1847. The legislature or Grand Conseil (now comindustry of the inhabitants. In 1901 there were 6586 cows, posed of 100 members) is elected (in the proportion of 1 member 3881 horses, 2468 swine and 2048 bee-hives in the canton. for every 1000 inhabitants or fraction over 500) for 3 years Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only by a direct popular vote, subject (since 1892) to the principles mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the of proportional representation, while the executive or conseil products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt. The d'éiat (7 members) is elected (no proportional representation) broad-gauge railways in the canton have a length of 187 m., and by a popular vote for 3 years. By the latest enactments (one include bits of the main lines towards Paris and Lausanne (for dating from 1905) 2500 citizens can claim a vote (“ facultative Bern or the Simplon), while there are also 721 m. of electric referendum ") as to any legislative project, or can exercise the tramways. The canton was admitted into the Swiss Confedera-"right of initiative " as to any such project or as to the revision tion in 1815 only, and ranks as the junior of the 22 cantons. of the cantonal constitution. The canton sends 2 members In 1815-1816 it was created by adding to the old territory (elected by a popular vote) to the Federal Sländerath, and 7 to belonging to the city (just around it, with the outlying districts of the Federal Nationalrath. Jussy, Genthod, Satigny and Cartigny) 16 communes (to the south The Consistory rules the Established Protestant Church, and and east, including Carouge and Chêne) ceded by Savoy, and 6 is now composed of 31 members, 25 being laymen and 6 (formerly communes (to the north, including Versoix), cut off from the 15) clerics, while the “venerable company of pastors"
Religion. French district of Gex.
(pastors actually holding cures) has greatly lost its In 1900 there were, not counting the city, 27,813 inhabitants former importance and can now only submit proposals to the in the canton, or, including the city, 132,609, the city alone having Consistory. The Christian Catholic Church is also " established" thus a population of 104,796. (In the following statistics those at Geneva (since 1873) and is governed by the conseil supérieur, for the city are enclosed witbin brackets.) In 1900 this popula- composed of 25 lay members and 5 clerics. No other religious tion was thus divided in point of religion: Romanists, 67,162 denominations are "established" at Geneva. But the Romanists (49,965), Protestants, 62,400 (52,121), and Jews 1119 (1081)." (who form 13 % of the electors) are steadily growing in oumbers