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Michelangelo. The interior is fine, harmonious and restrained, The irregular relief of its site and its long confinement within painted in white and grey, while the colouring of the exterior the limits of fortifications, which it had outgrown, have both is less pleasing. From the highest gallery of the dome-368 contributed to render Genoa a picturesque confusion of narrow st. above the sca-level, and 194 ft. above the ground-a magnifi- streets, lanes and alleys, varied with stairways climbing the cent view is obtained of the city and the neighbouring coast. steeper slopes and bridges spanning the deeper valleys. Large

Buildings of the 15th century do not occupy an important portions of the town are inaccessible to ordinary carriages, and place in Genoa, but there are some small private houses and many of the important strects have very little room for traffic remains of sculptural decoration of the Early Renaissance to be in modern times, however, a number of fine streets and squarcs seen in the older portions of the town. The palaces of the Genoese with beautiful gardens have been laid out. The Piazza Ferrari, patricians, famous for their sumptuous architecture, their general a large irregular space, is the chief focus of traffic and the centre effectiveness (though the architectural details are often faulty if of the Genoese tramway system, it is embellished with a fine closely examined), and their artistic collections, were many of equestrian statue of Garibaldi, unveiled in 1893. which stands them built in the latter part of the 16th century by Galeazzo in front of the Teatro Carlo Felice. Leading from this piazza Alessi, a pupil of Michelangelo, whose style is of an imposing is the Via Venti Settembre, a broad, bandsome street laid out and uniform character and displays marvellous ingenuity in since 1887, leading south-cast to the Ponte Pila, the central using a limited or unfavourable site to the greatest advantage. bridge over the Bisagno. The street is itself spanned by an Several of the villas in the vicinity of the city are also his work. elegant bridge carrying the Corso Andrea Podesta, a modern The Via Garibaldi is flanked by a succession of magnificent avenue on the heights above. Adjoining the church of the palaces, chief among which is the Palazzo Rosso, so called from Madonna della Consolazione is the new market, a building of its red colour. Formerly the palace of the Brignole-Sale family, no little beauty. The Via Roma, another important centre of it was presented by the duchess of Galliera to the city in 1874, traffic which gives on to the Via Carlo Felice near the Piazza along with its valuable contents, its library and picture gallery, Ferrari, leads to the Piazza Corvetto, in the centre of which which includes fine examples of Van Dyck and Paris Bordone. stands the colossal equestrian statue of Victor Emmanuel II. The Palazzo Municipale, built by Rocco Lurago at the end of To the left is the Villetta Dinegro, a beautiful park belonging to the 16th century, once the property of the dukes of Turin, has a the city, decorated with cascades and a number of statues and beautiful entrance court and a hanging terraced garden fronting busts of prominent statesmen and citizens. To the right is a noble staircase of marble which leads to the spacious council another park, the Acquasola, laid out in 1837 on the site of the chamber. In an adjoining room are preserved a bronze tablet old ramparts. In the west of the city, in front of the principal dating from 117 B.C. (see below), iwo autograph letters of station, is the Piazza Acquaverde. On the north side, embowered Columbus, and the violin of Paganini, also a native of Genoa. in palm trees, is a great statue of Columbus, at whose feet kneels Opposite the Palazzo Rosso is the Palazzo Bianco, a palace full the figure of America. Opposite is the Palazzo Faraggiana, of art treasures bequeathed to the city by the duchess of Galliera with scenes from the life of Columbus in relief on its marble upon her death in 1889, and subsequently converted into a pediment. Among other modern thoroughfares, the Via di muscum. The Roman antiquities here preserved belong to Circonvallazione a Monte, laid out since 1876 on the hills at the other places-Luna, Libarna, &c. The Adorno, Giorgio Doria back of the town, leads by many curves from the Piazza Manin (both containing small but choice picture-galleries), Parodi and along the hiļl-tops westward, and finally descends into the Piazza Serra and other pal in this street are worthy of mention. Acquaverde; its entire length is traversed by an electric tramway, The Via Balbi again contains a number of palaces. The Durazzo and it commands magnificent views of the town. A similar Pallavicini palace has a noble façade and staircase and a rich road, the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, was laid out in 1893– picture-gallery. The street takes its name, however, from the 1895 on the site of the outer ramparts, and skirts the sea. Palazzo Balbi-Senarega, which has Doric colonnades and a fine front from the Piazza Cavour to the mouth of the Bisagno, orangery. The Palazzo dell'Università has an extremely fine thence ascending the right bank to the Ponte Pila. Genoa court and staircase of the early 17th century. The Palazzo is remarkably well served with electric tramways, which are Reale is also handsome but somewhat later. The Palazzo found in all the wider streets, and run, often through tunnels, Doria in the Piazza del Principe, presented to Andrea Doria into the suburbs and to the surrounding country on the east as by the Genoese in 1522, is on the other hand earlier; it was far as Nervi and to Pegli on the west. Three funicular railways remodelled in 1529 by Montorsoli and decorated with fine frescoes from different points of the city give access to the highest parts by Perino del Vaga. The old palace of the doges, originally of the hills behind the town. a building of the 13th century, to which the tower alone belongs, Though its existence as a maritime power was originally due to the rest of the building having been remodelled in the 16th its port, it is only since 1870 that Genoa has provided the con

veniences necessary for the modern development of its trade, century and modernized after a fire in 1777, stands in the Piazza

the duke of Galliera's gift of £800,000 to the city in 1875 being Umberto Primo near the cathedral, and now contains the devoted to this purpose. A further enlargement of the harbour was telegraph and other government offices. Another very fine necessitated upon the opening of the St Gotthard tunnel in 1882, building is the Gothic Palazzo di S. Giorgio, near the harbour, which extended the commercial range of the port through Switzerland dating from about 1260, occupied from 1408 to 1797 by the acres in area, with numerous quays, and protected by moles from Banca di S. Giorgio, and now converted into a produce exchange. southern and south-westerly winds. An outer harbour, 247 acres The Campo Santo or Cimitero di Staglieno, about 1} m. from in area, has been constructed in front of this by extending the Molo the city on the banks of the Bisagno, is one of the chief features of

Nuovo by the Molo Duca di Gallicra, and another basin, the Vittorio Genoa; its situation is of great natural beauty and it is remark- of construction to the west of this, between it and the lofty lighthouse

Emanuele I!I., for coal vessels, with an area of 96 acres, is in course able for its sepulchral monuments, many of which have been which rises on the promontory at the south-west extremity of the executed by the foremost sculptors of modern Italy. The harbour. This basin is to be entered from both the east and the university, founded in 1471, is a flourishing institution with west, and allows for a future extension in front of San Pier d'Arena

as far as the mouth of the river Polcevera. The port administration faculties in law, medicine, natural science, engineering and

was placed under an autonomous harbour board (consorzio) in 1903. philosophy. Attached to it are a library, an observatory, a The largest ships can enter the harbour, which has a minimum depth botanical garden, and a physical and natural history museum. of 30 ft.; it has two dry docks, a graving dock and a floating dry Genoa is also well supplied with technical schools and other are olive oil, hemp, flax, rice, fruit, wine, hats, cheese, steel, velvets,

dock. Very large warehouses have been constructed. The exports institutions for higher education, while ample provision is made gloves, flour, paper, soap and marble, while the main imports are for primary education. The hospitals and the asylum for the coal. cotton, grain, machinery, &c. Genoa has a large emigrant poor are among the finest institutions of their kind in Italy. traffic with America, and a large general passenger stcamer traffic Mention must also be made of the Academy of Fine Arts, the both for America and for the East.

The development of industry has kept pace with that of the municipal library, the great Teatro Carlo Felice and the Verdi harbour. The Ansaldo shipbuilding yards construct armoured Institute of Music..

cruisers both for the Italian navy and for foreign governments.

The Odero yards, for the construction of merchant and passenger | headquarters against the Ligurians. It was reached from Rome steamers, have been similarly extended, and the Foce yard is also by the Via Aurelia, which ran along the north-west coast, and material for repairs and shipbuilding. The sugar-refining industry its prolongation, which later acquired the name of the Via has been introduced by two important companies, and most of the Aemilia (Scauri); for the latter was only constructed in 109 capital employed in sugar-refining in other parts of Italy has been subscribed at Genoa, where the administrative offices of the principal as early as 148 B.C., when the Via Postumia. was built from

B.C., and there must have been a coast-road long before, at least companies and individual refiners are situated. The old industries of macaroni and cognate products maintain their superiority. Genua through Libarna (mod. Serravalle, where remains of an Tanneries and cotton-spinning and weaving mills have considerably amphitheatre and inscriptions have been found), Dertona, Iria, extended throughout the province. Cement works have acquired Placentia, Cremona, and thence eastwards. an extension previously unknown, more than thirty firms being now inscription of 117 B.C. (now preserved in the Palazzo Municipale

We also have an lized fruits and of filigree silver-work may also be mentioned. The at Genoa) giving the text of the decision given by the patroni, trade of the port increased from well under 1,000,000 tons in 1876 Q. and M. Minucius, of Genua, in accordance with a decree of to 6,164,873 metric tons in 1906 (the latter figure, however, includes the Ronran senate, in a controversy between the people of Genua home trade in a proportion of about 12%). Of this large total and the Langenses or Langates (also known as the Viturii), the 5-365.544 tons are imports and only 799,319 tons are exports, and inhabitants of a neighbouring hill-town, which was included the exports, and an increase of 436,123 tons on the imports. The in the territory of Genua. But none of the other inscriptions effect upon the railway problem is of course very great, inasmuch found in Genoa or existing there at the present day, which are 1000 to 1200, about 80% of these had to be sent down empty to the practically all sepulchral, can be demonstrated to have belonged harbour. Of the four main lines which centre on Genoa-(1) to

to the ancient city; it is equally easy to suppose that they were Novi, which is the junction for Alessandria, where lines diverge to brought from elsewhere by sea (Mommsen in Corp. Inscr. Lal. Turin and France via the Mont Cenis, and to Novara and Switzerland v. p. 884). It is only from inscriptions of other places that we and France via the Simplon, and for Milan; (2) to Acqui and Piedmont; (3) to Savona, Ventimiglia and the French Riviera, along know

that it had municipal

rights, and we do not know at what the coast; (4) to Spezia and Pisa-the first line has to take no less period it obtained them. Classical authors tell us but little of than 78% of the traffic. It has indeed two alternative double it. Strabo (iv. 6. 2, p. 202) states that it exported wood, skins lines for the passage over the Apennines, but one of them has a and honey, and imported olive oil and wine, though Pliny speaks maximum gradient of 1 : 18 and a tunnel over 2 m. long, and the of the wine of the district as the best of Liguria(H.N.)xiv. 67.) other has a maximum gradient of 1 : 62, and a tunnel over 5 m. long. A marshalling station costing some £800,000, connected directly

The history of Genoa during the dark ages, throughout the with the harbour by tunnels, with 31 m. of rails, capable of taking Lombard and Carolingian periods, is but the repetition of the 2000 trucks, was constructed at Campasso in 1906 north of San Pier general history of the Italian communes, which succeeded in d'Arena (through which till then the traffic of the first three lines. snatching from contending princes and barons the first charters some 40% of the total commerce of Italy passes through Genoa; of their freedom. The patriotic spirit and naval prowess of the it is indeed the most important harbour in the western Mediterranean, Genoese, developed in their defensive wars against the Saracens, with the exception of Marseilles, with which it carries on a keen led to the foundation of a popular constitution, and to the rapid rivalry. Genoa has in the past been somewhat handicapped in growth of a powerful marine. From the necessity of leaguing the race by the insufficiency of railway communication, which, owing to the mountains which encircle it, is difficult to secure, together against the common Saracen foe, Genoa united with many tunnels being necessary. The general condition of the Italian Pisa early in the 17th century in expelling the Moslems from the railways has also affected it, and the increased traffic has not always island of Sardinia, but the Sardinian territory thus acquired found the necessary facilities in the way of a proper amount of trucks

soon furnished occasions of jealousy to the conquering allies, and to receive the goods discharged, leading to considerable encumbrance of the port and consequent diversion of a certain amount of trade there commenced between the two republics the long naval wars elsewhere, and besides this to serious temporary deficiencies in the destined to terminate so fatally for Pisa. With not less adroitness coal supply of northern Italy.

than Venice, Genoa saw and secured all the advantages of the The imports of Genoa are divided into four main classes: about great carrying trade which the crusades created between Western 6%, and miscellaneous about 34% of the coal imports the great Europe and the East. The seaports wrested at the same period bulk is from British ports: about half comes from Cardiff and from the Saracens along the Spanish and Barbary coasts became Barry, one-tenth from other Welsh ports, one-fifth from the Tyne important Genoese colonies, whilst in the Levant, on the shores of ports. The amount shows an almost continued increase from

the Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected 617.798 tons in 1881 ta 2,737.919 in 1906. The total of shipping Genoese fortresses of great strength. No wonder if these conentered in 1906 was 6586 vessels with a tonnage of 6,867,442, while that cleared was 6611 vessels with a tonnage of 6,682,104.

quests generated in the minds of the Venetians and the Pisans

fresh jealousy against Genoa, and provoked fresh wars; but the History.-Genoa, being a natural barbour of the first rank, strugglc between Genoa and Pisa was brought to a disastrous must have been in use as a seaport as early as navigation began conclusion for the latter state by the battle of Meloria in 1284. in the Tyrrhenian Sea. We hear nothing from ancient authorities The commercial and naval successes of the Genoese during the of its having been visited or occupied by the Greeks, but the middle ages were the more remarkable because, unlike their discovery of a Greek cemetery of the 4th century B.C.' proves rivals, the Venetians, they were the unceasing prey to intestine it. The construction of the Via Venti Settembre gave occasion discord--the Genoese commons and nobles fighting against each for the discovery of a number of tombs, 85 in all, the bulk of other, rival factions amongst the nobles themselves striving to which dated from the end of the 5th and the 4th centuries B.C. grasp the supreme power in the state, nobles and commons alike The bodies had in all cases been cremated, and were buried in invoking the arbitration and rule of some foreign captain as the small shaft graves, the interment itself being covered by a slab sole means of obtaining a temporary truce. From these contests of limestone. The vases were of the last red figure style, and of rival nobles, in which the names of Spinola and Doria stand were mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while forth with greatest prominence, Genoa was soon drawn into the the bronze objects came from Etruria, and the brooches (fibulae) great vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recogfrom Gaul. This illustrates the early importance of Genoa as nition of foreign authority-successively German, Neapolitan and a trading port, and the penetration of Greek customs, inhumation Milanese-gave way to a state of greater independence in 1339, being the usual practice of the Ligurians. Genoa is believed to when the government assumed a more permanent form with the derive its name from the fact that the shape of this portion of appointment of the first doge, an office held at Genoa for life, in the coast resembles that of a knee (genu).

the person of Simone Boccanera. Alternate victories and defeats We hear of the Romans touching here in 216 B.C., and of its of the Venetians and Genoese-the most terrible being the defeat destruction by the Carthaginians in 209 B.C. and immediate sustained by the Venetians at Chioggia in 1380-ended by restoration by the Romans, who made it and Placentia their establishing the great relative inferiority of the Genoese rulers,

See Notizie degli scavi (1898), 395 (A. d'Andrade). 464 (G. who fell under the power now of France, now of the Visconti oi Ghirardini).

Milan. The Banca di S. Giorgio, with its large possessions

mainly in Corsica, formed during this period the most stable | where he was appointed professor of eloquence at the theological clement in the state, until in 1528 the national spirit appeared to seminary. During this period of his life he began the study of regain its ancient vigour when Andrea Doria succeeded in philosophy, being cspecially attracted by Locke. Dissatisfied throwing off the French domination and restoring the old form of with ecclesiastical life, Genovesi resigned his post, and qualified government. It was at this very period—the close of the 15th and as an advocate at Rome. Finding law as distasteful as theology, commencement of the 16th century—that the genius and daring of he devoted himself entirely lo philosophy, of which he was a Genoese mariner, Christopher Columbus, gave to Spain that new appointed extraordinary professor in the university of Naples. world, which might have become the possession of his native His first works were Elementa Metaphysicae (1743 et seq.) and state, had Genoa been able to supply him with the ships and sea- Logica (1745). The former is divided into four parts, Ontosophy, men which he so earnestly entreated her to furnish. The govern-Cosmosophy, Theosophy, Psychosophy, supplemented by a ment as restored by Andrea Doria, with certain modifications treatise on ethics and a dissertation on first causes. The Logic, tending to impart to it a more conservative character, remained an eminently practical work, written from the point of view of unchanged until the outbreak of the French Revolution and the Locke, is in five parts, dealing with (1) the nature of the human creation of the Ligurian republic. During this long period of mind, its faculties and operations; (2) ideas and their kinds; (3) nearly three centuries, in which the most dramatic incident is the the true and the false, and the various degrees of knowledge; (4) conspiracy of Fieschi, the Genoese found no small compensation reasoning and argumentation; (s) method and the ordering of for their lost traffic in the East in the vast profits which they made our thoughts. If Genovesi does not take a high rank in philoas the bankers of the Spanish crown and outfitters of the Spanish sophy, he deserves the credit of having introduced the new order armies and fleets both in the old world and the new, and Genoa, of ideas into Italy, at the same time preserving a just mean more fortunate than many of the other cities of Italy, was between the two extremes of sensualism and idealism. Although comparatively immune from foreign domination.

bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi At the end of the 17th century the city was bombarded by the found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a French, and in 1746, after the defeat of Piacenza, surrendered to Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European the Austrians, who were, however, soon driven out. A revolt in chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on conCorsica, which began in 1729, was suppressed with the help of the dition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it French, who in 1768 took possession of the island for them- should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's selves (see CORSICA: Hislory).

professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first The short-lived Ligurian republic was soon swallowed up in the complete and systematic work in Italian on economics. On the French empire, not, however, until Genoa had been made to whole he belongs to the" Mercantile " school, though he does not experience, by the terrible privations of the siege when Masséna regard money as the only form of wealth. Specially noteworthy held the city against the Austrians (1800), all that was meant by a in the Lezioni are the sections on human wants as the foundation participation in the vicissitudes of the French Revolution. In of economical theory, on labour as the source of wealth, on 1814 Genoa rose against the French, on the assurance given by personal services as economic factors, and on the united working Lord William Bentinck that the allies would restore to the re-l of the great industrial functions. Hé advocated freedom of the public its independence. It had, however, been determined by a corn trade, reduction of the number of religious communities, and secret clause of the treaty of Paris that Genoa should be incorpor- deprecated regulation of the interest on loans. In the spirit of ated with the dominions of the king of Sardinia. The discontent his age he denounced the relics of medieval institutions, such as created at the time by the provision of the treaty of Paris as entails and tenures in mort main. Gioja's more important treatise confirmed by the congress of Vienna had doubtless no slight share owes much to Genovesi's lectures. Genovesi died on the 22nd of in keeping alive in Genoa the republican spirit which, through the September 1769. influence of a young Genoese citizen, Joseph Mazzini, assumed

See C. Ugoni, Della letteratura italiana nella seconda meld del secolo forms of permanent menace not only to the Sardinian monarchy XVIII (1820-1822); A. Fabroni, Vilac Italorum doctrina excel but to all the established governments of the peninsula. Even lentium (1778-1799); R. Bobba, Commemorazione di A. Genovesi the material benefits accruing from the union with Sardinia and (Benevento, 1867). the constitutional liberty accorded to all his subjects by King GENSONNÉ, ARMAND (1758-1793), French politician, the Charles Albert were unable to prevent the republican outbreak of son of a military surgeon, was born at Bordeaux on the roth of 1848, when, after a short and sharp struggle, the city, momentarily August 1758. He studied law, and at the outbreak of the seized by the republican party, was recovered by General Alfonzo Revolution was an advocate of the parlement of Bordeaux. In La Marmora.

1790 he became procureur of the Commune, and in July 1791 was Among the earlier Genoese historians the most important are elected by the newly created department of the Gironde a member Bartolommeo Fazio and Jacopo Bracelli, both of the 15th century; of the court of appeal. In the same year he was elected deputy for and Paolo Partenopeo, Jacopo Bonfadio, Oberto Foglietta and Agostino Giustiniano of the 16th. Paganetti wrote the ccclesiastical the department to the Legislative Assembly. As reporter of the history of the city; and Accinelli and Gaggero collected material diplomatic committee, in which he supported the policy of Brissot, for the ecclesiastical archaeology. The memoirs of local writers and he proposed two of the most revolutionary measures passed by artists were treated by Soprani and Ratti. Among more general the Assembly: the decree of accusation against the king's brothers Serra, La Storia dell' antica Liguria e di Genova (Turin, 1834) (January 1, 1792), and the declaration of war against the king of Varesi, Storia della repubblica di Genova sino al 1814 (Genoa, 1835- | Bohemia and Hungary (April 20, 1792). He was vigorous in his 1839): Canale, Storia dei Genovesi (Genoa, 1844-1854). Nuova denunciations of the intrigues of the court and of the “ Austrian istoria della repubblica di Genova (Florence, 1858), and Storia della committee "; but the violence of the extreme democrats, culminZur Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte Genua's in telen Jahr: ating in the events of the roth of August, alarmed him; and hundert (Kalbe an der Saale, 1872); Malleson, Studies from Genoese when he was returned to the National Convention, he attacked History (London, 1875). The Liber jurium reipublicae Genuensis the Commune of Paris (October 24 and 25). At the trial of Louis was edited by Ricotti in the 7th, 8th and 9th volumes of the Monu: XVI. he supported an appeal to the people, but voted for the interesting matter will be found in the Atli della Sociela Ligure di death sentence. As a member of the Committee of General storia patrig (1861 sqq.), and in the Giornale Ligustico di archeologia, Defence, and as president of the Convention (March 7-21, 1793). voria, e belle arti.. The history of the university has been written he shared in the bitter attacks of the Girondists on the Mountain; by Lorenzo Isnardi, and continued by Em. Celesia (2 vols., Genoa). and on the fatal day of the 2nd of June his name was among the

(T. As.)

first of those inscribed on the prosecution list. He was tried by GENOVESI, ANTONIO (1712-1769), Italian writer on philo- the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 24th of October 1793, consophy and political economy, was born at Castiglione, near demned to death and guillotined on the 31st of the month, Salerno, on the ist of November 1712. He was educated for the displaying on the scaffold a stoic fortitude. Gensonné was courch, and, after some hesitation, took orders in 1736 at Salerno, I accounted one of the most brilliant of the little band of brilliant

orators from the Gironde, though bis eloquence was somewhat | grassy places on the Alps, Apennines and Pyrenees, as well as cold and he always read his speeches.

on some of the mountainous ranges of France and Germany, GENTIAN, botanically Gentiana, a large genus of herbaceous extending as far east as Bosnia and the Danubian principalities. plants belonging to the natural order Gentianaceae. The genus It has large oval strongly-ribbed leaves and dense whorls of comprises about 300 species, -most of them perennial plants conspicuous yellow flowers. Its use in medicine is of very ancient with tufted growth, growing in hilly or mountainous districts, date. Pliny and Dioscorides mention that the plant was noticed chiefly in the northern hemisphere, some of the blue-flowered by Gentius, a king of the Illyrians, living 180-167 B.C., from species, ascending to a height of 16,000 ft. in the Himalaya whom the name Gentiana is supposed to be derived. During Mountains. The leaves are opposite, entire and smooth, and the middle ages it was much employed in the cure of disease, often strongly ribbed. The flowers have a persistent 4- to 5- and as an ingredient in counter-poisons. In 1552 Hieronymus lobed calyx and a 4- to s-lobed tubular corolla; the stamens Bock (Tragus) (1498-1554), a German priest, physician and are equal in number to the lobes of the corolla. The ovary is botanist, mentions the use of the root as a means of dilating one-celled, with two stigmas, either separate and rolled back wounds. or contiguous and funnel-shaped. The fruit when ripe separates The root, which is the part used in medicine, is tough and into two valves, and contains numerous small seeds. The flexible, scarcely branched, and of a brownish colour and spongy majority of the genus are remarkable for the deep or brilliant texture. It has a pure bitter taste and faint distinctive odour. blue colour of their blossoms, comparatively few having yellow, The bitter principle, known as gentianin, is a glucoside, soluble white, or more rarely red flowers; the last are almost exclusively in water and alcohol. It can be decomposed into glucose and found in the Andes.

gentiopicrin by the action of dilute mineral acids. It is not Only a few species occur in Britain. G. amarella (selwort) precipitated by tannin or subacetate of lead. A solution of and G. campestris are small annual species growing on chalky caustic potash or soda forms with gentianin a yellow solution, or calcareous hills, and bear in autumn somewhat tubular pale and the tincture of the root to which either of these alkalis has purple flowers; the latter is most easily distinguished by having been added loses its bitterness in a few days. Gentian root also iwo of the lobes of the calyx larger than the other two, while contains gentianic acid (C14H1,0s), which is inert and tasteless. the former has the parts of the calyx in fives, and equal in size. It forms pale yellow silky crystals, very slightly soluble in water Some intermediate forms between these two species occur, or ether, but soluble in hot strong alcohol and in aqueous alkaline although rarely, in England; one of these, G. germanica, has solutions. This substance is also called gentianin, gentisin and larger flowers of a bluer tint, spreading branches, and a stouter gentisic acid. stem. Some of these forms flower in spring. G. pneumonanthe, The root also contains 12 to 15% of an uncrystallizable the Calathian violet, is a rather rare perennial species, growing sugar called gentianose, of which fact advantage has long been in moist heathy places from Cumberland to Dorsetshire. Its taken in Switzerland and Bavaria for the production of a bitter average height is from 6 to 9 in. It has linear leaves, and a cordial spirit called Enzianbranntwein. The use of this spirit, bright blue corolla i} in. long, marked externally with five especially in Switzerland, has sometimes been followed by greenish bands, is without hairs in its throat, and is found in poisonous symptoms, which have been doubtfully attributed perfection about the end of August. It is the handsomest of to inherent narcotic properties possessed by some species of the British species; two varieties of it are known in cultivation, gentian, the roots of which may have been indiscriminately one with spotted and the other with white flowers. G. verna collected with it; but it is quite possible that it may be due to and G. mivalis are small species with brilliant blue flowers and the contamination of the root with that of Veratrum album, a small leaves. The former is a rare and local perennial, occurring, poisonous plant growing at the same altitude, and having leaves however, in Teesdale and the county of Clare in Ireland in toler- extremely similar in appearance and size to those of G. lulea, able abundance. It has a tufted habit of growth, and each stem Gentian is one of the most efficient of the class of substances bears only one flower. It is sometimes cultivated as an edging which act upon the stomach so as to invigorate digestion and for flower borders. G. nivalis in Britain occurs only on a few thereby increase the general nutrition, without exerting any of the loftiest Scottish mountains. It differs from the last in direct influence upon any other portion of the body than the being an annual, and having a more isolated habit of growth, and alimentary canal. Having a pleasant taste and being nonin the stem bearing several flowers. On the Swiss mountains astringent (owing to the absence of tannic acid), it is the most these beautiful little plants are very abundant; and the splendid widely used of all bitter tonics. The British Pharmacopoeia blue colour of masses of gentian in flower is a sight which, when contains an aqueous extract (dose, 2-8 grains), a compound once seen, can never be forgotten. For ornamental purposes infusion with orange and lemon peel (dose, 5-1 ounce), and a several species are cultivated. The great difficulty of growing compound tincture with orange peel and cardamoms (dose 4-1 them successfully renders them, however, less common than would drachm). It is used in dyspepsia, chlorosis, anaemia and otherwise be the case; although very hardy when once estab- various other diseases, in which the tone of the stomach and lished, they are very impatient of removal, and rarely flower alimentary canal is deficient, and is sometimes added to purgative well until the third year after planting. Of the ornamental medicines to increase and improve their action. In veterinary species found in British gardens some of the prettiest are G. medicine it is also used as a tonic, and enters into a well-known ocaulis, G. derna, G. pyrenaica, G. bavarica, G. seplemfida and compound called diopente as a chief ingredient. G. gelida. Perhaps the handsomest and most easily grown is GENTIANACEAE (the gentian family), in botany, an order of the first named, often called Gentianella, which produces its Dicotyledons belonging to the sub-class Sympetalac or Gamolarge intensely blue flowers early in the spring.

petalae, and containing about 750 species in 64 genera. It has All the species of the genus are remarkable for possessing an a world-wide distribution, and representatives adapted to very intense but pure bitter taste and tonic properties. About forty various conditions, including, for instance, alpine plants, like species are used in medicine in different parts of the world. The the true gentians (Gentiana), meadow plants such as the British name of felwort given to G. amarella, but occasionally applied Chlora perfoliato(yellow-wort) or Erythraea Centaurium(centaury), to the whole genus, is stated by Dr Prior to be given in allusion marsh plants such as Menyanthes trifoliata (bog-bean), floating to these properties-fel meaning gall, and worl a plant. In the water plants such as Limnanthemum, or steppe and sea-coast same way the Chinese call G. asclepiadea, and the Japanese G. plants such as Cicendio. They are annual or perennial herbs, Buergeri, “ dragon's gall plants,” in common with several other rarely becoming shrubby, and generally growing erect, with a very bitter plants whose roots they use in medicine. G.campestris characteristic forked manner of branching; the Asiatic genus is sometimes used in Sweden and other porthern countries as a Crawfurdia has a climbing stem; they are often low-growing substitute for hops.

and caespitose, as in the alpine gentians. By far the most important of the species used in medicine is

The leaves are in decussating pairs (that is, each pair is in a G. lulea, a large handsome plant 3 or 4 ft. high, growing in open plane at right angles to the previous or succeeding pair), except in




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Menyanthes and a few allied aquatic or marsh genera, where they are vegetative parts, especially in the rhizomes and roofs, and have
alternate or radical. Several genera, chiefly American, are sa pro- given a medicinal value to many species, e.g. Gentiana lutca and
phytes, forming slender low-growing herbs, containing little or no others.
chlorophyll and with leaves reduced to scales; such are Voyria GENTILE, in the English Bible, the term generally applied
and Leiphaimos, mainly tropical American. The inflorescence is
generally cymose, often dichasial, recalling that of Caryophyllaceae, to those who were not of the Jewish race. It is an adaptation
the lateral branches often becoming monochasial; it is sometimes of the Lat. gentilis, of or belonging to the same gens, the clan or
reduced to a few flowers or one only, as in some gentians. The family; as defined in Paulus ex Festo “gentilis dicitur et ex
with reduction to 2 in the pistil; in Chlore there are 6 to 8 members eodem genere ortus et is qui simili nomine; ut ait Cincius,
in each whorl. The calyx generally forms a tube with teeth or gentiles mihi sunt, qui meo nomine appellantur.” In post-
segments which usually overlap in the bud. The corolla shows great Augustan Latin gentilis became wider in meaning, following the
variety in form; thus among the British genera it is rotate in usage of gens, in the sense of race, nation, and meant "national,"
Chlora, funnel-shaped in Erylhraca, and cylindrical, bell-shaped, belonging to the same race. Later still the word came to mean
funnel-shaped or 'salver-shaped in Gentiana; the segments are

generally twisted to foreign," i.e. other than Roman, and was so used in the Vulgate,
the right in the bud; witk gentes, to translate the Hebrew goyyim, nations, LXX. corn,
the throat is often the non-Israelitish peoples (see further Jews).
fimbriate bears

GENTILE DA FABRIANO (C. 1370-6, 1450), Italian painter,
scales. The stamens,
as many

and was born at Fabriano about 1370. He is said to have been a
alternating with, the pupil of Allegretto di Nuzio, and has been supposed to have
corolla-segments, are received most of his early instruction from Fra Angelico, to
inserted at very dif- whose manner his bears in some respects a close similarity,
corolla-tube; the fila | About 1411 he went to Venice, where by order of the doge and

are slender, senate he was engaged to adorn the great hall of the ducal
the anthers, are palace with frescoes from the life of Barbarossa. He executed
usually attached dor this work so entirely to the satisfaction of his employers that
and dehisce by two they granted him a pension for life, and accorded him the privilege
longitudinal slits; of wearing the habit of a Venetian noble. About 1422 he went
after escape of the to Florence, where in 1423 he painted an “Adoration of the Magi"
pollen they some for the church of Santa Trinita, which is preserved in the Florence
times become spir-
ally twisted as in Accademia; this painting is considered his best work now extant.

Dimor. To the same period belongs a "Madonna and Child," which is now
phic flowers are in the Berlin Museum. He had by this time attained a wide
frequent, as in the reputation, and was engaged to paint pictures for variouschurches,
bog.bean (Meny-
anihes). There is

more particularly Siena, Perugia, Gubbio and Fabriano. About
considerable varia. 1426 he was called to Rome by Martin V. to adorn the church
tion in the size, shape of St John Lateran with frescoes from the life of John the
and external mark- Baptist. He also executed a portrait of the pope attended by
grains, and a divi- ten cardinals, and in the church of St Francesco Romano a
sion of the order painting of the “ Virgin and Child attended by St Benedict and
into tribes and sub- St Joseph,” which was much esteemed by Michelangelo, but is
tribes based prim- no longer in existence. Gentile da Fabriano died about 1450.
characters has been Michelangelo said of him that his works resembled his name,
proposed. The form meaning noble or refined. They are full of a quiet and serene
of the honey-secret, joyousness, and he has a naive and innocent delight in splendour
ing developments of and in gold ornaments, with which, however, his pictures are
the disk at the base
of the ovary, also

not overloaded.
shows considerable GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA and ORAZIO DE', - Italian
variety. The superior painters.
is generally

ORAZIO (c. 1565-1646) is generally named Orazio Lomi de'

one-chambered, with Central figure and figs. 1-4 after Curtis, Flora Londinensis. two variously de Gentileschi; it appears that De' Gentileschi was his correct Gentiana Amarella.

veloped parietal pla- surname, Lomi being the surname which his mother had borne

centas, which occa- during her first marriage. He was born at Pisa, and studied under 1, A small form, natural size.

sionally meet, form- his half-brother Aurelio Lomi, whom in course of time he sur2, Calyx and protruding style.

ing two chambers; 3, Corolla, laid open.

the ovules are gener: passed. He afterwards went to Rome, and was associated with 4, Capsule, bursting into two valves, and ally very numerous the landscape-painter Agostino Tasi, executing the figures for the

showing the seeds attached to their and anatropous or landscape backgrounds of this artist in the Palazzo Rospigliosi, margins.

half - anatropous in and it is said in the great hall of the Quirinal Palace, although by 5, Floral diagram.


which varies much some authorities the figures in the last-named building are in length, is simple, with an undivided or bilobed or bipartite ascribed to Lanfranco. His best works are “Saints Cecilia and stigma. The fruit is generally a membranous or leathery capsule, Valerian,” in the Palazzo Borghese, Rome; " David after the splitting septicidally into two valves; the seeds are small and death of Goliath,” in the Palazzo Doria, Genoa; and some works

The brilliant colour of the flowers, often occurring in large numbers in the royal palace, Turin, noticeable for vivid and uncommon
(as in the alpine gentians), the presence of honey-glands and the colouring. At an advanced age Gentileschi went to England at
frequency of dimorphy and dichogamy, are adaptations for polli- the invitation of Charles I., and he was employed in the palace at
nation by insect visitors. In the true gentians (Gentiana) the flowers Greenwich. Vandyck included him in his portraits of a bundred
of different species are adapted for widely differing types of insect illustrious men. His works generally are strong in shadow and
visitors. Thus Gentiana lutea, with a rotate yellow corolla and
freely exposed honey, is adapted to short-tongued insect visitors; positive in colour. He died in England in 1646.
G. Pneumonanthe, with a long-tubed, bright blue corolla, is visited ARTEMISIA (1590-1642), Orazio's daughter, studied first under
by humble bees; and G. verna, with a still longer narrower tube, is Guido, acquired much renown for portrait-painting, and con-
visited by Lepidoptera.

Gentiana, the largest genus, contains nearly three hundred species, siderably excelled ber father's fame. She was a beautiful and
distributed over Europe (including arctic), five being British, the elegant woman; her likeness, limned by her own hand, is to be
mountains of Asia, south-east Australia and New Zealand, the seen in Hampton Court. Her most celebrated composition is
whole of North America and along the Andes to Cape Horn; it " Judith and Holofernes,” in the Uffizi Gallery; certainly a work
does not occur in Africa. Bitter principles are general in the

of singular energy, and giving ample proof of executive faculty.

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