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but repulsive and unwomanly in its physical horror. She appreciation of the services which he rendered to international accompanied her father to England, but did not remain there law. The movement to do him honour originated in 1875 in long; the best picture which she produced for Charles I. was England, as the result of the inaugural lecture of Prof. T. E. “ David with the head of Goliath.” Artemisia refused an offer Holland, and was warmly taken up in Italy. In spreading of marriage from Agostino Tasi, and bestowed her hand on Pier through Europe it encountered two curious cross-currents of Antonio Schiattesi, continuing, however, to use her own sur- opinion,--one the ultra-Catholic, which three centuries before had name. She settled in Naples, whither she returned after her ordered his name to be erased from all public documents and English sojourn; she lived there in no little splendour, and placed his works in the Index; another the narrowly-Dutch, there she died in 1642. She had a daughter and perhaps other which is, it seems, needlessly careful of the supremacy of Grotius. children.
These two currents resulted respectively in a bust of Garcia Moreno GENTILI, ALBERICO (1552–1608), Italian jurist, who has great being placed in the Vatican, and in the unveiling in 1886, with claims to be considered the founder of the science of international much international oratory, of a fine statue of Grotius at Delft. law, second son of Matteo Gentili, a physician of noble family and The English committee, under the honorary presidency of Prince scientific eminence, was born on the 14th of January 1552 at Leopold, in 1877 erected a monument to the memory of Gentili in Sanginesio, a small town of the march of Ancona which looks St Helen's church, and saw to the publication of a new edition of down from the slopes of the Apennines upon the distant Adriatic. the De Jure Belli. The Italian committee, of which Prince (after. After taking the degree of doctor of civil law at the university of wards King) Humbert was honorary president, was less successful. Perugia, and holding a judicial office at Ascoli, he returned to his It was only in 1908, the tercentenary of the death of Alberico, native city, and was entrusted with the task of recasting its that the statue of the great heretic was at length unveiled in his statutes, but, sharing the Protestant opinions of his father, native city by the minister of public instruction, in the presence shared also, together with a brother, Scipio, afterwards a famous of numerous deputations from Italian cities and universities. professor at Altdorf, his flight to Carniola, where in 1579 Matteo Preceding writers had dealt with various international questions, was appointed physician to the duchy. The Inquisition con- but they dealt with them singly, and with a servile submission to demned the fugitives as contumacious, and they soon received the decisions of the church. It was left to Gentili to grasp as a orders to quit the dominions of Austria.
whole the relations of states one to another, to distinguish Alberico set out for England, travelling by way of Tübingen and international questions from questions with which they are Heidelberg, and everywhere meeting with the reception to which more or less intimately connected, and to attempt their solution his already high reputation entitled him. He arrived at Oxford by principles entirely independent of the authority of Rome. in the autumn of 1580, with a commendatory letter from the earl He uses the reasonings of the civil and even the canon law, but of Leicester, at that time chancellor of the university, and was he proclaims as his real guide the Jus Naturae, the highest shortly afterwards qualified to teach by being admitted to the common sense of mankind, by which historical precedents are to same degree which he had taken at Perugia. His lectures on be criticized and, if necessary, set aside. Roman law soon became famous, and the dialogues, disputations His faults are not few. His style is prolix, obscure, and to the and commentaries, which he published henceforth in rapid modern reader pedantic enough; but a comparison of his succession, established his position as an accomplished civilian, greatest work with what had been written upon the same subject of the older and severer type, and secured his appointment in by, for instance, Belli, or Soto, or even Ayala, will show that he 1587 to the regius professorship of civil law. It was, however, greatly improved upon his predecessors, not only by the fulness rather by an application of the old learning to the new questions with which he has worked out points of detail, but also by clearly suggested by the modern relations of states that his labours separating the law of war from martial law, and by placing the have produced their most lasting result. In 1584 he was consulted subject once for all upon a non-theological basis. If, on the other by government as to the proper course to be pursued with hand, the same work be compared with the De Jure Belli e Pacis of Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, who had been detected in Grotius, it is at once evident that the later writer is indebted to plotting against Elizabeth. He chose the topic to which his the earlier, not only for a large portion of his illustrative erudition, attention had thus been directed as a subject for a disputation but also for all that is commendable in the method and arrangewhen Leicester and Sir Philip Sidney visited the schools at ment of the treatise. Oxford in the same year; and this was six months later expanded into a book, the De legationibus libri tres. In 1588 Alberico with the places and dates of their first publication: De juris interpreti
The following is probably a complete list of the writings of Gentili, selected the law of war as the subject of the law disputations at the bus dialogi sex (London, 1582); Lectionum et epist.
quae ad jus civile annual “ Act” which took place in July; and in the autumn pertinent libri tres (London, 1583–1584); De legationibus libri tres published in London the De Jure Belli commentatio prima. A London, 1585); Legal.comitiorum Oxon. actio (London, 1585-1586); second and a third Commentatio followed, and the whole matter, disputatio (Witteb., 1586); Dispuiationum decas prima (London, 1587);
De divers. lemp. appellationibus (Hanau, 1586): De nascendi tempore with large additions and improvements, appeared at Hanau, in Conditionum liber singularis (London, 1587): De jure belli comm. 1598, as the De Jure Belli libri tres. It was doubtless in conse- prima (London, 1588); secunda, ib. (1588-1589); tertia (1589); De quence of the reputation gained by these works that Centili injustitia bellica Romanorum (Oxon, 1590); Ad tit. de Malet. et Math. became henceforth more and more engaged in forensic practice, De armis Romanis, &c. (Hanau, 1599); De actoribus el de abusu
de Prof. et Med. (Hanau, 1593); De jure belli libri tres (Hanau, 1598); and resided chiefly in London, leaving his Oxford work to be mendacii (Hanau, 1599); De ludis scenicis epist. duae (Middleburg, partly discharged by a deputy. In 1600 he was admitted to be a 1600); 4d 1. Maccabaeorum el de linguarum mistura disp. (Frankfurt, member of Gray's Inn, and in 1605 was appointed standing counsel 1600); Lectiones. Virgiliande (Hanau, 1600): De nuptiis libri septem
(1601): In lil. si quis principi, et ad leg. Jul. maiest." (Hanau, 1604); to the king of Spain. He died on the 19th of June 1608, and was
De latin. vel. Bibl. (Hanau, 1604); De libro Pyano (Oxon, 1604); buried, by the side of Dr Matteo Gentili, who had followed his son Laudes Acad. Perus. et Oxon. (Hanau, 1605); De unione Angliae to England, in the churchyard of St Helen's, Bishopsgate. By! Scotiae (London, 1605); Disputationes tres, de libris jur. can., de his wife, Hester de Peigni, he left two sons, Robert and Matthew, libris jur. civ., de latinilale vet. vers. (Hanau, 1605): Regales disput. and a daughter, Anna, who married Sir John Colt. His notes of 1605); Hispanicae advocationis libri duo (Hanau. 1613); In lil
tres, de pol. regis absoluta, de unione regnorum, de vi civium (London, the cases in which he was engaged for the Spaniards were post de verb. signif. (Hanau, 1614); De legatis in test. (Amsterdam, humously published in 1613 at Hanau, as Hispanicae advocationis 1661) An edition of the Opera omnia, commenced at Naples in libri duo. This was in accordance with his last wishes; but his 1770, was cut short by the death of the publisher, Gravier, after the direction that the remainder of his MSS. should be burnt was not complained that four volumes were lost "pessimo pontificiorum
second volume. Of his numerous unpublished writings, Gentili complied with, since fifteen volumes of them found their way, at facinore," meaning probably that they were left behind
in his flight the beginning of the toth century, from Amsterdam to the to Carniola. Bodleian library.
AUTHORITIES.-Several tracts by the Abate Benigni in Colucci, The true history of Gentili and of his principal writings bas Program of the Groningen Gymnasium for 1867: an inaugural
Antichità Picene (1790); a dissertation by W. Reiger annexed to the only been ascertained in recent years, in consequence of a revived I lecture delivered in 1874 by T. E. Holland, translated into Italian,
with additions by the aw hor, by A. Saffi (1884); the preface to a new the commonwealth he medleth liyle) what soever it cost him, he edition of the De jure belli (1877) and Studies in International Law will both array and arm himself accordingly, and show the more (1898) (which see, for details as to the family and MSS. of Gentili), manly courage, and all the tokens of the person which he repreby the same; works by Valdarnini and Foglietti (1875), Speranza senteth. No man hath hurt by it but himself, who peradventure and De Giorgi (1876), Fiorini (a translation of the De jure belli, will go in wider buskins than his legs will bear, or as our proverb with essay, 1877), A. Saffi (1878), L. Marson (1885), M. Thamm saith, now and then bear a bigger sail than his boat is able to (1896), B. Brugi (1898) T. A. Walker (an analysis of the principal sustain." ; works of Gentili) in his History of the Law of Nations, vol. 1: (1899): H. Nézarel, in Pillet's Fondateurs de droit internalional (1904):
In this way Shakespeare himself was turned, by the grant of E. Agabiti (1908). See also E. Comba, in the Rivista Christiana his coat of arms, from a “ vagabond " into a gentleman. (1876-1877); Sir T. Twiss, in the Law Review (1878); articles in The fundamental idea of “gentry," symbolized in this grant the Revue de droit international (1875-1878, 1883, 1886, 1908); of coat-armour, had come to be that of the essential superiority 0. Scalvanti, in the Annali dell'Univ. di Perugia, N.S., vol. viii. (1898).
(T. E. H.)
of the fighting man; and, as Selden points out (p. 707), the GENTLB (through the Fr. gentil, from Lat. gentilis, belonging fiction was usually maintained in the granting of arms to an to the same gens, or family), properly an epithet of one born of a ennobled person though of the long Robe wherein he hath little "good family "; the Latin generosus, " well born” (sce GENTLE
use of them as they mean a shield.” At the last the wearing MAN), contrasted with“ noble” on the one side and simple "on of a sword on all occasions was the outward and visible sign of a the other. The word followed the wider application of the word
" gentleman "; and the custom survives in the sword worn with “gentleman "; implying the manners, character and breeding
court dress." This idea that a gentleman must have a coat proper to one to whom that name could be applied, courteous, of arms, and that no one is a “gentleman” without one is, polite; hence, with no reference to its original meaning, free from however, of comparatively late growth, the outcome of the natural violence or roughness, mild, soft, kind or tender. With a desire of the heralds to magnify their office and collect fees for physical meaning of soft to the touch, the word is used sub-registering coats; and the same is true of the conception of stantively of the maggot of the bluebotile fly, used as a bait by
gentlemen " as a separate class. That a distinct order of fishermen. At the end of the 16th century the French gentil was
gentry” existed in England very early has, indeed, been again adapted into English in the form " gentile," later changed often assumed, and is-supported by weighty authorities. Thus, to " genteel.” The word was common in the 17th and 18th
the late Professor Freeman (Ency. Bril. xvii. p. 540 b, 9th ed.) centuries as applied to behaviour, manner of living, dress, &c., said: “Early in the 11th century the order of gentlemen' suitable or proper to persons living in a position in society as a separate class seems to be forming as something new. By above the ordinary, hence polite, elegant. From the early part the time of the conquest of England the distinction seems to of the 19th century it has also been used in an ironical sense; iii. 544, 548) takes the same view. Sir George Sitwell, however,
have been fully established.” Stubbs (Consi. Hist., ed. 1878, and applied chiefly to those who pay an excessive and absurd importance to the outward marks of respectability as evidence of has conclusively proved that this opinion is based on a wrong being in a higher rank in society than that to which they properly conception of the conditions of medieval society, and that it is belong.
wholly opposed to the documentary evidence. The fundamental GENTLEMAN (from Lat. gentilis, “ belonging to a race or social cleavage in the middle ages was between the nobiles, i.e. gens," and " man "; Fr. gentilhomme, Span. gentil hombre, Ital. the tenants in chivalry, whether earls, barons, knights, esquires gentil kuomo, in its original and strict signification, a term
or franklins, and the ignobiles, i.e. the villeins, citizens and denoting a man of good family, the Lat. generosus (its invariable burgesses; and between the most powerful noble and the translation in English-Latin documents). In this sense it is the humblest franklin there was, until the 15th century, no“ separate equivalent of the Fr. gentilhomme, " nobleman,” which latter class of gentlemen.” Even so late as 1400 the word “ gentleman” term has in Great Britain been long confined to the peerage (see still only had the sense of generosus, and could not be used as a NOBILITY); and the term “gentry” (“ gentrice” from 0. Fr. personal description denoting rank or quality, or as the title of genterise for gentelise) has much of the significance of the Fr.
a class. Yet after 1413 we find it increasingly so used; and the noblesse or the Ger. Add. This was what was meant by the rebels list of landowners in 1431, printed in Feudal Aids, contains under John Ball in the 14th century when they repeated:
besides knights, esquires, yeomen and husbandmen (i.e. house"When Adam delved and Eve span,
holders), a fair number who are classed as “gentilman." Who was then the gentleman?"
Sir George Sitwell gives a lucidexplanation of this development, Selden (Titles of Honor, 1672), discussing the title“ gentleman,” the incidents of which are instructive and occasionally amusing. speaks of " our English use of it” as “ convertible with nobilis" The immediate cause was the statute 1 Henry V. cap. v. of 1413, and describes in connexion with it the forms of ennobling in which laid down that in all original writs of action, personal various European countries. William Harrison, writing a century appeals and indictments, in which process of outlawry lies, the earlier, says " gentlemen be those whom their race and blood, or "estate degree or mystery ” of the defendant must be stated, at the least their virtues, do make noble and known.” But for as well as his present or former domicile. Now the Black Death the complete gentleman the possession of a coat of arms was in (1349) had put the traditional social organization out of gear. his time considered necessary; and Harrison gives the following Before that the younger sons of the nobiles had received their account of how gentlemen were made in Shakespeare's day:
share of the farm stock, bought or hired land, and settled down as gentlemen whose ancestors are not known to come in with agriculturists in their native villages. Under the new conditions William duke of Normandy (for of the Saxon races yet remaining Description of England, bk. ii. ch. v. p: 128.. Henry Peacham, we now make none accompt, much less of the British issue) do take in his Compleal Gentleman (1634), takes this matter more seriously. their beginning in England after this manner in our times. Who Neither must we honour or esteem," he writes, "those ennobled, soever studieth the laws of the realm, who so abideth in the uni or made gentle in blood, who by mechanic and base means have versity, giving his mind to his book, or prosesseth physic and the raked up a mass of wealth or have purchased an ill coat (of liberal sciences, or beside his service in the room of a captain in the arms) at a good rate; no more than a player upon the stage, for wars, or good counsel given at home, whereby his commonwealth wearing a lord's cast suit: since nobility hangeth not upon the is benefited, can live without manual labour, and thereto is able airy estcem of vulgar opinion, but is indeed of itself essential and and will bear the port, charge and countenance of a gentleman, absolute." (Reprint, p.3). Elsewhere (p. 161) he deplores the abuse he shall for money have a coat and arms bestowed upon him by of heraldry, which had even in his day produced "all the world heralds (who in the charter of the same do of custom pretend an over such a medley of coats " that, but for the commendable activity tiquity and service, and many gay things) and thereunto being of the earls marshals, he feared that yeomen would soon be "as made so good cheap be called master, which is the title that men rare in England as they are in France." See also an amusing give to esquires and gentlemen, and reputed for a gentleman ever instance from the time of Henry VIII., given in "The Gentility of after. Which is so much the less to be disallowed of, for that the Richard Barker," by Oswald Barron, in the Ancestor, vol. ii. (July prince doth lose nothing by it, the gentleman being so much subject 1902). to taxes and public payments as is the yeoman or husbandman, * Even this classification would seem to need modifying. For which he likewise doth bear the gladlier for the saving of his repu: certain of the great patrician families of the cities were certainly tation. Being called also to the wars (for with the government of nobiles.
this became incrcasingly impossible, and they were forced to surname, as in France or Germany? The process was hastened, seek their fortunes abroad in the French wars, or at home as moreover, by the corruption of the Heralds' College and by the hangers-on of the great nobles. These men, under the old system, case with which coats of arms could be assumed without a shadow had no definite status; but they were generosi, men of birth, of claim; which tended to bring the “science of armory" and, being now forced to describe themselves, they disdained into contempt. The word “gentleman " as an index of rank to be classed with franklins (now sinking in the social scale), had already become of doubtful value before the great political still more with yeomen or husbandmen; they chose, therefore, and social changes of the 19th century gave to it a wider and to be described as gentlemen.” On the character of these essentially higher significance. The change is well illustrated earliest “gentlemen" the records throw a lurid light. According in the definitions given in the successive editions of the Ento Sir George Sit well (p. 76)," the premier gentleman of England, cyclopaedia Britannica. In the 5th edition (1815) “ a gentleman as the matter now stands, is · Robert Erdeswyke of Stafford, is one, who without any title, bears a coat of arms, or whose gentilman,' ” who had served among the men-at-arms of Lord ancestors have been freemen.” In the 7th edition (1845) it Talbot at Agincourt (ib, note) He is typical of his class. still implies a definite social status: "All above the rank of * Fortunately-for the gentle reader will no doubt be anxious yeomen.” In the 8th edition (1856) this is still its “most exto follow in his footsteps-some particulars of his life may be tended sense "; "in a more limited sense” it is defined in the gleaned from the public records. He was charged at the same words as those quoted above from the 5th edition; but Staffordshire Assizes with housebreaking, wounding with the writer adds, “ By courtesy this title is generally accorded intent to kill, and procuring the murder of one Thomas Page, to all persons above the rank of common tradesmen when their who was cut to pieces while on his knees begging for his manners are indicative of a certain amount of refinement and life.” If any earlier claimant to the title of gentleman intelligence." The Reform Bill of 1832 has done its work; the be discovered, Sir George Sit well predicts that it will be within “middle classes ” have come into their own; and the word the same year (1414) and in connexion with some similar dis gentleman " has come in common use to signify not a distinction reputable proceedings.'
of blood, but a distinction of position, education and manners. From these unpromising beginnings the separate order of The test is no longer good birth, or the right to bear arms, but “gentlemen " was very slowly evolved. The first “gentleman" the capacity to mingle on equal terms in good society. In its commemorated on an existing monument was John Daundelyon best use, moreover, “gentleman” involves a certain superior of Margate (d. c. 1445); the first gentleman to enter the House standard of conduct, due, to quote the 8th edition once more, of Commons, hitherto composed mainly of “ valets," was to" that self-respect and intellectual refinement which manifest “ William Weston, gentylman "; but even in the latter half of themselves in unrestrained yet delicate manners.” The word the 15th century the order was not clearly established. As to the gentle," originally implying a certain social status, had very connexion of " gentilesse ” with the official grant or recognition early come to be associated with the standard of manners of coat-armour, that is a profitable fiction invented and upheld expected from that status. Thus by a sort of punning process by the heralds; for coat-armour was but the badge assumed by the “gentleman” becomes a “gentle-man." Chaucer in the gentlemen to distinguish them in battle, and many gentlemen of Melibocus (c. 1386) says: “ Certes he sholde not be called a long descent never had occasion to assume it, and never did. gentil man, that ne dooth his diligence and bisynesse, to This fiction, however, had its effect; and by the 16th century, kepen his good name"; and in the Wise of Bath's Tale: as has been already pointed out, the official view had become
"Loke who that is most vertuous alway clearly established that " gentlemen " constituted a distinct
Prive and apert, and most entendeth ay order, and that the badge of this distinction was the heralds'
To do the gentil dedes that he can recognition of the right to bear arms. It is unfortunate that this
And take him for the gretest gentilman," view, which is quite unhistorical and contradicted by the present and in the Romance of the Rose (c. 1400) we find“ he is gentil practice of many undoubtedly“ gentle” families of long descent, bycause he doth as longeth to a gentilman.” This use develops has of late years been given a wide currency in popular manuals through the centuries, until in 1714 we have Steele, in the of heraldry.
Tatler (No. 207), laying down that “the appellation of GentleIn this narrow sense, however, the word “gentleman ” has man is never to be affixed to a man's circumstances, but to his long since become obsolete. The idea of "gentry " in the Behaviour in them," a limitation over-narrow even for the present continental sense of noblesse is extinct in England, and is likely day. In this connexion, too, may be quoted the old story, told to remain so, in spite of the ellorts of certain enthusiasts to by some-very improbably-of James II., of the monarch who revive it (see A. C. Fox-Davies, Armorial Families, Edinburgh, replied to a lady petitioning him to make her son a gentleman, “I 1895). That it once existed has been sufficiently shown; but could make him a nobleman, but God Almighty could not make the whole spirit and tendency of English constitutional and social him a gentleman.” Selden, however, in referring to similar development tended to its early destruction. The comparative stories that no Charter can make a Gentleman, which is cited as good order of England was not favourable to the continuance out of the mouth of some great Princes that have said it," adds of a class, developed during the foreign and civil wars of the that they without question understood Gentleman for Generosus 14th and 15th centuries, for whom fighting was the sole honour- in the antient sense, or as if it came from Gcntilis in that sense, as able occupation. The younger sons of noble families became Gentilis denotes one of a noble Family, or indeed for a Gentleman apprentices in the cities, and there grew up a new aristocracy by birth.” For "no creation could make a man of another of trade. Merchants are still “ citizens” to William Harrison; blood than he is.". The word “gentleman," used in the wide but he adds“ they often change estate with gentlemen, as gentle sense with which birth and circumstances have nothing to do, is men do with them, by a mutual conversion of the one into the necessarily incapable of strict definition. For “to behave like a other.” A frontier line between classes so indefinite could not gentleman " may mean little or much, according to the person by be maintained, especially as in England there was never a whom the phrase is used;" to spend money like a gentleman " nobiliary prefix" to stamp a person as a gentleman by his may even be no great praise; but “to conduct a business like a
* The designation " gentilman" is, indeed, found some two gentleman "implies a standard at least as high as that involved centuries earlier. In the Inquisitio maneriorum Ecclesiae S. Pauli : The prefix "de" attached to some English names is in no Londin. of A.D. 1222 (W. A. Hale, Domesday of St Paul's, Camden sense" nobiliary.", In Latin documents de was the equivalent of the Soc., 1858, p. 80) occurs the entry: Adam gentilmå dis acră, p' iii.d. English "of," as de la of "at" (so de la Pole for Atte Poole, cf. This is probably the earliest record of the "grand old name of such names as Attwood, Attwater). In English this "of" was in gentleman"; but Adam, who held half an acre at a rent of three the 15th century, dropped; e.g. the grandson of Johannes de Stoke pence--less by half than that held by "Ralph the bondsman" (John of Stoke) in a 14th-century document becomes John Stoke. (Rad' le bunde) in the same list-was certainly not a “gentleman. In modern times, under the influence of romanticism, the prefix
Gentilman" here was a nickname, perhaps suggested by Adam's " de " has been in some cases " revived " under a misconception, e.g. name, and thus in some sort anticipating the wit of the famous "de Trafford," " de Hoghton." Very rarely it is correctly retained couplet repeated by John Ball's rebels.
as derived from a foreign place-name, e.g. de Grey.
in the phrase " noblesse oblige.” In this sense of a person of des finances de la Grande-Brelagne, London, 1800). Especially culture, character and good manners the word “gentleman " has noteworthy, however, was the Denkschrift or Missite addressed supplied a gap in more than one foreign language.
by him to King Frederick William III. on his accession (1797), in The evolution of this meaning of “gentleman " reflects very which, inter alio, he urged upon the king the necessity for granting accurately that of English society; and there are not wanting freedom to the press and to commerce. For a Prussian official signs that the process of evolution, in the one as in the other, is to venture to give uncalled for advice to his sovereign was a not complete. The indefinableness of the word mirrors the breach of propriety not calculated to increase his chances of indefinite character of "society" in England; and the use by favour; but it gave Gentz a conspicuous position in the public “the masses” of “gentleman " as a mere synonym for
eye, which his brilliant talents and literary style enabled him to has spread pari passu with the growth of democracy. It is a maintain. Moreover, he was from the first aware of the probable protest against implied inferiority, and is cherished as the developments of the Revolution and of the consequences to Prussia modern French bourgeois cherishes his right of duelling with of the weakness and vacillations of her policy. Opposition to swords, under the ancien régime a prerogative of the noblesse. France was the inspiring principle of the Historisches Journal Nor is there much justification for the denunciation by purists of founded by him in 1799–1800, which once more held up English the “ vulgarization" and "abuse" of the "grand old name of institutions as the model, and became in Germany the mouthgentleman." Its strict meaning has now fallen completely piece of British policy towards the revolutionary aggressions of obsolete. Its current meaning varies with every class of society the French republic. In 1801 he ceased the publication of the that uses it. But it always implies some sort of excellency of Journal, because he disliked the regularity of journalism, and manners or morals. It may by courtesy be over-loosely applied issued instead, under the title Beiträge zur Geschichte, &c., a by one common man to another; but the common man would series of essays on contemporary politics. The first of these was understand the reproach conveyed in “ You're no gentleman." Über den Ursprung und Charakter des Krieges gegen die französische
AUTHORITIES.-Selden, Titles of Honor (London, 1672); William Revolution (1801), by many regarded as Gentz's masterpiece;
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money collection of extracts from authors so wide apart as Ptah-hotep $3,300 B.c.) and William Watson, arranged under headings: "The position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian Historical idea of a Gentleman," "The Herald's Gentleman," "The government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious Poet's Gentleman," &c.
(W. A. P.)
neutrality. Private affairs also combined to urge Gentz to leave GENTZ, FRIEDRICH VON (1764-1832), German publicist and the Prussian service; for, mainly through his own fault, a stalesman, was born at Breslau on the end of May 1764. His separation with his wife was arranged. In May 1802, accordingly, father was an oficial, his mother an Ancillon, distantly he took leave of his wife and left with his friend Adam Müller for related to the Prussian minister of that name. On his father's Vienna. In Berlin he had been intimate with the Austrian transference to Berlin, as director of the mint, the boy was sent ambassador, Count Stadion, whose good offices procured him an to the Joachimsthal gymnasium there; his brilliant talents, introduction to the emperor Francis. The immediate result was however, did not develop until later, when at the university of the title of imperial councillor, with a yearly salary of 4000 Königsberg he fell under the influence of Kant. But though gulden (December 6th, 1802); but it was not till 1809 that he his intellect was sharpened and his zeal for learning quickened by was actively employed. Before returning to Berlin to make the great thinker's influence, Kant's "categorical imperative arrangements for transferring himself finally to Vienna, Gente did not prevent him from yielding to the taste for wine, women paid a visit to London, where he made the acquaintance of Pitt and high play which pursued him through life. When in 1785 he and Granville, who were so impressed with his talents that, in returned to Berlin, he received the appointment of secret secretary addition to large money presents, he was guaranteed an annual to the royal Generaldirectorium, his talents soon gaining him pension by the British government in recognition of the value of promotion to the rank of councillor for war (Kriegsralh). During the services of his pen against Bonaparte. From this time an illness, which kept him virtuous by confining him to his room, forward he was engaged in a ceaseless polemic against every he studied French and English, gaining a mastery of these fresh advance of the Napoleonic power and pretensions; with languages which, at that time exceedingly rare, opened up for matchless sarcasm he lashed “the nerveless policy of the courts, him opportunities for a diplomatic career.
which suffer indignity with resignation "; he denounced the His interest in public affairs was, however, first aroused by the recognition of Napoleon's imperial title, and drew up a manifesto outbreak of the French Revolution. Like most quick-witted of Louis XVIII. against it. The formation of the coalition and young men, he greeted this at first with enthusiasm; but its the outbreak of war for a while raised his hopes, in spite of his subsequent developments cooled his ardour and he was converted lively distrust of the competence of Austrian ministers; but the to more conservative counsels by Burke's Essay on the French hopes were speedily dashed by Austerlitz and its results. Gentz Revolution, a translation of which into German (1794) was his first used his enforced leisure to write a brilliant essay on " The literary venture. This was followed, next year, by translations relations between England and Spain before the outbreak of war of works on the Revolution by Mallei du Pan and Mounier, and between the two powers ” (Leipzig, 1806); and shortly afterat this time he also founded and edited a monthly journal, the wards appeared Fragmente aus der neuesten Geschichle des poliNeue deutsche Monatsschrift, in which for five years he wrote, lischen Gleichgewichts in Europa (translated s.l. Fragments on mainly on historical and political questions, maintaining the the Balance of Power in Europe, London, 1806). This latter, principles of British constitutionalism against those of revolution the last of Gentz's works as an independent publicist, was a ary France. The knowledge he displayed of the principles and masterly expose of the actual political situation, and at the same practice of finance was especially remarkable. In 1797, at the time prophetic in its suggestions as to how this should be retrieved: instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a “ Through Germany Europe has perished, through Germany it history of French finance by François d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an must rise again." He realized that the dominance of France eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, could only be broken by the union of Austria and Prussia, acting extracts from which he had previously given in his journal. in concert with Great Britain. He watched with interest the His literary output at this time, all inspired by a moderate Prussian military preparations, and, at the invitation of Count Liberalism, was astounding, and included an essay on the results Haugwitz, he went at the outset of the campaign to the Prussian of the discovery of America, and another, written in French, on headquarters at Erfurt, where he drafted the king's proclamation the English financial system (Essai sur l’alat de l'administration I and his letter to Napoleon. The writer was known, and it was in
this connexion that Napoleon referred to him as "a wretched | seen again since their parting at Berlin, and his relations with scribe named Gentz, one of those men without honour who sell other women, mostly of the highest rank, were too numerous themselves for money.” In this mission Gentz had no official to record. But passion tormented him to the end, and his mandate from the Austrian government, and whatever hopes he infatuation for Fanny Elssler, the celebrated danseuse, forms may have cherished of privately influencing the situation in the the subject of some remarkable letters to his friend Rahel, the direction of an alliance between the two German powers were wife of Varnhagen von Ense (1830-1831). He died on the oth speedily dashed by the campaign of Jena.
of June 1832. The downfall of Prussia left Austria the sole hope of Germany Gentz has been very aptly described as a mercenary of the and of Europe. Gentz, who from the winter of 1806 onwards pen, and assuredly no other such mercenary has ever carved divided his time between Prague and the Bohemian watering- out for himself a more remarkable career. To have done so places, seemed to devote himself wholly to the pleasures of would have been impossible, in spite of his brilliant gifts, had he society, his fascinating personality gaining him a ready reception been no more than the" wretched scribe" sneered at by Napoleon. in those exalted circles which were to prove of use to him later Though by birth belonging to the middle class in a country of on in Vienna. But, though he published nothing, his pen was hide-bound aristocracy, he lived to move on equal terms in the not idle, and he was occupied with a series of essays on the society of princes and statesmen; which would never have been future of Austria and the best means of liberating Germany and the case had he been notoriously "bought and sold.” Yet redressing the balance of Europe; though he himself confessed that he was in the habit of receiving gifts from all and sundry to his friend Adam Müller (August 4th, 1806) that, in the miser- who hoped for his backing is beyond dispute. He notes that at able circumstances of the time, his essay on “the principles of a the congress of Vienna he received 22,000 florins through Talleygeneral pacification "must be taken as a "political poem." rand from Louis XVIII., while Castlereagh gave him £600,
In 1809, on the outbreak of war between Austria and France, accompanied by les plus folles promesses; and his diary is full Gentz was for the first time actively employed by the Austrian of such entries. Yet he never made any secret of these gifts; government under Stadion; he drafted the proclamation an. Metternich was aware of them, and he never suspected Gentz nouncing the declaration of war (15th of April), and during the of writing or acting in consequence against his convictions. As continuance of hostilities his pen was ceaselessly employed. a matter of fact, no man was more free or outspoken in his But the peace of 1810 and the fall of Stadion once more dashed criticism of the policy of his employers than this apparently his hopes, and, disillusioned and “hellishly blasé," he once more venal writer. These gists and pensions were rather in the nature retired to comparative inactivity at Prague. Of Metternich, of subsidies than bribes; they were the recognition by various Stadion's successor, he had at the outset no high opinion, and powers of the value of an ally whose pen had proved itself so it was not till 1812 that there sprang up between the two men potent a weapon in their cause. the close relations that were to ripen into life-long friendship. It is, indeed, the very impartiality and objectivity of his But when Gentz returned to Vienna as Metternich's adviser and attitude that make the writings of Gentz such illuminating henchman, he was no longer the fiery patriot who had sympathized documents for the period of history which they cover. Allowance and corresponded with Stein in the darkest days of German must of course be made for his point of view, but less so perhaps depression and in fiery periods called upon all Europe to free than in the case of any other writer so intimately concerned itself from foreign rule. Disillusioned and cynical, though with the policies which he criticizes. And, apart from their clear-sighted as ever, he was henceforth before all things an value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary Austrian, more Austrian on occasion even than Metternich; monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German as, c.8., when, during the final stages of the campaign of 1814, prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style. he expressed the hope that Metternich would substitute A selection of Gentz's works (Ausgewählte Schriften) was published " Austria” for “ Europe ” in his diplomacy and strange advice by Weick in 5 vols. (1836-1838); his lesser works (Mannheim, from the old hater of Napoleon and of France-secure an Austro-1838-1840) in 5, vols. and Mémoires et lettres inédites (Stuttgart French alliance by maintaining the husband of Marie Louise 1841) were edited by G. Schlesier. Subsequently there have appeared
Briefe an Ckr. Garve (Breslau, 1857); correspondence (Briefwechsel) on the throne of France.
with Adam Müller (Stuttgart, 1857); Briefe an Pilat (2 vols., For ten years, from 1812 onward, Gentz was in closest touch Leipzig, 1868); Aus dem Nachlass Friedrichs von Gents (a vols.), with all the great affairs of European history, the assistant, edited by Count Anton Prokesch-Osten (Vienna, 1867); Aus der confidant, and adviser of Metternich. He accompanied the und an Friedrich von Gents, edited by C. von Klinkowström (Vienna, chancellor on all his journeys; was present at all the conferences 1870); Dépêches inédites du chev. de Gentz aux Hospodars de Valachie that preceded and followed the war; no political secrets were 1813-1828 (a correspondence on current affairs commissioned by hidden from him; and his hand drafted all important diplomatic the Austrian government), edited by Count Anton von Prokeschdocuments. He was secretary to the congress of Vienna (1814-1 supplemented in Vesterreichs Teilnahme an den Befreiungskriegen 1815) and to all the congresses and conferences that followed, (Vienna, 1887), a collection of documents of the greatest value; up to that of Verona (1822), and in all his vast knowledge of Zur Geschichte der orientalischen Frage: Briefe aus dem Nachlass men and affairs made him a power. He was under no illusion Friedrichs von Gentz (Vienna, 1877), edited by Count Prokeschas to their achievements; his memoir on the work of the congress an invaluable mine of authentic material, were edited by Varnhagen
Osten the younger. Finally Gentz's diaries, from 1800 to 1828, of Vienna is at once an incisive piece of criticism and a monument von Ense and published after his death under the title Tagebücher, of his own disillusionment. But the Liberalism of his early &c. (Leipzig, 1861; new ed., 4 vols., ib. 1873). Several lives of years was gone for ever, and he had become reconciled to Gentz exist. The latest is by E. Guglia, Friedrich von Gents (Vienna, Metternich's view that, in an age of decay, the sole function of 1901).
(W. A. P.) a statesman was to “prop up mouldering institutions.” It was GEOCENTRIC, referred to the centre of the earth (Gr. rn) as the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick an origin; a term designating especially the co-ordinates of a William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad heavenly body referred to this origin. decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the GEODESY (from the Gr. yî, the earth, and Salewv, to divide), freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a the science of surveying (9.8.) extended to large tracts of country, day more important than that of Leipzig " the session of the having in view not only the production of a system of maps of Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the very great accuracy, but the determination of the curvature of convocation of representative assemblies in the German states the surface of the earth, and eventually of the figure and impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII. of the Act dimensions of the earth. This last, indeed, may be the sole of Confederation.
object in view, as was the case in the operations conducted in As to Gentz's private life there is not much to be said. He Peru and in Lapland by the celebrated French astronomers remained to the last a man of the world, though tormented P. Bouguer, C. M. de la Condamine, P. L. M. de Maupertuis, with an exaggerated terror of death. His wife he had never | A. C. Clairault and others; and the measurement of the meridian