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liur en ny, must lower the national flag of the belligerent under whom the south shore, save its western and eastern extremities, which Utre odling.
The above-mentioned vessels and boats, desiring at night-lime to belong respectively to Geneva and to the Valais. ensure the respect due to them, shall, with the consent of the belligerent
The lake is formed by the Rhone, which enters it at its cast end, whom they are accompanying, take the necessary steps that the special between Villeneuve (E.) and St Gingolph (W.), and quits it at its puinling denoting them shall be sufficiently conspicuous.
west end, flowing through the city of Geneva. The only important vi. (Neutral merchantmen, yachts or vessels, having, or taking on
tributaries are the Drance (S.), the Venoge (N.) and the Veveyse board, sick, wounded or shipwrecked of the belligerents, cannot be (N.). The form of the lake is that of a crescent, of which the east captured for so doing, but they are liable to capture for any violation end is broad and rounded, while the west end tapers towards the of neutrality they may have committed.)
city of Geneva. The bird's eye length of the whole lake, from The distinctive signs provided by Article v. can only be used, whether Chillon to Geneva, is 39} m., but along its axis 45 mn. The coast-line in time of peace or in time of war, to protect ships therein mentioned. of the north shore is 59 m. in length and that of the south shore
vii. In the case of a fight on board a war-ship, the hospitals shall be 447 m. The maximum depth is 10151 st., but the mean depth respected and shall receive as much consideralion as possible.
only 500 ft. The surface is 12314 st. (Swiss Topog; Bureau) or These hospitals and their belongings are subject to the laws of war,
1220 it. (Forel) above sea-level. The greatest width (between but shall not be employed for any other purpose so long as they shall be Morges and Amphion) is 84 m., but the normal width is 5 m. The necessary for the sick and wounded.
lake forms two well-marked divisions, separated by the strait of Nevertheless, the commander who has them under his orders, may Promenthoux, which is 216) ft. in depth, as a bar divides the Grand make use of them in case of important military necessity, but he shall Lac from the Petit Lac... The Grand Lac includes the greater portion first ensure the safety of the sick and wounded on board.
of the lake, the Petit Lac (to the west of the strait or bar) being the viii. The protection due to hospital-ships and to hospitals on board special Genevese portion of the lake, and having an area of but war-ships shall cea se if they are used against the enemy.
30 sq. m. The unusual blueness of the waters has long been The fact that the crew of hospital-ships, and allached to hospilals on
remarked, and the transparency increases the farther we get from war-ships, are ermed for the maintenance of order and for the defence the point where the Rhone enters it, the deposits which the river of the sick or wounded, and the existence of a radio-telegraphic installa- brings down from the Alps gradually sinking to the bottom of the lion on board, is not considered as a justification for withdrawing the lake. At Geneva we recall Byron's phrase," the blue rushing of the above-mentioned prolection.
arrowy Rhone" (Childe Harold, canto iii. stanza 71). The limit of ix. Belligerents may appeal to the charitable zeal of commanders of visibility of a white disk is 33 it. in winter (in
February 1891 Prof. neutral merchant vessels, yachts or other crafl, to take on board and look Forel observed an extreme of 70 ft.) and 21 st. in summer. Apart after the sick and wounded,
from the seasonal changes in the level of the lake (which is highest Ships having responded lo this appeal, as well as those who have in summer, no doubt because of the melting of the Alpine snows spontaneously taken on board sick, wounded or shipwrecked men, shall that feed the Rhone), there are also the remarkable temporary have the advantage of a special protection and of certain immunities. disturbances of level known as the seiches, in which the whole mass In no case shall They be liable to capture on account of such transport; of water in the lake rhythmically swings from shore to shore. but subject to any promise made to them they are liable to caplure for According to Prof. Forel there are both longitudinal and transany violation of neutrality they may have committed.
verse seiches. The effect of the longitudinal seiches at Geneva is (vii
. l. x. The religious, medical or hospital staff of any captured four times as great as at Chillon, at the other end of the lake, while ship is inviolable, and its members cannot be made prisoners of war. the extreme duration of this phenomenon is 73 minutes for the On leaving the ship they take with them the objects and surgical uninodal longitudinal seiches (35 minutes for the binodal) and 10 instruments which are their own private property.
minutes for the transverse seiches (5 minutes for the binodal). This staff shall continue to discharge its duties while necessary,
The maximum height of a recorded seiche at Geneva is rather over and can afterwards leave when the commander-in-chief considers it
6 ft. (October 1841). The currents in the water itself are irregular. possible.
The principal winds that blow over the lake are the bise (from the The belligerents must guarantee to the staff that has fallen into N.E.), the vaudaire or Föhn (from the S.E.), the sudois or vent de their hands (the enjoyment of their salaries intact the same allow pluie (from the S.W.) and the joran (from the N.W.). The storm ances and pay as those of persons of the same rank in their own navy. winds are the molan (from the Arve valley towards Geneva) and the
(viii.) xi. Sailors and soldiers, and other persons officially attached bornan (from the Drance valley towards the central portion of the to navies or armies, who are taken on board when sick or wounded, lake). The lake is not as rich in fish as the other Swiss lakes, one to whatever nation they belong, shall be (protected) respected and reason being the obstacle opposed by the Perte du Rhône to fish looked after by the captors.
seeking to ascend that river. Prof. Forel knows of but twenty xii
. Every vessel of war of a belligerent parly may claim the return indigenous species (of which the Féra, or Coregonus fera, is the of the wounded, sick or shipwrecked who are on board military hospital principal) and six that have been introduced by man in the 19th ships, hospital-ships of aid societies or of private individuals, merchant century. A number of lake dwellings, of varying dates, have been ships, yachts or other craft, whatever be the nationality of these vessels. found on the shores of the lake.. The first steamer placed on the
xiii. ll, the wounded, sick or shipwrecked are received on board a lake was the "Guillaume Tell," built in 1823 at Geneva by an neutral ship of war, it shall be provided, as far as possible, that they Englishman named Church, while in 1873 the present Compagnie may take no further part in war operations.
générale de navigation sur le lac Léman was formed, and in 1875 xiv. The shipwrecked, wounded or sick of one of the belligerents constructed the first saloon steamer, the “Mont Blanc.". But who fall into the hands of the other, are prisoners of war. The despite this service and the railways along each shore, the red lateen captor must decide, according to circumstances, if it is best to keep sails of minor craft still brighten the landscape. The railway along or even to a hostile port. In the last
case, prisoners thus repatriated Ouchy (the port of Lausanne), Vevey and Montreux to Villeneuve cannot serve as long as the war lasts.
(561 m.). That on the south shore gains the edge of the lake at xv. The shipwrecked, wounded or sick who are landed at a neutral Thonon only (22 m. from Geneva), and then runs past Evian and port with the consent of the local authorities, must, failing a contrary St Gingolph to Le Bouveret (20 m. from Thonon). In the harbour arrangement between the neutral State and the belligerents, be of Geneva two erratic boulders of granite project above the surface guarded by the neutral State, so that they may not be again able to of the water, and are named Pierres du Nilon (supposed to be altars take part in the military operations.
to Neptune). The lower of the two, which is also the farthest from The expenses of hospital trea!menl and internment shall be borne by the shore, has been taken as the basis of the triangulation of Switzer, the Slate io which the shipwrecked, wounded or sick belong. (T. BA.) land: the official height is 376.86 mètres, which in 1891 was reduced
to 373.54 mètres, though 376-6 mètres is now said to be the real GENEVA, LAKE OF, the largest lake of which any portion figure. Of course the heights given on the Swiss Government map belongs to Switzerland, and indeed in central Europe. It is vary with these different estimates of the point taken as basis.
For all matters relating to the lake, see Prof. F. A. Forel's called Lacus Lemannus by the old Latin and Greek writers, in monumental work, Le Léman (3 vols., Lausanne, 1892–1904); also 4th century A.D. Lacus Lausonius or Losaneles, in the middle ages with fine illustrations) G. Fatio and F. Boissonnas, Autour du lac generally Lac de Lausanne, but from the 16th century onwards Léman (Geneva, 1902).
(W. A. B. C.) Lac de Genève, though from the end of the 18th century the name GENEVIÈVE, or GENOVEFA, ST (c. 422-512), patroness of Lac Léman was revived-according to Prof. Forel Le Léman is the Paris, lived during the latter half of the 5th century. According proper form. Its area is estimated at 223 sq.m. (Swiss Topo- to tradition, she was born about 422 at Nanterre near Paris; graphical Bureau) or 225} sq. m. (Forel), of which about 140 sq. her parents were called Severus and Gerontia, but accounts m. (134sq. m. Forel) are politically Swiss (123} sq. m. belonging differ widely as to their social position. According to the legend, to the canton of Vaud, 114 sq. m. to that of Geneva, and 5 sq. m. she was only in her seventh year when she was induced by St to that of the Valais), the remainder (83 sq.m.) being French since Germain, bishop of Auxerre, io dedicate herself to the religious the annexation of Savoy in 1860—the entire lake is included in life. On the death of her parents she removed to Paris
, where she the territory (Swiss or Savoyard) neutralized by the congress of distinguished herself by her benevolence, as well as by her austere Vienna in 1815. The French part takes in nearly the whole of l life. She is said to have predicted the invasion of ihe Huns; and
XI 10 *
when Attila with his army was threatening the city, she persuaded
See F. J. Child, English and Scottish Popular Ballads, vol. ii. the inhabitants to remain on the island and encouraged them by (Copenhagen, 1867); "Sir Triamore," in Bishop Percy's Folio Ms.,
(1886), art. “Sir Aldingar"; S. Grundtvig: Danske Keempeviser an assurance, justified by subsequent events, that the attack
ed. Hales and Furnivall, vol. ii. (London, 1868); The Romance of would come to nothing (451). She is also said to have had Octavian, ed. E. Ñ. Goldsmid (Aungervyle Soc., Edinburgh, 1882); great influence over Childeric, father of Clovis, and in 460 to have The Erl of Toulous and the Emperes of Almayn, ed. G. Ludtke (Berlin, caused a church to be built over the tomb of St Denis. Her 1881); B. Seuffert, Die Legende von der Pfalzgräfin Genovefa (Würz: death occurred about 512 and she was buried'in the church of the burg: 1877): 1. Golz, Pfalzgräfin Genovefa in der deutschen Dichtung
Die deutschen Volksbücher von der Holy Apostles, popularly known as the church of St Geneviève. Psalzgräfin Genovela," in Zeilschr. für deutsche Philologie (1874). In 1793 the body was taken from the new church, built in her GENGA, GIROLAMO (c. 1476-1551), Italian painter and honour by Louis XV., when it became the Panthéon, and burnt architect, was born in Urbino about 1476. At the age of ten on the Place de Grève; but the relics were enshrined in a chapel he was apprenticed to the woollen trade, but showed so much of the neighbouring church of St Etienne du Mont, where they inclination for drawing that he was sent to study under an still attract pilgrims; her festival is celebrated with great pomp obscure painter, and at thirteen under Luca Signorelli, with on the 3rd of January. The frescoes of the Panthéon by Puvis de whom he remained a considerable while, frequently painting Chavannes are based upon the legend of the saint.
the accessories of his pictures. He was afterwards for three BIBLIOGRAPHY.—The main source is the anonymous Vita s. Genovefae virginis Parisiorum, published in 1687 by D. P. Char: years with Pietro Perugino, in company with Raphael. He
next worked in Florence and Siena, along with Timoteo della penticr. The genuineness of this life was attacked by B. Krusch
Neues Archiv, 1893 and 1894) and defended by L. Duchesne, Vite; and in the latter city he painted various compositions Bibliothèque de l'École des Charles (1893), Bulletin critique (1897), for Pandolfo Petrucci, the leading local statesman. Returning p. 473. Krusch continued to hold that the life was an 8th-century to Urbino, he was employed by Duke Guidobaldo in the decoraforgery. (Scriptores rer. Merov. iii. 204-238). See A. Potthast, I tions of his palace, and showed extraordinary aplitude for Bibliotheca medii awi (1331, 1332), and G. Kurth, Clovis, ii. 249-254. The legends and miracles are given in the Bollandists' Acta Sanctorum, theatrical adornments. Thence he went to Rome; and in the January 1st; there is a short sketch by Henri Lesetre, Ste Geneviève, church of S. Caterina da Siena, in that capital, is one of his most in "Les Saints " series (Paris, 1900).
distinguished works, “ The Resurrection,” remarkable both for GENEVIÈVE, GENOVEVA or GENOVEFA, OP BRABANT, design and for colouring. He studied ihe Roman antiquities heroine of medieval legend. Her story is a typical example of the with zeal, and measured a number of edifices; this practice, widespread tale of the chaste wife falsely accused and repudiated, combining with his previous mastery of perspective, qualified generally on the word of a rejected suitor. Genovefa of Brabant him to shine as an architect. Francesco Maria della Rovere, was said to be the wife of the palatine Siegfried of Treves, and was the reigning duke of Urbino, recalled Genga, and commissioned falsely accused by the majordomo Golo. Sentenced to death she him to execute works in connexion with his marriage-festivities. was spared by the executioner, and lived for six years with her This prince being soon afterwards expelled by Pope Leo X., son in a cave in the Ardennes nourished by a roe. Siegfried, who Genga followed him to Mantua, whence he went for a time to had meanwhile found out Golo's treachery, was chasing the roe Pesaro. The duke of Urbino was eventually restored to his when he discovered her hiding-place, and reinstated her in her dominions; he took Genga with him, and appointed him the former honour. Her story is said to rest on the history of Marie ducal architect. As he neared the close of his career, Genga of Brabant, wife of Louis II., duke of Bavaria, and count-palatine retired to a house in the vicinity of Urbing, continuing still to of the Rhine, who was tried by her husband and beheaded on the produce designs in pencil; one, of the “ Conversion of St Paul,” 18th of January 1256, for supposed infidelity, a crime for which was particularly admired. Here he died on the 11th of July Louis afterwards had to do penance. The change in name may 1551. Genga was a sculptor and musician as well as painter and have been due to the cult of St Geneviève, patroness of Paris. architect. He was jovial, an excellent talker, and kindly to his The tale first obtained wide popularity in L'Innocence reconnue, ou friends. His principal pupil was Francesco Menzocchi. His vie de Sainte Geneviève de Brabant (pr. 1638) by the Jesuit René de own son Bartolommeo (1518-1558) became an architect of Cerisier (1603-1662), and was a frequent subject for dramatic celebrity. In Genga's paintings there is a great deal of freedom, representation in Germany. With Genovefa's history may be and a certain peculiarity of character consonant with his versatile, compared the Scandinavian ballads of Ravengaard og Memering, lively and social temperament. One of his leading works is which exist in many recensions. These deal with the history of in the church of S. Agostino in Cesena---a triptych in oil-colours, Gunild, who married Henry, duke of Brunswick and Schleswig. representing the “Annunciation,”
” “God the Father in Glory," When Duke Henry, went to the wars he lest his wife in charge of and the “Madonna and Child." Among his architectural Ravengaard, who accused her of infidelity. Gunild is cleared labours are the church of San Giovanni Battista in Pesaro; by the victory of her champion Memering, the “ smallest of the bishop's palace at Sinigaglia; the facade of the cathedral Christian men.” The Scottish ballad of Sir Aldingar is a version of Mantua, ranking high among the productions of the 16th of the same story. The heroine Gunhilda is said to have been the century; and a new palace for the duke of Urbino, built on the daughter of Canute the Great and Emma. She married in 1036 Monte Imperiale. He was also concerned in the fortifications King Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry III., and there was of Pesaro. nothing in her domestic history to warrant the legend, which is GENISTA, in botany, a genus of about eighty species of shrubs given as authentic history by William of Malmesbury (De gestis belonging to the natural order Leguminosae, and natives of regum Anglorum, lib. i. $188). She was called Cunigund after her Europe, western Asia and North Africa. Three are native in marriage, and perhaps was confused with St Cunigund, the wise | Britain. G. anglica is the needle-furze or petty whin, sound of the emperor Henry II. In the Karlamagnus-saga the innocent on heaths and moist moors, a spinous plant with slender wife is Oliva, sister of Charlemagne and wife of King Hugo, and in spreading branches 1 to 2 ft. long, very small leaves and short the French Carolingian cycle the emperor's wife Sibille (La Reine racemes of small yellow papilionaceous flowers. The pollen is Sibille) or Blanchefleur (Macaire). Other forms of the legend are emitted in a shower when an insect alights on it. G. lindoria, to be found in the story of Doolin's mother in Daon de Mayence, dyer's green-weed, the flowers of which yield a yellow dyc, has the English romance of Sir Triamour, in the story of the mother of no spines. Other species are grown on rock-work or as green. Octavian in Octavian the Emperor, in the German folk book house plants, Historic von der geduldigen Königin Crescentia, based on a 12th GENIUS (from Lat. genere, gignere), a term which originally century poem to be found in the Kaiserchronik; and the English meant, in Roman mythology, a generative and protecting spirit, Erl of Toulouse (c. 1400). In the last-named romance it has been who has no exact parallel in Greek religion, and at least in his suggested that the story gives the relations between Bernard I. earlier aspect is of purely Italian origin as one of the deities of count of Toulouse, son of the Guillaume d'Orange of the Caro- family or household. Every man has his genius, who is not his lingian romances, and the empress Judith, second wife of Louis creator, but only comes into being with him and is allotted to the Pious.
him at his birth. As á creative principle the genius is restricted
to man, his place being taken by a Juno (cp. Juno Lucina, conceivable form of original ability, something altogether the goddess of childbirth) in the case of women. The male and extraordinary and beyond even supreme educational prowess, female spirit may thus be distinguished respectively as the and differing, in kind apparently, from “talent,” which is protector of generation and of parturition (lutela generandi, usually distinguished as marked intellectual capacity short pariendi), although the female appears less prominent. It is only of the inexplicable and unique endowment to which the The genius of the palerfamilias that keeps the marriage bed, term "genius" is confined. The attempt, however, to define named after him lectus genialis and dedicated to him, under his either quality, or to discriminate accurately between them, has special protection. The genius of a man, as his higher intellectual given rise to continual controversy, and there is no agreement self, accompanies him from the cradle to the grave. In many as to the nature of either; and the commonly quoted definitions ways he exercises a decisive influence on the man's character of genius--such as Carlyle's "transcendant capacity of taking and mode of life (Horace, Epistles, ii. 2. 187). The responsi- trouble, first of all,”! in which the last three words are usually bility for happiness or unhappiness, good or bad fortune, lay forgotten-are either admittedly incomplete or are of the with the genius; but this does not suppose the existence of two nature of epigrams. Nor can it be said that any substantial genii for man, the one good and the other bad (ayalodaiwws, light has been thrown on the matter by the modern physiological kakoðaiuwx), an idea borrowed from the Greek philosophers. The school, Lombroso and others, who regard the eccentricity of genius Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always as its prime factor, and study it as a form of mental derangement. endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended The error here is partly in ignoring the history of the word, and to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of in- partly in misrepresenting the nature of the fact. There are many dulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed cases, no doubt, in which persons really insane, of one type or himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. A man's another, or with a history of physical degeneration or epilepsy, birthday was naturally a suitable occasion for honouring his have shown remarkable originality, which may be described genius, and on that occasion offerings of incense, wine, garlands, as genius, but there are at least just as many in whom no such and cakes were made (Tibullus ii. 2; Ovid, Trislia, iii. 13. 18). physical abnormality can be observed. The word "genius" As the representative of a man's higher self and participating itself however has only gradually been used in English to express in a divine nature, the genius could be sworn by, and a person the degree of original greatness which is beyond ordinary powers could take an oath by his own or some one else's genius. When of explanation, i.e. far beyond the capacity of the normal human under Greek influence the Roman idea of the gods became more being in creative work; and it is a convenient term(like Nietzsche's and more anthropomorphized, a genius was assigned to them, " superman ") for application to those rare individuals who in not however as a distinct personality. Thus we hear of the genius the course of evolution reveal from time to time the heights to of Jupiter (Jovis Genio, C.I.L. i. 603), Mars, Juno, Pluto, which humanity may develop, in literature, art, science, or Priapus. In a more extended sense the genius is also the administrative life. The English usage was originally derived, generator and preserver of human society, as manifested in the naturally enough, from the Roman ideas contained in the term family, corporate unions, the city, and the state generally. Thus, (with the analogy of the Greek daluwv), and in the 16th and the genius publicus Populi Romani—probably distinct from the 17th centuries we find it equivalent simply to " distinctive genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was character or spirit," a meaning still commonly given to the word. dedicated, with an inscription expressing doubt as to the sex The more modern sense is not even mentioned in Johnson's Dic(Genio . . . sive mas sive semina)-stood in the forum near tionary, and represents an 18th-century development, primarily the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned due to the influence of German writers; the meaning of “diswith a diadem, and carrying a cornu copiae and sceptre. It tinctive natural capacity or endowment ” had gradually been frequently appears on the coins of Trajan and Hadrian. Sacrifice, applied specially to creative minds such as those of poets and not confined to bloodless offerings like those of the genius of artists, by contrast with those whose mental ability was due to the house, was offered to him annually on the 8th of October. the results of education and study, and the antithesis has There were genii of cities, colonies, and even of provinces; of extended since, through constant discussions over the attempt artists, business people and craftsmen; of cooks, gladiators, to differentiate between the real nature of genius and that of standard-bearers, a legion, a century, and of the army generally “talent," until we now speak of the exceptional persop not (genius sanctus castrorum peregrinorum totiusque exercitus). In merely as having genius but as “ a genius.” This phraseology imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning appears to indicate some reversion to the original Roman usage, emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly and the identification of the great man with a generative spirit. worshipped. It was a common practice (often compulsory) to
Modern theories on the nature of " genius ” should be studied swear by the genius of the emperor, and any one who swore
with considerable detachment, but there is much that is interesting falsely was flogged. Localities also, such as theatres, baths, Genius (1891), Sir Francis Galton's llcreditary Genius (new ed.,
and thought-provoking in such works as J. F. Nisbet's Insanily of stables, streets, and markets, had their own genius. The word 1892), and C. Lombroso's Man of Genius (Eng. trans., 1891). thus gradually lost its original meaning; the nameless local GENLIS, STÉPHANIE-FÉLICITÉ DU CREST DE SAINTgenii became an expression for the universality of the divinum AUBIN, COMTESSE DE (1746–1830), French writer and educator, numen and were sometimes identificd with the higher gods. was born of a noble but impoverished Burgundian family, at The local genius was usually represented by a snake, the symbol Champcéry, near Autun, on the 25th of January 1746. When six of the fruitfulness of the earth and of perpetual youth. Hence years of age she was received as a canoness into the noble chapter snakes were usually kept in houses (Virgil, Acn. v. 95; Persius of Alix, near Lyons, with the title of Madame la Comtesse de i. 113), their death in which was considered a bad omen. The Lancy, taken from the town of Bourbon-Lancy. Her entire personal genius usually appeared as a handsome youth in a toga, education, however, was conducted at home. In 1758, in Paris, with head sometimes veiled and sometimes bare, carrying a her skill as a harpist and her.vivacious wit speedily attracted drinking cup and cornu copiae, frequently in the position of one admiration. In her sixteenth year she was married to Charles offering sacrifice.
Brûlart de Genlis, a colonel of grenadiers, who afterwards See W. H. Roscher, Lexikon der Mythologie, and article by J. A. became marquis de Sillery, but this was not allowed to interfere Hild in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des anliquités, where with her determination to remedy her incomplete education, and full references to ancient and modern authorities are given; L. Preller, Römische Mythologie, 3rd ed., by H. Jordan; G. Wissowa,
to satisfy a taste for acquiring and imparting knowledge. Some Religion und Kultur der Römer,
years later, through the influence of her aunt, Madame de Apart from the Latin use of the term, the plural "genii" Montesson, who had been clandestinely married to the duke of (with a singular “genie ") is used in English, as equivalent to Orleans, she entered the Palais Royal as lady-in-waiting to the the Arabic jinn, for a class of spirits, good or bad, such as are duchess of Chartres (1770). She acted with great energy and zeal described, for instance, in The Arabian Nights. Bul“ genius” as governess to the daughters of the family, and was in 1781 itself has become the regular English word for the highest
1 Frederick the Greal, iv. iii. 1407.
appointed by the duke of Chartres to the responsible office of of the Tibeto-Burman group, and among the Kbasis, members of gouverneur of his sons, a bold step which led to the resignation of the Mon-Khmer group. Genna and taboo (9.0.) are products of all the tutors as well as to much social scandal, though there is no an identical level of culture and similar psychological processes, reason to suppose that the intellectual interests of her pupils and provide the mechanism of the social and religious systems. suffered on that account. The better to carry out her ingenious Permanent Gennas.-The only universal genna is that which theories of education, she wrote several works for their use, the forbids the intermarriage of members of the same elan. In some best known of which are the Théatre d'éducalion (4 vols., 1779- cases in Manipur animals are genna to the tribe-i.é. they must 1780), a collection of short comedies for young people, Les not be killed or caten--but tribal differentiation is, in practice, Annales de la vertu (2 vols., 1781) and Adde et Théodore (3 vols., based on dialectical distinctions rather than on tribal gennas. 1782). Sainte-Beuve tells how she anticipated many modern | The village as such possesses no permanent gennas, but the clans, methods of teaching. History was taught with the help of magic as the units of marriage under the law of exogamy, have distinct lantern slides and her pupils learnt botany from a practical elementary gennas, especially the clan to which the priest-chief botanist during their walks. In 1789 Madame de Genlis showed belongs. The most important individual gennas are those which herself favourable to the Revolution, but the fall of the Girondins protect the priest-chief from impurity or contact with "sacred” in 1793 compelled her to take refuge in Switzerland along with her substances such as the flesh of animals used in sacrifices. He may pupil Mademoiselle d'Orléans. In this year her husband, the neither cat in a strange house, nor utter words of abuse, nor take marquis de Sillery, from whom she had been separated since 1782, an oath in a dispute, except in his representative capacity on was guillotined. An “adopted” daughter, Pamela,' had been behalf of his village. The first-fruits are genna to the village married to Lord Edward Fitzgerald (9.0.) in the preceding until he eats, thus establishing an opposition between him and his December.
co-villagers. Married and unmarried women are subject to aliIn 1794 Madame de Genlis fixed her residence at Berlin, but, mentary gennas; thus unmarried girls are forbidden the flesh of having been expelled by the orders of King Frederick William, any male animal or of any female animal dying gravid. she afterwards settled in Hamburg, where she supported herself Ritual Gennas.--Ritual gennas are held annually to foster the for some years by writing and painting. After the revolution of rice crops, all other industries and activities being genna (for18th Brumaire (1799) she was permitted to return to France, bidden) during the cultivating season, to secure good hunting, to and was received with favour by Napoleon, who gave her apart- avert sickness, especially epidemics, to take omens, and to lay ments at the arsenal, and afterwards assigned her a pension of finally to rest the ghosts of all that have died within the year. 6000 francs. During this period she wrote largely, and pro- | The village gates are closed, men and women cat apart, and conduced, in addition to some historical novels, her best romance, jugal relations are suspended. Special village gennas are held Mademoiselle de Clermont (1802). Madame de Genlis had lost when rain is needed, when a villager dies in any manner out of the her influence over her old pupil Louis Philippe, who visited her ordinary, as women in childbirth, when an animal gives birth to but seldom, although he allowed her a small pension. Her still-born offspring, and when any permanent genna has been government pension was discontinued by Louis XVIII., and she violated. Clan gennas are held for all ordinary cases of death. supported herself largely by her pen. Her later years were Household gonnas are held on the occasions of birth (when the occupied largely with literary quarrels, notably with that which aliment and conduct of the father are specially regulated), arose out of the publication of the Diners du Baron d'Holbach naming, ear-piercing, the first hair-cutting, sickness, and, in certain (1822), a volume in which she set forth with a good deal of areas, tattooing. Individuals are subjected to temporary gennas sarcastic cleverness the intolerance, the fanaticism, and the as warriors both before and after a head-hunting raid, pregnant eccentricities of the “philosophes" of the 18th century. She women, married persons at the beginning of their married life, survived until the 31st of December 1830, and saw her former the wives of the priest-chief, and those who from ambition or pupil, Louis Philippe, scated on the throne of France:
pride of wealth seek to perpetuate their names by erecting a The numerous works of Madame de Genlis (which considerably stone monument, an act which confers the right to wear the vast variety of subjects and of various degrees of merit, owed much distinctive clothes of the priest-chief which otherwise are genna of their success to adventitious causes which have long ceased to
to the whole village. Ritual gennas arc of varying duration. operate. They are useful, however (especially the voluminous Some last for a month while others are complete in two days. As Mémoires inédits sur le XVIII siècle, io vols., 1825), as furnishing religious or magical rites, they prevent danger or establish and English almost as soon as they were published. A list of her writings restore, normal relations with powers which are potentially with useful notes is given by Quérard in La France littéraire. Start- harmful or require placation. ling light was thrown on her relations with the duc de Chartres by AUTHORITIES.
Official records of the government of India, Nos. the publication (1904) of her correspondence with him in L'Idylle 23 (1855), 27 (1859), 68 (1870); Colonel T. H. Lewin, Hill Tracts d'un" gouverneur" by G. Maugras. See also Sainte-Beuve, Causeries of Chittagong; Report on the Census of Assam (1891 vol. i. Report, du lundi, vol. iii.; H. Austin Dobson, Four Frenchwomen (1890); notc by A. W. Davis, p. 237 seq.; Major P. R. T. Gurdon, The L. Chabaud, Les Précurseurs du féminisme (1901); W. de Chabreul, Khasis (1907); T. C. Hodson, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Gouverneur de princes, 1737-1830 (1900); and Lettres inédites à ... Institute, vol. xxxvi. (1906).
(T. C. H.) Casimir Baecker, 1802-1830 (1902), edited by Henry Lapauze. GENNADIUS II. (as layman GEORGIOS SCHOLARIOS) (d. c.
GENNA, a word of obscure origin borrowed from the Assamese, 1468), patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1456, philosopher and used technically by anthropologists to describe a class of and theologian, was one of the last representatives of Byzantine social and religious ordinances based on sanctions which derive learning. Extremely little is known of his life, but he appears to their validity from a vague sense of mysterious danger which have been born at Constantinople about 1400 and to have entered results from disobedience to them. These prohibitions--or the service of the emperor John VII. Paleologus as imperial system of things forbidden--affect the relations, permanent and judge or counsellor. Georgios first appears conspicuously temporary, of individuals (cither as members of a tribe, village, in history as present at the great council held in 1438 at clan or household, or as occupying an official position in the Ferrara and Florence with the object of bringing about a union village or clan) towards other persons or groups of persons and between the Greek and Latin Churches. At the same council towards material objects which possess intrinsic sanctity. The was present the celebrated Platonist, Gemistus Pletho, the most term is extended to the communal rites performed by the village, powerful opponent of the then dominant Aristotelianism, and clan or household, either as magical ceremonies or as prophy-consequently the special object of reprobation to Georgios. lactics on special occasions when the social, commensal, conjugal | In church matters, as in philosophy, the two were opposed, and alimentary relations of the group affected are subjected to Pletho maintaining strongly the principles of the Greek Church, temporary modifications. These practices and beliefs are observed and being unwilling to accept union through compromise, among the hill tribes of Assam irom the Abors and Mishmis on
while Georgios, more politic and cautious, pressed the necessity the north to the Lusheis on the south, all linguistically members for union and was instrumental in drawing up a form which from
Sce Gerald Campbell, Edward and Pamela Fitzgerald (1905). its vagueness and ambiguity might be accepted by both parties,
He was at a disadvantage because, being a layman, he could not | 12th century, and S. Giovanni di Prè, S. Agostino (with a fine directly take part in the discussions of the council. But on his re- campanile), S. Stefano, S. Matteo and others to the 13th. The turn to Greece his views changed, and he violently and obstinately famous painting of the martyrdom of S. Stephen, by Giulio opposed the union he had previously urged. In 1448 he became a Romano, carried off by Napoleon in 1811, was restored to S. monk at Pantokrator and took the name Gennadius. In 1453, Stefano in 1815. S. Matteo, the church of the D'Oria or Doria after the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, Mahommed II., family, was founded 1126 by Martino Doria. The façade finding that the patriarchal chair had been vacant for some time, dates from 1278, and the interior of the edifice dates in the main resolved to elect some one to the office, and the choice fell on from 1543. In the crypt is the tomb of Andrea Doria by Gennadius. While holding the episcopal office Gennadius drew Montorsoli, and above the main altar hangs the dagger presented up, apparently for the use of Mahommed, a lucid confession or to the doge by Pope Paul III. To the left of the church is an exposition of the Christian faith, which was translated into Turkish exquisite cloister of 1308 with double columns, in which a number by Ahmed, judge of Beroea, and first printed by A. Brassicanus of inscriptions relating to the Doria family and also the statue at Vienna in 1530. After a couple of years Gennadius found the of Andrea Doria by Montorsoli are preserved. The little square position of patriarch under a Turkish sultan so irksome that he in front of the church is surrounded by Gothic palaces of the Doria retired to the monastery of John the Baptist near Serrae in family. Of the churches the principal is the comparatively Macedonia, where he died about 1468. About one hundred of small cathedral of S. Lorenzo. Tradition makes its first foundahis alleged writings exist, the majority in manuscript and of tion contemporary with St Lawrence himself; and a document doubtful authenticity,
of 987 implies that it was even then the metropolitan church. The fullest account of his writings is given in Gass, Gennadius Reconstructed about the end of the 17th and beginning of the and Pletho (Berlin, 1844), the second part of which contains Pletho's 12th century, it was formally consecrated by Pope Gelasius II. Contra Gennadium. See also F. Schultze, Gesch. der Phil. d. Renais. sonce, i. (1874). A list of the known writings of Gennadius is given
on the 18th of October 1118; and since then it has undergone in Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, ed. Harles, vol. xi., and what has a large number of extensive though partial renovations. The been printed is to be found in Migne, Patrol. Gr. vol. clx.
façade, with its three elaborate doorways, belongs to the 14th GENOA (anc. Genua, Ital. Genova, Fr. Gênes), the chief port century and is a copy of French models of the 13th. The two of Liguria, Italy, and capital of the province of Genoa, 119 m. side portals with Romanesque sculptures belong to the 12thN.W. of Leghorn by rail. Pop. (1906) 255,294 (town); 267,248 14th centuries. Some pagan reliefs are built into the tower. (commune). The town is situated on the Gulf of Genoa, and is The interior was rebuilt in 1307, the old columns being used. the chief port and commercial town of Italy, the seat of an The belfry, which rises above the right-hand doorway, was erected archbishop and a university, the headquarters of the IV. Italian about 1520 by the doge, Ottaviano da Campofragoso, and the army corps, and a strong fortress. The city, as seen from the cupola was erected after the designs of the architect Galcazzo sea, is " built nobly," and deserves the title it has acquired or Alessi in 1567. The fine Early Renaissance (1448) sculptural assumed of the Superb. Finding only a small space of level decorations of the chapel of S. John the Baptist were due to ground along the shore, it has been obliged to climb the lower Domenico Gagini of Bissone on the Lake of Lugano, who later hills of the Ligurian Alps, which afford many a coign of vantage transferred his activities to Naples and Palermo, and other for the effective display of its architectural magnificence. The Lombard masters. An edict of Innocent VIII. forbids women original nucleus of the city is that portion which lies to the east to enter the chapel except on one day in the year. In the of the port in the neighbourhood of the old pier (Molo Vecchio). treasury of the cathedral is a magnificent silver monstrance In the soth century it began to feel a lack of room within the dating from 1553, and an octagonal bowl, the Sacro Catino, limits of its fortifications; and accordingly, in the middle of brought from Caesarea in 1101, which corresponds to the de the 12th century, it was found necessary to extend the line of scriptions given of the Holy Grail, and was long regarded as an circumvallation. Even this second circuit, however, was of emerald of matchless value, but was found when broken at Paris, small compass, and it was not till 1320 1330 that a third line whither it had been carried by Napoleon I., to be only a remarktook in the greater part of the modern site of the city proper. able piece of ancient glass. The choir-stalls are a very fine This presented about 3 m. of rampart towards the land side, work of the 15th century and later, with intarsias. Near the and can still be easily traced from point to point through the cathedral is a small 12th-century (?) cloister. city, though large portions, especially towards the east, have Of older date than the cathedral is the church of S. Ambrose been dismantled. The present line of circumvallation dates and S. Andrew, if its first foundation be correctly assigned to from 1626-1632, the period when the independence of Genoa the Milanese bishop Honoratus of the 6th century; but the was threatened by the dukes of Savoy. From the mouth of present edifice is due to the Society of Jesus, who obtained the Bisagno in the east, and from the lighthouse point in the west, possession of the church in 1587. The interior is richly decorated it stretches inland over hill and dale to the great fort of Sperone, and contains the “ Circumcision" and “St Ignatius" by Rubens, j.e. the Spur, on the summits of Monte Peraldo at a height of and the “ Assumption " of Guido Reni. The Annunziata del 1650 ft.,--the circuit being little less than 12 m., and all the Guastato is one of the largest churches in the city, erected in important points along the line being defended by forts or 1587. It is a cruciform structure, with a dome, and the central batteries.
nave is supported by fourteen Corinthian columns of white A portion of the enclosed area is open country, dotted only here marble. To the otherwise unfinished brick façade a portal borne and There with houses and gardens. There are eight gates, the by marble columns was added in 1843. The interior is covered more important being Porta Pila and Porta Romana towards the with gilding and frescoes of the 17th century, and is somewhat east, and the Porta Lanterna or Light bouse Gate to the west. The overloaded with rich decoration, while a range of white marble main architectural features of Genoa are its medieval churches, columns supports the nave. Santa Maria delle Vigne probably with striped façades of black and white marble, and its magnifi- dates from the 9th century, but the present structure was erected cent 16th-century palaces. The earlier churches of Genoa show in 1586. The campanile, however, is a remarkable work of the a mixture of French Romanesque and the Pisan style--they are 13th century. Adjoining the church is a ruined cloister of the mostly basilicas with transepts, and as a rule a small dome; 11th century. San Siro, originally the “ Church of the Apostles" the pillars are sometimes ancient columns, and sometimes and the cathedral of Genoa, was rebuilt by the Benedictines in formed of alternate layers of black and white marble. The the ith century, and restored and enlarged by the Theatines façades are simple, without galleries, having only pilasters in 1576, the façade being added in 1830; in this church in 1339 projecting from the wall, and are also alternately black and Simone Boccanera was elected first doge of Genoa. Santa Maria white. This style continued in Gothic times also." The oldest di Carignano, or more correctly Santa Maria Assunta e SS. is S. Maria di Castello (uth century), the columns and capitals Fabiano e Sebastiano, belongs mainly to the 16th century, and of which are almost all antique. S. Cosma, S. Donato (with was designed by Galeazzo Alessi, in imitation of Bramante's remains of the toth-century building) and others belong to the plan for S. Peter's at Rome, as it was then being executed by