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and in influence, while the Christian Catholics are losing ground and ethereal snows of Mont Blanc. Yet the actual site of the rapidly, the highest number of votes received by a candidate town is not as picturesque as that of several other spots in for the conseil supérieur having fallen from 2003 in 1874 to 806 Switzerland. Though the cathedral crowns the hillock round in 1890 and 507 in 1906, while they are abandoning the country which clusters the old part of the town, a large portion of the churches (some were lost as early as 1892) which they had taken newer town is built on the alluvial flats on either bank of the from the Romanists in the course of the Kulturkampf.

Rhone. Since the demolition of the fortifications in 1849 the The fairs of Geneva (held 4 times a year) are mentioned as town has extended in every direction, and particularly on the early as 1962, and attained the height of their prosperity about right bank of the Rhone. It possesses many edifices, public Ladusto.

1450, but declined after Louis XI.'s grants of 1462- and private, which are handsome or elegant, but it has almost

1463 in favour of the fairs of Lyons. Among the nothing to which the memory reverts as a masterpiece of archichief articles brought to these fairs (which were largely fre- tectural art. It is possible that this is, in part, due to the artistic quented by Italian, French and Swiss merchants) were cloth, blight of the Calvinism which so long dominated the town. But, silk, armour, groceries, wine, timber and salt, this last coming while lacking the medieval appearance of Fribourg or Bern, or mainly from Provence. The manufacturers of Geneva formed Sion or Coire, the great number of modern fine buildings in in 1487 no fewer than 38 gilds, including tailors, hatters, mercers, Geneva, hotels, villas, &c., gives it an air of prosperity and weavers, tanners, saddle-makers, furriers, shoe-makers, painters comfort that attracts many visitors, though on others modern on glass, &c. Goldsmiths are mentioned as early as 1290. French architecture produces a blinding glare. On the other Printing was introduced in 1478 by Steinschaber of Schweinfurth, hand, there are broad quays along the river, while public gardens and flourished much in the 16th century, though the rigorous afford grateful shade. supervision exercised by the Consistory greatly hampered the The cathedral (Protestant) of St Pierre is the finest of the older Estiennes (Stephanus) in their enterprises. Nowadays the best buildings in the city, but is a second-rate building, though as known industry at Geneva is that of watchmaking, which was E. A. Freeman remarks, “it is an excellent example of a small introduced in 1587 by Charles Cusin of. Autun, and two years cathedral of its own style and plan, with unusually little later later regulations as to the trade were issued. In 1685 there were alteration.” The hillock on which it rises was no doubt the site of in Geneva 100 master watchmakers, employing 300 work-people, earlier churches, but the present Transitional building dates only who turned out 5000 pieces a year, while in 1760 this trade from the 12th and 13th centuries, while its portico was built in the employed 4000 work-people. Of recent years its prosperity 18th century, after the model of the Pantheon at Rome. It has diminished greatly, so that the watchmaking and jewelry contains a few sepulchral monuments, removed from the cloisters trades in 1902 numbered respectively but 38 and 32 of the 394 (pulled down in 1721), and a fine modern organ, but the historical establishments in Geneva which were subject to the factory old bell La Clémence has been replaced by a newer and larger one laws. Lately, huge establishments have been constructed for which bears the same name. More interesting than the church the utilization of the power contained in the Rhone. The local | itself is the adjoining chapel of the Maccabees, built in the 15th commerce of Geneva is much aided by the fact that the city is century, and recently restored. Near the cathedral are the nearly entirely surrounded by“ free zones,

"in which no customs arsenal (now housing the historical museum, in which are preduties are levied, though the districts are politically French: served many relics of the “ Escalade ” of 1602, including the this privilege was given to Gex in 1814, and to the Savoyard famous ladders), and the maison de ville or town hall. The latter districts in 1860, when they were also neutralized.

building is first mentioned in 1448, but most of the present Considering the small size of Geneva, till recently, it is surprising building dates from far later times, though the quaint paved how many celebrated persons have been connected with it as spiral pathway (taking the place of a staircase in the interior) was

natives or as residents. Here are a few of the principal, made in the middle of the 16th century. In the Salle du Conseil special articles being devoted to many of them in this d'Élat some curious 15th-century frescoes have lately been

work. In the 16th century, besides Calvin and Bonivard, discovered, while the old Salle des Festins is now known as the we have Isaac Casaubon, the scholar; Robert and Henri Estienne, Salle de l'Alabama, in memory of the arbitration tribunal of 1872, the printers, and, from 1572 to 1574, Joseph Scaliger himself, In the 15th-century Tour Baudet, adjoining the Town Hall, are though but for a short time. J. J. Rousscau is, of course, the preserved the rich archives of the city. Not far away is the great Genevese of the 18th century. At that period, and in the palais de justice, built in 1709 as a hospital, but used as a court 19th century, Geneva was a centre of light, especially in the case house since 1858. On the fle in the Rhone stands the lower of various of the physical sciences. Among the scientific (built c. 1219) of the old castle belonging to the bishop. Among celebrities were de Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de the modern buildings we may mention the following: the Candolle and Boissier, the botanists; Alphonse Favre and University( founded in 1559, but raised to the rank of a University Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the chemist; Deluc, the in 1873 only), the Athénée, the Conservatoire de Musique, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer. Charles Bonnet Victoria Hall (a concert hall, presented in 1904 to the city by was both a scientific man and a philosopher, while Amiel belonged Mr Barton, formerly H.B.M.'s Consul), the theatre, the Salle de la to the latter class only. Pradier and Chaponnière, the sculptors; Réformation (for religious lectures and popular concerts), the Arlaud, Diday and Calame, the artists; Mallet, who revealed Batiment Electoral, the Russian church and the new post office. Scandinavia to the literary world; Necker, the minister; At present the museums of various kinds at Geneva are widely Sismondi, the historian of the Italian republics; General Dufour, dispersed, but a huge new building in course of construction (1906) author of the great survey which bears the name of the “Dufour will ultimately house most of them. The Muséc Rath contains Map," have each a niche in the Temple of Fame. Of a less pictures and sculptures; the Musée Fol, antiquities of various severe type were Cherbuliez, the novelist; Töpffer, who spread dates; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, inter alia, a fine collection of a taste for pedestrianism among Swiss youth; Duchosal, the prints; the Musée Industriel, industrial objects and models; the poet; Marc Monnier, the littérateur; not to mention the names Musée Archéologique, prehistoric and archaeological remains; the of any persons still living, or of politicians of any date. Musée d'Histoire Naturelle, scientific collections, and the Musée

The city of Geneva is situated at the south-western extremity Epigraphique, a considerable number of inscriptions. Some way of the beautiful lake of the same name, whence the “ arrowy out of the town is the Musée Ariana (extensive art collections),

Rhone" flows westwards under the seven bridges by left, witha fine park, in 1890 to the city by a rich citizen, Gustave The city

which the two halves of the town communicate with Revilliod, The public library is in the university buildings and buildings. each other. To the south is the valley of the Arve contains many valuable MSS. and printed books. Geneva boasts

(descending from the snows of the Mont Blanc chain), also of a fine observatory and of a number of technical schools which unites with that of the Rhone a little below the town; (watchmaking, chemistry, medicine, commerce, fine arts, &c.), while behind the Arve the grey and barren rocks of the Petit some of which are really annexes of the university, which in June Salève rise like a wall, which in turn is overtopped by the distant | 1906 was attended by 1158 matriculated students, of whom 903

Celebr. ties.

and its

were non-Swiss, the Russians (475 in number) forming the those 3 kingdoms. It is said that Conrad granted the temporal majority of the foreign students. Geneva is well supplied with sovereignty of the city to the bishop, who, in 1162, was raised charitable institutions, hospitals, &c. Among other remarkable to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, being elected, sights of the city may be mentioned the great hydraulic establish- from 1215, by the chapter, but, after 1418, named directly by the ment (built 1887-1899) of the Forces Motrices du Rhône (turbines), pope himself. the singular monument set up to the memory of the late duke of Like many other prince-bishops, the ruler of Geneva had to Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the fle defend his rights: without against powerful neighbours, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues. within against the rising power of the citizens. These struggles The house occupied by Rousseau is No. 40 in the Grand'Rue, constitute the entire political history of Geneva up to about while No. 13 in the same street is on the site of Calvin's house, 1535, wben a new epoch of unrest opens with the adoption of though not the actual dwelling inhabited by him.

Protestantism. The first foe without was the family of the counts The real name of the city is Genara, that being the form under of the Genevois (the region south of the city and in the neighbourwhich it appears in almost all the known documents up to the hood of Annecy), who were also “protectors.” (advocati) of the History.

7th century, A.D., the variation Genua (which has led to church of Geneva, and are first heard of in the 11th and 12th

great confusion with Genoa) being also found in the 6th centuries. Their influence was probably never stronger than century. But Geneva and Gebenna are of later date. The first during the rule as bishop (1118-1119) of Guy, the brother of the mention of the city is made by Caesar (Bell. Galli. i. 6-7) who tells reigning count. But his successor, Humbert de Grammont, us that it was the last oppidum of the Allobroges, and the nearest resumed the grants made to the count, and in 1125 by the Accord to the territory of the Helvetii, with which it was connected by a of Seyssel, the count fully acknowledged the suzerainty of the bridge that, for military reasons, he was forced to destroy. bishop. A fresh struggle under Bishop Ardutius (1135-1185) Inscriptions of later date state that it was only a vicus of the ended in the confirmation by Frederick Barbarossa, as emperor, Viennese province, while mentioning the fact that a gild of of the position of the bishop as subject to no one but himself boatmen flourished there. But the many Roman remains found (1153), this declaration being strengthened by the elevation of the on the original site(in the region of the cathedral) of the city show bishop and his successors to the rank of princes of the empire that it must have been of some importance, and that it possessed (1162). a considerable commerce. About 400 the Notitia Galliarum calls In 1250 the counts of Savoy first appear in connexion with it a civilas (so that it then had a municipal administration of its Geneva, being mortgagees of the Genevois family, and, in 1263, own), and reckons it as first among those of the Viennese. Prob-practically their heirs as “ protectors ” of the city. It was thus ably this rise in dignity was connected with the establishment of a natural that the citizens should invoke the aid of Savoy against bishop's see there, the first bishop certainly known, Isaac, being their bishop, Robert of the Genevois (1276-1287). But Count heard of about 400 in a letter addressed by St Eucherius to Amadeus of Savoy not merely seized (1287) the castle built by the Salvius, while, in 450, a letter of St Leo states that the see was bishops (about 1219) on the lle, but also (1288) the office of then a suffragan of the archbishopric of Vienne. It is possible vicedominus (vidomne), the official through whom the bishop that there may be some ground for the local tradition that exercised his minor judicial rights. The new bishop, William of Christianity was introduced into this region by Dionysius and Conflans (1287–1295) could recover neither, and in 1290 had to Paracodus, who successively occupied the see of Vienne, but formally recognize the position of Savoy (which was thus legalized) another tradition that the first bishop was named St Nazarius in his own cathedral city. It was during this struggle that about rests on a confusion, as that saint belongs to Genoa and not to 1287 (these privileges were finally sanctioned by the bishop in Geneva.

1309) the citizens organized themselves into a commune or About the middle of the 5th century A.D. it came into the corporation, elected 4 syndics, and showed their independent possession of the Burgundians, who held it as late as 527 (thus position by causing a seal for the city to be prepared. The bishop leaving no room for any occupation by the Ostrogoths), and in was thus threatened on two sides by foes of whom the influence 534 passed into the hands of the Franks. The Burgundian kings was rising, and against whom his struggles were of no avail. In seem to have made Geneva one of their principal residences, and 1365 the count obtained from the emperor the office of imperial the Nolitia (above named) tells us that the city was restaurala by vicar over Geneva, but the next bishop William of Marcossay King Gundibald (d. 516) which is generally supposed to mean (1366–1377 : he began the construction of a new wall round the that he first surrounded it with a wall

, the city then comprising greatly extended city, a process not completed till 1428) secured little more than the hill on which the present cathedral stands. the withdrawal of this usurpation (1366–1367), which the count That building is of course of much later date, but it seems certain finally renounced (1371). One of that bishop's successors, that when (c. 513-516) Sigismund, son of King Gundibald, built Adhémar Fabri (1385-1388) codified and confirmed all the a stone church on the site, it took the place of an earlier wooden franchises, rights and privileges of the citizens (1387), this grant church, constructed on Roman foundations, all three layers being the Magna Carla of the city of Geneva. In 1401 Amadeus being clearly visible at the present day. We know that St VIII. of Savoy bought the county of the Genevois, as the dynasty Avitus, archbishop of Vienne (d. 518), preached a sermon (pre- of its rulers had become extinct. Geneva was now surrounded on served to us) at the dedication of a church at Geneva which had all sides by the dominions of the house of Savoy. been built on the site of one burnt by the enemy, and the bits of Amadeus did homage, in 1405, to the bishop for those of the half-burnt wood found in the second of the two layers mentioned newly acquired lands which he held from the bishop. But, after above, seem to make it probable that the reference is to Sigis- his power had been strengthened by his elevation (1417) by the mund's church. But Geneva was in no sense one of the great emperor to the rank of a duke, and by his succession to the cities of the region, though it is mentioned in the Antonine principality of Piedmont (1418, long held by a.cadet branch of his Itinerary and in the Peutinger Table (both 4th century A.D.), no house), Amadeus tried to purchase Geneva from its bishop, John doubt owing to its important position on the bank of the Rhone, of Pierre-Scisé dr Rochetaillée (1418-1422). This offer was which then rose to the foot of the hill on which the original city refused both by the bishop and by the citizens, while in 1420 the stood. This is no doubt the reason why, apart from some passing emperor Sigismund declared that he alone was the suzerain of the allusions (for instance, Charles the Great held a council of war city, and forbade any one to attack it or harm it in any fashion. there in 773, on his first journey to Italy), we hear very little Oddly enough Amadeus did in the end get hold of the city, for, about it.

having been elected pope under the name of Felix V., be named In 1032, with the rest of the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles, it himself to the vacant see of Geneva (1444), and kept it, after his reverted to the emperor Conrad II., who was crowned king at resignation of the Papacy in 1449, till his death in 1451. For th: Payerne in 1033, and in 1034 was recognized as such at Geneva most part of this period he resided in Geneva. From 1451 tr by a great assembly of nobles from Germany, Burgundy and 1522 the see was almost continuously held by.a cadet of the house Italy, this rather unwilling surrender signifying the union ofl of Savoy, which thus treated it as a kind of appange.

Most probably Geneva would soon have become an integral | the Reform, Fribourg did not, and in 1534 withdrew from its part of the realms of the house of Savoy had it not been for the alliance with Geneva, while directly afterwards the duke of Savoy appearance of a new protector on the scene-the Swiss confedera- made a fresh attempt to seize the city. On the oth of August tion. In the early 15th century the town of Fribourg made an 1535 the Protestant faith was formally adopted by Geneva, but alliance with Geneva for commercial purposes (the cloth ware- an offer of help from France having been refused, as the city was houses of Fribourg at Geneva being enlarged in 1432 and 1465), unwilling to give up any of its sovereign rights, the duke's party as the cloth manufactured at Fribourg found a market in the continued its intrigues. Finally Bern, fearing that Geneva might fairs of Geneva (which are mentioned as carly as 1262, and were fall to France instead of to itself, sent an army to protect the city at the height of their prosperity about 1450). The duke, however, (January 1536), but, pot being able to persuade the citizens to was no better inclined towards the Swiss than towards Geneva. give up their freedom, had to content itself with the conquest of He struck a blow at both, when, in 1461-1463, he induced his son- the barony of Vaud and of the bishopric of Lausanne, thus acquir. in-law, Louis XI. of France, to forbid French merchants to attend ing rich territories, while becoming close neighbours of Geneva the fairs of Geneva, altering also the days of the fairs at Lyons (January and March 1536). Meanwhile Farel had been advancing (established in 1420 and increased in number in 1463) so as to make the cause of religious reform, which was definitively adopted on them clash with those fixed for the fairs of Geneva. This nearly thc 2 ist of May 1536. In July 1536 a French refugee, John Calvin ruined Geneva, which, too, in 1477 had to pay a large indem- (9.v.), came to Geneva for a night, but was detained by Farel who nity to the Swiss army that, after the defeat of Charles the Bold, found in him a powerful helper. The opposition party of the duke of Burgundy, advanced to take vengeance on the dominions Liberlins succeeded in getting them both exiled in 1538, but, in of his ally, Yolande, dowager duchess of Savoy and sister of Louis September 1541, Calvin was recalled (Farel spending the rest of XI., as well as on the bishop of Geneva, her brother-in-law. But, his life at Neuchâtel, where he died 1565) to Geneva. Born in after this payment, the bishop made an alliance with the Swiss. 1509, he was then about 32 years of age. He set up this theocracy A prolonged attempt was made (1517-1530) by the reigning duke in Geneva, and ruled the reorganized republic with a strong hand of Savoy, Charles III. (1504-1553), to secure Geneva for his till his death in 1564, when he was succeeded by the milder family, at first with the help of his bastard cousin John (1513- Theodore de Beza (1519-1605). 1522), the last of his house to hold the see. In this struggle the The great blot on Calvin's rule was his intolerance of other syndic, Philibert Berthelier, succeeded in concluding (1519) an thinkers, as exemplified by his burning of Gruet (1547) and of alliance with Fribourg, which, however, had to be given up Servetus (1553). But, on the other hand, he founded (1559) the almost immediately. It split the citizens into two parties; the Academy, which, originally meant as a seminary for his preachers, Eidgenols relying on the Swiss, while the Mamelus (mamelukes) later greatly extended its scope, and in 1873 assumed the rank of supported the duke. Berthelier was executed in 1519, and Amé a University. The strict rule of Calvin drove out many old Lévrier in 1524, but Bezanson Hugues (d.1532) took their place, Genevese families, while he caused to be received as citizens and in 1526 succeeded in renewing the alliance with Fribourg and many French, Italian and English refugees, so that Geneva adding to it one with Bern. This much enraged the duke, who became not merely the “ Protestant Rome" but also quite a took active steps against the citizens, and tried (1527) to carry cosmopolitan little city. The Bernese often interfered with the off the bishop, Pierre de la Bauma (1522-1544), who soon found internal affairs of Geneva (while Calvin, a Frenchman, naturally it best to make his submission.

looked towards France), and refused to allow the city to conclude The Genevese, thus abandoned by their natural protector, any alliances save with itself. That alliance was finally renewed looked to the Swiss for help. They sent (October 1530) a con- | in 1558, while in 1560 the Romanist cantons made one with the siderable army to save the city. This armed intervention duke of Savoy, a zealous supporter of the old faith. In 1564, compelled the duke to sign the treaty of St Julien (19th October) after long negotiations, Bern restored to the duke part of its by which he engaged not to trouble the Genevese any more, conquests of 1536, viz. Gex, the Genevois and the Chablais, agreeing that if he did so the two towns of Fribourg and Bern Geneva being thus once more placed amid the dominions of the should have the right to occupy his barony of Vaud. The two duke; though by the same treaty (that of Lausanne, October towns also, by the decision given as arbitrators at Payerne (30th 1564, Calvin having died the preceding May) the alliance of Bern December (1530), upheld their alliance with Geneva, condemned with Geneva was maintained. In 1579 Geneva was included in the duke to pay all the expenses of the war, and confirmed the the alliance concluded by France with Bern and Soleure, while in clause as to their right to occupy Vaud; they also surrounding 1584 Zürich joined Bern in another alliance with Geneva. The the exercise of the powers of vidomne by the duke with so many struggle widened as Geneva became a pawn in the great attempt restrictions that in 1532 the duke, after much resistance, formally of the duke of Savoy to bring back his subjects to the old faith, agreed to recognize the alliance of Geneva with the two towns and his efforts being seconded by Françots de Sales, the “ apostle of not to annoy the Genevese any more. Thus a legal tie between the Chablais. " But the king of France, for political reasons, Geneva and two of the Swiss cantons was established, while the opposed Savoy, with whom, however, he made peace in 1601: duke did not any longer venture to annoy the Genevese, as he clung In December 1602 François de Sales was consecrated bishop of to his fine barony of Vaud. In the course of this struggle (and Geneva (since 1535 the bishops had lived at Annecy), and a few especially after the last episcopal vidomne had left the town in days later the duke of Savoy made a final attempt to get hold of 1526) the municipal authorities of the city greatly developed, a the city by a surprise attack in the night of 11-12th December grand conseil of 200 members being set up in imitation of those at 1602 (Old Style), known in history as the “ Escalade," as ladders Bern and at Fribourg, while within the larger assembly there was were used to scale the city walls. It was successfully repelled, a pelil conseil of 60 members for more confidential business. over 200 of the foe being slain, while 17 Genevese only perished. Thus 1530 marks the date at which Geneva became its own Filled with joy at their rescue from this attack, the citizens mistress within, while allied externally with the Swiss confedera- crowded to their cathedral, where Beza (then 83 years of age) tion. But hardly had this settlement been reached when a fresh bid them to sing the 124th Psalm which has ever since been sung element of discord threatened to wholly upset matters—the on the anniversary of this great delivery. The peace of St Julien adoption of Protestant principles by the city. Just before this (21st of July 1603) marked the final defeat of the duke of Savoy event, however, the fortifications were once more (1534) rebuilt in the long struggle waged (since 1290) by his house against the (bits still remain) and extended so as to take in several new city of Geneva. suburbs, including that of St Gervais on the right bank of the In the charter of 1387 we hear only of the conseil général Rhone which, till then, seems to have been unenclosed (1511- (composed of all male heads of families) which acted as the legis1527).

lature, and elected annually the executive of 4 syndics; no In 1532 William Farel, a Protestant preacher from Dauphiné, doubt this form of rule existed earlier than 1387. Even before who had converted Vaud, &c., to the new belief, first came to 1387 there was also the petit conseil or conseil ordinaire or conseil Geneva and settled there in 1533. But although Bern supported l Etroil, a body not recognized by the law, though it became very

powerful; it was composed of the 4 syndics, with several other government was forced by a popular demonstration to summon counsellors, and acted originally as the adviser of the syndics an assemblée constituante, which in 1842 elaborated a new convho were legally responsible for the rule of the city. In 1457 stitution that was accepted by the citizens. Besides bestowing ve first hear of the Council of the Fifty (re-established in 1502 on the city a government distinct from that of the canton, it and later known as the Sixty), and in 1526 of the Council of the set up for the latter a grand conseil or legislature, and a conseil Two Hundred (established in imitation of those of Born and d'élai or executive of 13 members, both elected for the term of 4 Fribourg), both being summoned in special cases of urgency. years. But this constitution did not seem liberal enough to The members of both were named by the pelit conseil, of which, many citizens, so that in 1846 the government gave way to the in turn, the members were confirmed or not by the Two Hundred. Radicals, led by James Fazy (1794–1878), who drew up a conBy the Constitution of 1543 the conseil général had only the right stitution that was accepted by a popular vote on the 21st of May of choosing the 4 syndics out of a list of 8 presented by the 1847. It was much mote advanced than that of 1842, and in its pelit conseil and the Two Hundred, which therefore really elected main features still prevails. From that date till 1864 the Radicals them, subject to a formal approbation on the part of the larger ruled the state, their head, Fazy, being an able man, though body. This system was slightly modified in 1568, the constitution extravagant and inclined to absolutism. Under his sway the of that date lasting till 1794. The conseil général fell more and town was modernized and developed, but the finances were more into the background, the members of the other councils badly administered, and Fazy became more and more a radical gradually obtained the privilege of being irremovable, and the dictator. "On voudrait faire de Genève," sighed the consersystem of co-optation resulted in the creation of a close monopoly vative, de la Rive, “la plus petite des grandes villes, et pour of political offices in the hands of a few leading families.

moi je préfère qu'elle reste la plus grande des petites villes." In During the 17th and 18th centuries, while the Romanist | 1861 and in 1864 Fazy failed to secure his re-election to the majority of the Swiss cantons steadily refused to accept Geneva conseil d'étol, riots followed his defeat, and the Federal troops as even a subordinate member of the Confederation, the city were forced to intervene so as to restore order. itself was distractod on several occasions by attempts of the The Democratic party (liberal-conservative) ruled from 1865 citizens, as a whole, to gain some share in the aristocratic govern- to 1870 and did much to improve the finances of the state. In ment of the town, though these attempts were only partially 1870 the Radicals regained the supremacy under their new successful. But the last half of the 18th century marks the most chief, Antoine Caxeret (1813–1889) and kept it till 1898. This brilliant period in the literary history of Geneva, whether as was a period of religious strife, due to the irritation caused by regards natives or resident foreigners, while in the succeeding the Vatican council, and the pope's attempt torevive the bishopric half century the number of Genevese scientific celebrities is of Geneva. Gaspard Mermillod (1824-1891) was named in 1864 remarkable. In 1794 the effects of the French Revolution were cure of Geneva, and made bishop of Hebron in partibus, acting shown in the more liberal constitution granted by the city as the helper of the bishop of Lausanne Early in 1873 tho government. But in 1798 the city was annexed to France and pope named him “vicar apostolic of Geneva," but he was, exbecame the capital of the French department of Léman (to be pelled a few weeks later from Switzerland, not returning till carefully distinguished from the Swiss conlon of Léman, that is 1883, when he became bishop of Lausanne, being made cardinal Vaud, of the Helvetic Republic, also set up in 1798), while in in 1890. The Radical government enacted severe laws as to 1802, by the Concordat, the ancient bishopric of Geneva was the Romanists in Geneva, and gave privileges to the Christian suppressed. On the fall of Napoleon (1813) the city recovered Catholic Church, which, organized in 1874 in Switzerland, had its independence, and finally, in 1815, was received as the junior absorbed the community founded at Geneva by Père Hyacinthe, member of the Swiss confederation, several bits of French and an ex-Carmelite friar. The Romanists therefore were no longer Savoyard territory (as pointed out above) being added to the recognized by the state, and were persecuted in divers ways, narrow bounds of the old Genevese Republic in order to give though the tide afterwards turned in their favour, The Democrats the town some protection against its non-Swiss neighbours. ruled from 1878 to 1880, and introduced the “Referendum"

The constitution of 1814 set up a common form of government (1879) into the cantonal constitution, but, their policy of the for the city and the canton, the city not obtaining its municipal separation of church and state having been rejected by the independence till the constitution of 1842. From 1535 to 1798 people at a vote, they gave way to the Radicals. The Radicals public worship according to the Romanist form had been strictly went out in 1889, and the Democrats held the reins of power till forbidden. In 1799 already the first attempts were made to re 1897, their leader being Gustave Ador.. In 1891 they introduced establish it, and in 1803 the church of St Germain was handed the “ Initiative" into the cantonal constitution, and in 1892 over to the Romanists. The constitution of 1814, looking for the principle of proportional representation so far as regards ward to the annexation of Romanist districts to the city territory the grand conscil, while Th. Turrettini did much to increase the to form the new canton, guaranteed to that body the freedom economical prosperity of the city. In 1897 the Radicals came in of worship, at any rate in these newly gained districts. In 1819 | again, their leaders being first Georges Favon (1843-1902) till the canton (the new portions of which were inhabited mainly his death, and then Henri Fazy, a distant relative of James by Romanists) was annexed to the bishopric of Lausanne, the and an excellent historian. They attempted to rule by aid of bishop in 1821 being authorized to add " and of Geneva" to the Socialists, but theis power tuctuated as the demands of his episcopal style, After the adventure of the “ Escalade" the Socialists became greater. On the 30th of June 1907 the the fortifications were once more strengthened and extended, Genevese, by a popular vote, decided on the separation of Church these works being completed about 1726. But, in 1822, some of and State. the bastions were converted into promenades, while in 1849 the AUTHORITIES.-D. Baud-Bovy, Peintres genevois, 1702-1807 (2 rest of the fortifications were pulled down so as to allow the city vols., Geneva, 1903-1904); J, T. de Belloc, Le Cardinal Mermillod to expand and gradually assume its present aspect.

(Fribourg, 1892); M. Besson, Recherches sur les origines des évêchés When Geneva recovered its political independence in 1814 a

de Genève, Lausanne et Sion (Fribourg. 1906); J. D. Blavignac.

Armorial genevois (Geneva, 1849), and Etudes sur Genève depuis new constitution was drawn up, but it was very reactionary, l'antiquité jusqu'à nos jours (3 vols., Geneva, 1872-1874); Fr. for there is no mention in it of the sovereignty of the people. Bonivard, Chroniques de Genève (Reprint) (2 vols., Geneva, 1867); It set up a conseil représentatif or legislature of 250 members, F. Borel, Les Foires de Genève au XV siècle (Geneya, 1892); Ch. which named the conseil d'élai or executive, while it was itself Borgeaud, Histoire de l'université de Genève, 1559-2798 Geneva,

1900): E. Choisy, La Théocratic à Genève au lemps de Calvin Geneva, elected by a limited class, for the electoral qualification was

1898), and L'Etat chrélien Calviniste à Genève ou lemps de Théodorc the annual payment of direct taxes to the amount of 20 Swiss de Bèze (Geneva, 1902); F. de Crue, La Guerre féodale de Genève livres or about 23 shillings. It was not till 1842 that this system, et l'établissement de la Commune, 1205-1320 (Geneva, 1907); H. though

much criticized, was modified. In the early part of 1841 Penkinger, Histoire populaire du canton de Geneve (Geneva, 1905); the “* Third of March Association " was formed to watch over graphical description of 16th-century Geneva, and forming vol. iii. ibe interests of the citizens, and in November of that year tbe 1 of the author's Jean Calvin) (Lausanne, 1905): E. Dunant, Les

Relations politiques de Genève avec Berne et les Suisses, de 1536 2 1564 | Nicaragua and Colombia abstaining and the conference was held (Geneva, 1894): Documents de l'Escalade de Genèze (Geneva, 1903): at Geneva in July 1906, when a full revised convention was (Geneva, 1899), and Genève à travers les siècles (Geneva, 1900); adopted, which now takes the place of that of 1864. The H. Faży, Histoire de Genève à l'époque de l'Escalade, 1598-1003 adoption of the new Geneva Convention entailed a revision of (Geneva, 1902), and Les Constitutions de la République de Genève (to the above-mentioned Hague Convention and a new edition of the 1847) (Geneva, 1890); J. B. G. Galiffe, Genève historique e archéo latter is one of the documents adopted at the Peace Conference Lggique (2 vols., Geneva, 1869–1872); J. A. Gautier, Hisloire de Geneve (to 1691) (6 vols., 1896-1903); F. Gribble and J. H. and

of

1907 M. H. Lewis, Geneva (London, 1908); J. Jullien, Histoire de Genève The new Geneva Convention consists of thirty-three articles (new ed., Geneva, 1889); C. Martin, La Maison de Ville de Genève divided into the following chapters, (i.) the wounder and sick; (Geneva, 1906): Mémoires et documents (pybl. by the local Historical (ii.) medical units and establishments; (iii.) personnel; (iv.) 1535-1870 (Paris, 1888); Pierre de Genève, St (monograph on the material; (v.) convoys of evacuation; (vi.) the distinctive cathedral), 4 parts (Geneva, 1891-1899); A. de Montet, Diction-emblem; (vii.) application and carrying out of the Convention naire biographique des Genevois, &c. (2 vols., Lausanne, 1878); (viji.) prevention of abuses and infractions; (ix.) general proC. L. Perrin, Les Vieux Quartiers

, de Genève (Geneva, 1904); A. visions. Pfleghart, Die schweizerische Uhrenindustrie (Leipzig, 1908); Règeste genevois avanl 1312 (Geneva, 1866); Registres du conseil de Genève,

The essential parts of the new Hague Convention of 1907 vols. i. and ii., 1409-1477 (Geneva, 1900-1906); A. Roget, Histoire (18th of October) adapting the above conventions to maritime du peuple de Genève depuis la Réforme jusqu'd l'Escalade (7 vols., warfare as follows: (N.B. The alterations are in italics. The from 1536-1568; Geneva, 1870-1883); A. Rilliet, Le Relablissement du Catholicisme' à Genève y a deux siècles (Geneva, 1880); p. parts of the older convention of 1899 which have been suppressed Vaucher, Lutles de Genève contre le Savoie, 1517-1530 (Geneva, are in brackets). 1889); Recueil généalogique suisse (Genève) (2 vols., Geneva, 1902– 1907).

(W. A. B. C.)

i. Military hospital-ships, that is to say, ships constructed or GENEVA CONVENTION, an international agreement for the the wounded, sick or shipwrecked, and the names of which shali

assigned by states specially and solely for the purpose of assisting purpose of improving the condition of wounded soldiers of armies have been communicated to the belligerent powers at the commencein the field, originally adopted at an international conference ment or during the course of hostilities, and in any case before they held at Geneva, Switzerland, in 1864, and afterwards replaced by are employed, shall be respected and cannot be captured while the convention of July 6, 1906, also adopted at Geneva. This These ships, moreover, are not on the same footing as men-of-war later agreement is the one now known as the Geneva Con as regards their stay in a neutral port. vention. The conference of 1864 was the result of a movement ii. Hospital-ships, equipped wholly or in part at the cost of private which sprang from the publication in 1862 of a book entitled individuals or officially-recognized Relief Societies, shall likewise Un Souvenir de Solferino by Henri Dunant, a Genevese philan: power to whom they belong has given them an official commission thropist, in which he described the sufferings of the wounded and has notified their names to the hostile power at the commenceat the battle of Solférino with such vivid effect that the subject ment of or during hostilities, and in any case before they are employed. became forthwith one of public interest. It was energetically petent authorities,

declaring that they had been under their control taken up by M. Gustave Moynier, whose agitation led to an while fitting out and on final departure. unofficial congress being held at Geneva in October 1863. This iii. Hospital-ships, equipped wholly or in part at the cost of was followed by an official one at Geneva, called by the Swiss private individuals or officially-recognized Societies of neutral government in 1864. The convention which

was there signed countries shall be respected and exempt from capture fif the neutral (22nd August 1864) on behalf of the states represented, after-power of whom they belong has given them an official commission

and notified their names to the belligerent powers at the commencewards received the adherence of every civilized power.

ment of or during hostilities, and in any case before they are emAt a second conference on the same subject, held at Geneva in ployed) on condition that they are placed under the orders of one of 1868, a supplementary convention was drawn

up, consisting of the belligerents, with the previous consent of their own Government and fourteen additional articles, five of which related to war on land shall have notified their names to the enemy at the commencement or and nine to naval warfare. · The additional articles were not, during the course of hostilities, in any event, before they are employed. however, ratified by the chief states, and never became operative. iv. The ships mentioned in Articles i., ii. and iii. shall afford relief The Brussels International Conference (1874) for the codification and assistance to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of the belof the law and customs of war occupied itself with the Geneva

ligerents independently of their nationality.

The governments engage not to use these ships for any military. Convention and again drew up a number of articles which were purpose. submitted to the interested governments. But, as in the case of

These ships must not in any way hamper the movements of the the additional articles of 1868, no effect was ever given to them.

combatants. At the Peace Conference of 1899 Great Britain withdrew her and peril.

During and after an engagement they will act at their own risk objections to the application of the convention to maritime The belligerents will have the right to control and visit them; warfare, and agreed to the adoption of a special convention they can refuse to help them, order them off, make them take a "adapting to Maritime warfare the principles of the Geneva certain course, and put a commissioner on board; they can even

detain them, if important circumstances require it. Convention.” A voeu was also adopted by the conference express As far as possible the belligerents shall inscribe in the sailing ing the wish that a special conference should be held as soon as papers of the hospital-ships the orders they give them. possible for the purpose of revising the convention of 1864. y. The military hospital-ships shall be distinguished by being In deference to the above vocu the Swiss government in 1901 painted white outside with a horizontal band of green about a metre

and a half in breadth. sounded the other parties to the convention of 1864 as to whether The ships mentioned in Articles ü. and iii. shall be distinguished the time had not come to call the proposed special conference, but by being painted white outside with a horizontal band of red about the replies received did not give much encouragement and the a metre and a half in breadth. matter was dropped for the time being. By a circular note of the

The boats of the ships above mentioned, as also small craft which 17h of February 1903, the Swiss government invited all the states may be used for hospital work, shall be distinguished by similar which had signed or adhered to the Geneva Convention to send All hospital-ships shall make themselves known by hoisting, representatives to a conference to be held at Geneva in the together with their national flag, the white flag with a red cross following September. Some governments did not accept the provided by the Geneva Convention,

and, in addition, if they belong invitation in time and the conference had to be postponed. At the belligerent under whose direction they are placed.

lo a neutral State, by hoisting on the mainmast the nalional flag of the beginning of 1904, there being no apparent obstacle, the Swiss Hospital-ships which, under the terms of Article iv., are detained by government again invited the powers to send delegates to a conference in the following MayMeanwhile war broke out

1 Another International Conference held in December 1904 at the between Russia and Japan and there was again an adjourn- Hague dealt with the status of hospital-ships

in time of war. Great went. At length in March 1906 an invitation was accepted however, was not owing to any objection of principle, but purely by thirty-five states, only Turkey, Salvador, Bolivia, Venezuela; to considerations of domestic legislation.

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