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throne, probably because Wenceslaus refused to fulfil a promise | daughter of Albert, duke of Bavaria-Munich (d. 1508), was born to give him his sister Anna in marriage. The danger to Germany at Torgau, and succeeded his father as elector in 1486. Retaining from the Hussites induced Frederick to ally himself with the the government of Saxony in his own hands, he shared the other German and Bohemian king Sigismund; and he took a leading possessions of his family with his brother John, called "the part in the war against them, during the earlier years of which Stedfast” (1468–1532). Frederick was among the princes who he met with considerable success. In the prosecution of this pressed the need of reform upon the German king Maximilian I. enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he in 1495, and in 1500 he became president of the newly-formed received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge council of regency (Reichsregiment). He took a genuine interest from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with in learning; vas a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; and Frederick's founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther formal investiture followed at Ofen on the ist of August 1425. and Melanchthon to professorships. In 1493 he had gone as a Thus spurred to renewed efforts against the Hussites, the elector pilgrim to Jerusalem, and had been made a knight of the Holy was endeavouring to rouse the German princes to aid him in Sepulchre; but, although he remained throughout life an prosecuting this war when the Saxon army was almost annihilated adherent of the older faith, he seems to have been drawn into at Aussig on the 16th of August 1426. Returning to Saxony, sympathy with the reformers, probably through his connexion Frederick died at Altenburg on the 4th of January 1428, and was with the university of Wittenberg. In 1520 he refused to put buried in the cathedral at Meissen. In 1402 he married Catherine into execution the papal bull which ordered Luther's writings of Brunswick, by whom he left four sons and two daughters. to be burned and the reformer to be put under restraint or sent In 1409, in conjunction with his brother William, he founded to Rome; and in 1521, after Luther had been placed under the the university of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who imperial ban by the diet at Worms, the elector caused him to be had just left the university of Prague. Frederick's importance as conveyed to his castle at the Wartburg, and afterwards protected an historical figure arises from his having obtained the electorate him while he attacked the enemies of the Reformation. In 1519, of Saxe-Wittenberg for tb house of Wettin, and transformed Frederick, who alone among the electors refused to be bribed the margra viate of Meissen into the territory which afterwards by the rival candidates for the imperial throne, declined to be a became the kingdom of Saxony. In addition to the king of candidate for this high dignity himself, and assisted to secure Saxony, the sovereigns of England and of the Belgians are his the election of Charles V. He died unmarried at Langau, near direct descendants.

Annaberg, on the 5th of May 1525. There is a life of Frederick by G. Spalatin in the Scriptores rerum See G. Spalatin, Das Leben und die Zeitgeschichte Friedrichs des Germanicarum praecipue Saxonicarum, Band ii., edited by J. B. Weisen, edited by C. G. Neudecker and L. Preller (Jena, 1851); Mencke (Leipzig, 1728-1730). See also Ç. W. Böttiger and Th. M. M. Tutzschmann, Friedrich der Weise. Kurfürst von Sachsen Flathe, Geschichte des Kurstaates und Königreichs Sachsen (Gotha, (Grimma, 1848); and T. Kolde, Friedrich der Weise und die Anfänge 1867-1873); and J. G. Horn, Lebens- und Heldengeschichie Frie- der Reformation (Erlangen, 1881). drichs des Streilbaren (Leipzig, 1733).

FRÉDERICK, a city and the county-seat of Frederick county, FREDERICK II. (1411-1464), called "the Mild,” elector and Maryland, U.S.A., on Carroll's Creek, a tributary of the Monocacy, duke of Saxony, eldest son of the elector Frederick I., was born 61 m. by rail W. by N. from Baltimore and 45 m. N.W. from on the 22nd of August 1411. He succeeded his father as elector Washington. Pop. (1890) 8193; (1900) 9296, of whom 1533 in 1428, but shared the family lands with his three brothers, were negroes; (1910 census) 10,411. It is served by the Baltiand was at once engaged in defending Saxony against the attacks more & Ohio and the Northern Central railways, and by two of the Hussites. Freed from these enemies about 1432, and interurban electric lines. Immediately surrounding it is the turning his attention to increasing his possessions, he obtained rich farming land of the Monocacy valley, but from a distance the burgraviate of Meissen in 1439, and some part of Lower it appears to be completely shut in by picturesque hills and Lusatia after a struggle with Brandenburg about the same time. mountains; to the E., the Linga ore Hills; to the W., Catoctin In 1438 it was decided that Frederick, and not his rival, Bernard Mountain; and to the S., Sugar Loaf Mountain. It is built IV., duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was entitled to exercise the Saxon for the most part of brick and stone. Frederick is the seat of the electoral vote at the elections for the German throne; and the Maryland school for the deaf and dumb and of the Woman's elector then aided Albert II. to secure this dignity, performing College of Frederick (1893; formerly the Frederick Female a similar service for his own brother-in-law, Frederick, afterwards Seminary, opened in 1843), which in 1907-1908 had 212 students, the emperor Frederick III., two years later. Family affairs,

121 of whom were in the Conservatory of Music. Francis Scott meanwhile, occupied Frederick's attention. One brother, Key and Roger Brooke Taney were buried here, and a beautiful Henry, having died in 1435, and another, Sigismund (d. 1463), monument erected to the memory of Key stands at the entrance having entered the church and become bishop of Würzburg, to Mount Olivet cemetery. Frederick has a considerable Frederick and his brother William (d. 1482) were the heirs of their agricultural trade and is an important manufacturing centre, childless cousin, Frederick" the Peaceful," who ruled Thuringia its industries including the canning of fruits and vegetables, and and other parts of the lands of the Wettins. On his death in the manufacture of flour, bricks, brushes, leather goods and 1440 the brothers divided Frederick's territory, but this arrange- hosiery. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was ment was not satisfactory, and war broke out between them in $1,937,921, being 34.7% more than in 1900. The municipality 1446. Both combatants obtained extraneous aid, but after a

owns and operates its water-works and electric-lighting plant. desolating struggle peace was made in January 1451, when Frederick, so named in honour of Frederick Calvert, son and William received Thuringia, and Frederick Altenburg and other afterward successor of Charles, Lord Baltimore, was settled districts. The remainder of the elector's reign was uneventful, by Germans in 1733, and was laid out as a town in 1745, but was and he died at Leipzig on the 7th of September 1464. By his not incorporated until 1817. Here in 1755 General Braddock wife, Margaret (d. 1486), daughter of Ernest, duke of Styria, prepared for his disastrous expedition against the French at he left two sons and four daughters. In July 1455 occurred the fort Duquesne (Pittsburg). During the Civil War the city was celebrated Prinzenraub, the attempt of a knight named Kunz von occupied on different occasions by Unionists and Confederates, Kaufungen (d. 1455) to abduct Frederick's two sons, Ernest and was made famous by Whittier's poem “ Barbara Frictchie." and Albert. Having carried them off from Altenburg, Kunz was FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I. (1750-1827), king of Saxony, making his way to Bohemia when the plot was accidentally son of the elector Frederick Christian, was born at Dresden on discovered and the princes restored.

the 23rd of December 1750. He succeeded his father under the See W. Schäfer, Der Montag vor Kiliani (1855); J. Gersdorf: guardianship of Prince Xavier in 1763, and was declared of age Einige Aktenstücke sur Geschichte des sächsischen Prinzenraubes (1855); and T. Carlyle, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, vol. iv. in 1768. In the following year (January 17, 1769) he married (London, 1899).

Princess Maria Amelia, daughter of Duke Frederick of ZweiFREDERICK III. (1463-1525), called "the Wise,” slector ofbrücken, by whom he had only one child, Princess Augusta Saxony, eldest son of Ernest, elector of Saxony, and Elizabeth, (born June 21, 1782). One of his chief aims was the reduction

of taxes and imposts and of the army. He was always extremely collection of engravings on copper. He was twice marriedmethodical and conscientious, and a good example to all his in 1819 (October 7) to the duchess Caroline, fourth daughter officials, whence his surname “the Just." On account of the of the emperor Francis I. of Austria (d. May 22, 1832), and in claims of his mother on the inheritance of her brother, the elector 1833 (April 4) to Maria, daughter of Maximilian I. of Bavaria. of Bavaria, he sided with Frederick the Great in the short There were no children of either marriage. During the governBavarian succession war of 1778 against Austria. At the peace ment of his uncles (Frederick Augustus I. and Anthony) he of Teschen, which concluded the war, he received 6 million florins, took no part in the administration of the country, though he which he employed partly in regaining those parts of his kingdom was the sole heir to the crown. In 1830 a rising in Dresden led which had been lost, and partly in favour of his relatives. In to his being named joint regent of the kingdom along with King 1785 he joined the league of German princes (Deutscher Fürsten- Anthony on the 13th of September; and in this position his bund) formed by Prussia, but without prejudice to his neutrality. popularity and his wise and liberal reforms (for instance, in Thus he remained neutral during the quarrel between Austria arranging public audiences) speedily quelled all discontent. and Prussia in 1990. In the following year he declined the On the 6th of June 1836 he succeeded his uncle. Though he crown of Poland. He refused to join the league against France administered the affairs of his kingdom with enlightened liberality (February 7, 1792), but when war was declared his duty to the Saxony did not escape the political storms which broke upon Empire necessitated bis taking part in it. Even after the peace Germany in 1848. Hc elected Liberal ministers, and he was at of Basel (April 5, 1795) he continued the war. But when the first in favour of the programme of German unity put forward French army, during the following year, advanced into the heart at Frankfort, but he refused to acknowledge the democratic of Germany, he was compelled by General Jourdan to retreat constitution of the German parliament. This attitude led to (August 13, 1796). He maintained his neutrality during the the insurrection at Dresden in May 1849, which was suppressed war between France and Austria in 1805, but in the following by the help of Prussian troops. From that time onward his year he joined Prussia against France, After the disastrous reign was tranquil and prosperous. Later Count Beust, leader battle of Jena he concluded a treaty of peace with Napoleon at of the Austrian and feudal party in Saxony, became his principal Posen (December 11, 1806), and, assuming the title of king, minister and guided his policy on most occasions. His death he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. But he did not alter occurred accidentally through the upsetting of his carriage the constitution and administration of his new kingdom. After near Brennbühel, between Imst and Wenns in Tirol (August 9, the peace of Tilsit (July 9, 1807) he was created by Napoleon 1854). Frcderick Augustus devoted his leisure hours chiefly to grand-duke of Warsaw, but his sovereignty of Poland was little the study of botany. He made botanical excursions into different more than nominal. There was a kind of friendship between countries, and Flora Merienbadensis, oder Pflanzen und GebirgsFrederick Augustus and Napoleon. In 1809 Frederick Augustus arlen, gesammelt und beschricben, written by him, was published fought with him against Austria. On several occasions (1807, at Prague by Kedler, 1837. 1812, 1813) Napolcon was entertained at Dresden, and when,

See Böttiger-Flathe, Hislory of Saxony, vol. iii.; R. Freiherr von on his return from his disastrous Russian campaign, he passed Friesen, Erinnerungen (2 vols., Dresden, 1881); F. F. Graf von through Saxony by Dresden (December 16, 1812), Frederick Beust, Aus drei-viertel Jahrhunderten (2 vols., 1887); Flathe, in Augustus remained true to his friend and ally. It was only during Allg. deutsche Biogr.

(J. HN.) April 1813 that he made overtures to Austria, but he soon FREDERICK CHARLES (FRIEDRICH KARL NIKOLAUS). afterwards returned to the side of the French. He returned PRINCE (1828–1885), Prussian general field marshal, son of Prince to Dresden on the roth of May and was present at the terrible Charles of Prussia and grandson of King Frederick William III., battle of August 26 and 27, in which Napoleon's army and his was born in Berlin on the 20th of March 1828. He was educated own were defeated. He fell into the hands of the Allics after their for the army, which he entered on his tenth birthday as second entry into Leipzig on the 19th of October 1813; and, although lieutenant in the 14th Foot Guards. He became first lieutenant he regained his freedom after the congress of Vienna, he was in 1844, and in 1846 entered the university of Bonn, where he compelled to give up the northern part-three-fifths-of his stayed for two years, being accompanied throughout by Major kingdom to Prussia (May 21, 1814). He entered Dresden on von Roon, afterwards the famous war minister. In 1848 he the 7th of July, and was enthusiastically welcomed by his became a company commander in his regiment, and soon afterpeople. The remainder of his life was spent in repairing the wards served in the Schleswig-Holstein War on the staff of Marshal damages caused by the Napoleonic wars, in developing the von Wrangel, being present at the battle of Schleswig (April 23, agricultural, commercial and industrial resources of his kingdom, 1848). Later in 1848 he became Rittmeister in the Garde du Corps reforming the administration of justice, establishing hospitals cavalry regiment, and in 1849 major in the Guard Hussars. and other charitable institutions, encouraging art and science In this year the prince took part in the campaign against the and promoting education. He had a special interest in botany, Baden insurgents, and was wounded at the action of Wiesenthal and originated the beautiful park at Pillnitz. His reign through while leading a desperate charge against entrenched infantry. out was characterized by justice, probity, moderation and After this experience the wild courage of his youth gave place prudence. He died on the 5th of May 1827.

to the unshakable resolution which afterwards characterized BIBLIOGRAPHY.—The earlier lives, by C. E. Weisse (1811), A. L. the prince's generalship. In 1852 he became colonel, and in Herrmann (1827), Pólitz (1830), are mere panegyrics. On the other 1854 major-general and commander of a cavalry brigade. In side see Flathe in Allgemeine deulsche Biographie, and Böttiger this capacity he was brought closely in touch with General von Flathe, History of Saxony (2rd ed., 1867... vols. ii. and ii., A. Reyher, the chief of the general staff

, and with Moltke. He (Paris, 1902); Fritz Friedrich, Politik Sachsens 1801- married, in the same year, Princess Marie Anne of Anhalt. In 1893 (1898); P. Rühlmann, Öffentliche Meinung ... 1806-1813 1857 he became commander of the ist Guard Infantry division, (1902). There are many pamphlet; bearing on the Saxon question but very shortly afterwards, on account of disputes concerned and on Frederick Augustus during the years 1814 and 1815. (J. Hx.) with the training methods then in force, he resigned the appoint.

FREDERICK AUGUSTUS II. (1797-1854), king of Saxony, ment. eldest son of Prince Maximilian and of Caroline Maria Theresa In 1858 he visited France, where he minutely investigated of Parma, was born on the 18th of May 1797. The unsettled the state of the French army, but it was not long before he times in which his youth was passed necessitated his frequent was recalled, for in 1859, in consequence of the Franco-Austrian change of residence, but care was nevertheless taken that his War, Prussia mobilized her forces, and Frederick Charles was education should not be interrupted, and he also acquired, made a divisional commander in the II. army corps. In this through his journeys in foreign states (Switzerland 1818, Monte-post he was given the liberty of action which had previously been negro 1838, England and Scotland 1844) and his intercourse denied to him. About this time (1860) the prince gave a lecture with men of eminence, a special taste for art and for natural to the officers of his command on the French army and its science. He was himself a good landscape-painter and had a fine I methods, the substance of which (Eine militärische Denkschrift


von P.F.K., Frankfort on Main, 1860) was circulated more widely near Berlin, and was buried at the adjacent church of Nikolskoe. than the author intended, and in the French translation gave His third daughter, Princess Louise Margareta, was married, rise to much indignation in France. In 1861 Frederick Charles in March 1879, to the duke of Connaught. became general of cavalry. He was then commander of the III. FREDERICK HENRY (1584-1647), prince of Orange, the (Brandenburg) army corps. This post he held from 1860 to 1870, youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about except during the campaigns of 1864 and 1866, and in it he dis- six months before his father's assassination on the 29th of January played his real qualities as a troop leader. His self-imposed 1584. His mother, Louise de Coligny, was daughter of the famous task was to raise the military spirit of his troops to the highest Huguenot leader, Admiral de Coligny, and was the fourth wife possible level, and ten years of his continuous and thorough of William the Silent. The boy was trained to arms by his elder training brought the III. corps to a pitch of real efficiency which brother, Maurice of Nassau, one of the first generals of his age. the Guard corps alone, in virtue of its special recruiting powers, On the death of Maurice in 1625, Frederick Henry succeeded slightly surpassed. Prince Frederick Charles' work was tested him in his paternal dignities and estates, and also in the stadtto the full when von Alvensleben and the III. corps engaged the holderates of the five provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, whole French army on the 16th of August 1870. In 1864 the Overysel and Gelderland, and in the important posts of captain prince once more fought against the Danes under his old leader and admiral-general of the Union. Frederick Henry proved Papa ” Wrangel. The Prussian contingent under Frederick himself scarcely inferior to his brother as a general, and a far Charles formed a corps of the allied army, and half of it was more capable statesman and politician. During twenty-two drawn from the III. corps. After the storming of the Düppel lines years he remained at the head of affairs in the United Provinces, the prince succeeded Wrangel in the supreme command, with and in his time the power of the stadtholderate reached its highest Lieutenant-General Freiherr von Moltke as his chief of staff. point. The “ Period of Frederick Henry," as it is usually styled These two great soldiers then planned and brilliantly carried out by Dutch writers, is generally accounted the golden age of the the capture of the island of Alsen, after which the war came to an republic. It was marked by great military and naval triumphs, end.

by world-wide maritime and commercial expansion, and by a In 1866 came the Seven Weeks' War with Austria. Prince wonderful outburst of activity in the domains of art and literature. Frederick Charles was appointed to command the I. Army, The chief military exploits of Frederick Henry were the sieges which he led through the mountains into Bohemia, driving and captures of Hertogenbosch in 1629, of Maastricht in 1632, before him the Austrians and Saxons to the upper Elbe, where of Breda in 1637, of Sas van Ghent in 1644, and of Hulst in 1645. on the 3rd of July took place the decisive battle of Königgrätz or During the greater part of his administration the alliance with Sadowa. This was brought on by the initiative of the leader France against Spain had been the pivot of Frederick Henry's of the I. Army, which had to bear the brunt of the fighting until foreign policy, but in his last years he sacrificed the French the advance of the II. Army turned the Austrian flank. After alliance for the sake of concluding a separate peace with Spain, the peace he returned to the III. army corps, which he finally by which the United Provinces obtained from that power all the left, in July 1870, when appointed to command the II. German advantages for which they had for eighty years been contending. Army in the war with France. In the early days of the advance Frederick Henry died on the 14th of March 1647, and was buried the prince's ruthless energy led to much friction between the with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft. The I. and II. Armies (see FRANCO-GERMAN WAR), while his strategical treaty of Münster, ending the long struggle between the Dutch mistakes seriously embarrassed the great headquarters staff. and the Spaniards, was not actually signed until the 30th of The advance of the II. Army beyond the Saar to the Moselle January 1648, the illness and death of the stadt holder having and from that river to the Meuse displayed more energy than caused a delay in the negotiations. Frederick Henry was married careful strategy, but herein at least the “Red Prince" (as he in 1625 to Amalia von Solms, and left one son, William II. of was called from the colour of his favourite hussar uniform) Orange, and four daughters. was in thorough sympathy with the king's headquarters on the Frederick Henry lest an account of his campaigns in his Mémoires one band and the feelings of the troops on the other. Then came de Frédéric Henri (Amsterdam, 1743). See Cambridge Mod. Hist. the discovery that the French were not in front, but to the right vol. iv. chap. 24, and the bibliography on p. 931. rear of the II. Army (August 16). Alvensleben with the III. FREDERICK LOUIS (1707-1751), prince of Wales, eldest son corps held the French to their ground at Vionville while the prince of George II., was born at Hanover on the 20th of January 1707. hurried together his scattered forces. He himself directed with After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain superb tactical skill the last efforts of the Germans at Vionville, and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester and the victory of St Privat on the 18th was due to his leadership and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been be(see METZ), which shone all the more by contrast with the failures trothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter of the I. Army at Gravelotte. The prince was left in command of of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the forces which blockaded Bazaine in Metz, and received the the Great. Although he was anxious to marry this lady, the surrender of that place and of the last remaining field army of the match was rendered impossible by the dislike of George II. and enemy. He was promoted at once to the rank of general field Frederick William for each other. Soon after his father became marshal, and shortly afterwards the II. Army was despatched king in 1727 Frederick took up his residence in England and in to aid in crushing the newly organized army of the French 1729 was created prince of Wales; but the relations between republic on the Loire. Here again he retrieved strategical errors George II, and his son were very unfriendly, and there existed by energy and tactical skill, and his work was in the end crowned between them the jealousy which Stubbs calls the "incurable by the victory of Le Mans on the 12th of January 1871. Of bane of royalty." The faults were not all on one side. The all the subordinate leaders on the German side none enjoyed a prince's character was not attractive, and the king refused to greater and a better deserved reputation than the Red Prince. make him an adequate allowance. In 1735 Frederick wrote,

He now became inspector-generalof the 3rd "army inspection," or inspired the writing of, the Histoire du prince Tili, a book and a little later inspector of cavalry, and in the latter post he was containing offensive caricatures of both king and queen; and largely instrumental in bringing the German cavalry to the degree losing no opportunity of irritating his father," he made,” says of perfection in manæuvre and general training which it gradually Lecky,“ his court the special centre of opposition to the govern. attained in the years after the war. He never ceased to improve ment, and he exerted all his influence for the ruin of Walpole." his own soldierly qualities by further study and by the conduct of After a marriage between the prince and Lady Diana Spencer, manæuvres on a large scale. His sternness of character kept afterwards the wife of John, 4th duke of Bedford, had been him aloof from the court and from his own family, and he spent frustrated by Walpole, Frederick was married in April 1736 to his leisure months chiefly on his various country estates. In 1872 and in 1882 he travelled in the Mediterranean and the Near

Frederick was never actually created duke of Gloucester, and

when he was raised to the peerage in 1736 it was as duke of Edinburgh East. He died on the 15th of June 1885 at Klein-Glienicke I only. See G. E. C(okayne), Complete Peerage, sub " Gloucester.

Augusta (1719-1772), daughter of Frederick II., duke of Saxe- | succeeded in obtaining the consent of Sweden to the cession of Gotha, a union which was welcomed by his parents, but which that part of Pomerania which he had occupied (Usedom, Wollin, led to further trouble between father and son. George proposed Stettin, Hither Pomerania, east of the Peene) in return for a to allow the prince £50,000 a year; but this sum was regarded payment of 2,000,000 thalers. as insufficient by the latter, whose appeal to parliament was While Frederick William I. succeeded in carrying his wishes unsuccessful. After the birth of his first child, Augusta, in 1737, into effect in this direction, he was unable to realize another Frederick was ordered by the king to quit St James' Palace, and project which he had much at heart, namely, the Prussian succesthe foreign ambassadors were requested to refrain from visiting sion to the Lower Rhine duchies of Jülich and Berg. The treaty him. The relations between the two were now worse than before. concluded in 1725 at Vienna between the emperor and Spain In 1745 George II. refused to allow his son to command the British brought the whole of this question up again, for both sides had army against the Jacobites. On the 20th of March 1751 the pledged themselves to support the Palatinate-Sulzbach succession prince died in London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. (in the event of the Palatinate-Neuberg line becoming extinct). He left five sons and two daughters. The sons were George Frederick William turned for help to the western powers, England (afterwards King George III.), Edward Augustus, duke of York and France, and secured it by the treaty of alliance signed at and Albany (1739-1767), William Henry, duke of Gloucester Herrenhausen on the 3rd of September 1725 (League of Hanover). and Edinburgh (1743-1805), Henry Frederick, duke of Cumber- But since the western powers soon sought to use the military land (1745-1790), and Frederick William (1750-1765); the strength of Prussia for their own ends, Frederick again turned daughters were Augusta (1737-1813), wife of Charles William towards the east, strengthened above all his relations with Russia, Ferdinand,duke of Brunswick,and Caroline Matilda (1751-1775), which had continued to be good, and finally, by the treaty of wife of Christian VII., king of Denmark.

Wusterhausen (October 12,1726; ratified at Berlin, December 23, See Lord Hervey of Ickworth, Memoirs of the Reign of George II.: 1728), even allied himself with his former adversary, the court of of the Reign of George II. (London, 1847); and Sir N. w: Wraxall, Vienna; though this treatyonly imperfectly safeguarded Prussian Memoirs, edited by H. B. Wheatley, vol. i. (London, 1884). interests, inasmuch as Frederick William consented to renounce

FREDERICK WILLIAM I. (1688-1740), king of Prussia, son his claims to Jülich. But as in the following years the European of Frederick I. by his second marriage was born on the 15th situation became more and more favourable to the house of of August 1688. He spent a considerable time in early youth at Habsburg, the latter began to try to withdraw part of the conthe court of his grandfather, the elector Ernest Augustus of cessions which it had made to Frederick William. As early as Hanover. On his return to Berlin he was placed under General 1728 Düsseldorf, the capital, was excluded from the guarantee of von Dohna and Count Finkenstein, who trained him to the Berg. Nevertheless, in the War of the Polish Succession against energetic and regular habits which ever afterwards characterized France (1734-1735), Frederick William remained faithful to the him. He was soon imbued with a passion for military life, and emperor's cause, and sent an auxiliary force of 10,000 men. The this was deepened by acquaintance with the dukeof Marlborough peace of Vienna, which terminated the war, led to a réconciliation (1709), Prince Eugene, whom he visited during the siege of between France and Austria, and so to a further estrangement Tournai, and Prince Leopold of Anhalt (the “Old Dessauer ”). between Frederick William and the emperor. Moreover, in 1738 In nearly every respect he was the opposite of his father, having the western powers, together with the emperor, insisted in identifrugal, simple tastes, a passionate temper and a determined will. cal notes on the recognition of the emperor's right to decide the Throughout his life he was always the protector of thechurch and question of the succession in the Lower Rhine duchies. A breach of religion. But he detested religious quarrels and was very with the emperor was now inevitable, and this explains why tolerant towards his Catholic subjects, except the Jesuits. in a last treaty (April 5, 1739) Frederick William obtained from His life was simple and puritanical, being founded on the teaching France a guarantee of a part, at least, of Berg (excluding of the Bible. He was, however, fond of hunting and somewhat Düsseldorf). given to drinking. He intensely disliked the French, and highly But Frederick William's failures in foreign policy were more disapproved of the imitation of their manners by his father and than compensated for by his splendid services in the internal his court. When he came to the throne (February 25, 1713) his administration of Prussia. He saw the necessity of rigid economy first act was to dismiss from the palace every unnecessary official not only in his private life but in the whole administration of the and to regulate the royal household on principles of the strictest state. During his reign Prussia obtained for the first time a parsimony. The greater part of the beautiful furniture was centralized and uniform financial administration. It wasthe king sold. His importance for Prussia is twofold: in internal politics himself who composed and wrote in the year 1722 the famous he laid down principles which continued to be followed long after instruction for the general directory (Generaldirektorium) of his death. This was a province peculiarly suited to his genius; war, finance and domains. When he died the income of the state he was one of the greatest administrators who have ever worn the was about seven million thalers (£1,050,000). The consequence Prussian crown. His foreign policy was less successful, though was that he paid off the debts incurred by his father, and left to under his rule the kingdom acquired some extension of territory. his successor a well filled treasury. In the administration of

Thus at the peace of Utrecht (April 11, 1713), after the War the domains he made three innovations: (1) the private estates of the Spanish Succession, he acquired the greater part of the of the king were turned into domains of the crown (August 13, duchy of Gelderland. By the treaty of Schwedt,concluded with 1713); (2) the freeing of the serfs on the royal domains (March Russia on the 6th of October, he was assured of an important 22, 1719); (3) the conversion of the hereditary leasc into a influence in the solution of the Baltic question, which during short-term lease on the basis of productiveness. His industrial the long absence of Charles XII. had become burning; and policy was inspired by the mercantile spirit. On this account he Swedish Pomerania, as far as the Peene, was occupied by Prussia. forbade the importation of foreign manufactures and the export But Charles XII. on his return' turned against the king, though of raw materials from home, a policy which had a very good without success, for the Pomeranian campaign of 1715 ended in effect on the growth of Prussian industries. favour of Prussia (fall of Stralsund, December 22). This enabled The work of internal colonization he carried on with especial Frederick William I. to maintain a more independent attitude zeal. Most notable of all was his rétablissement of East Prussia, to towards the tsar; he refused, for example, to provide him with which he devoted six million thalers (c. £900,000). His policy in troops for a campaign in Schonen) against the Swedes. When respect of the towns was motived largely by fiscalconsiderations, on the 28th of May 1718, in view of the disturbances in Mecklen- but at the same time he tried also to improve their municipal burg, he signed at Havelberg the alliance with Russia, he confined administration; for example, in the matter of buildings, of the himseli to taking up a defensive attitude, and, on the other hand, letting of domain lands and of the collection of the excise in towns. on the 14th of August 1719 he also entered into relations with Frederick William had many opponents amongthe nobles because his former enemies, England and Hanover. And so, by the he prossed on the abolition of the old feudal rights, introduced treaty of Stockholm (February 1, 1720), Frederick William in East Prussia and Lithuania a general land tax (ihe General.

hufenschoss), and finally in 1739 attacked in a special edict the grave Louis IX. of Hesse-Darmstadt. Although he had a Legen, i.e. the expropriation of the peasant proprietors. He numerous family by his wife, he was completely under the indid nothing for the higher learning, and even banished the philo-fluence of his mistress, Wilhelmine Enke, afterwards created sopher Christian Wolfi at forty-eight hours' notice" on pain of Countess Lichtenau, a woman of strong intellect and much the halter," for teaching, as he believed, fatalist doctrines. ambition. He was a man of singularly handsome presence, not Afterwards he modified his judgment in favour of Wolff, and even without mental qualities of a high order; he was devoted to the in 1739, recommended the study of his works. He established arts-Beethoven and Mozart enjoyed his patronage and his many village schools, which he often visited in person; and after private orchestra had a European reputation. But an artistic the year 1717 (October 23) all Prussian parents were obliged to temperament was hardly that required of a king of Prussia on send their children to school (Schulzwang). He was the especial the eve of the Revolution; and Frederick the Great, who had friend of the Franckische Stiftungen at Halle on the Saale. employed him in various services-notably in an abortive conUnder him the people flourished; and although it stood in awe fidential mission to the court of Russia in 1780-openly expressed of his vehement spirit it respected him for his firmness, his his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his surhonesty of purpose and his love of justice. He was devoted roundings. also to his army, the number of which he raised from 38,000 The misgivings were justified by the event. Frederick to 83,500, so that under him Prussia became the third military William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was, indeed, power in the world, coming next after Russia and France. There followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the was not a more thoroughly drilled or better appointed force. people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting The Potsdam guard, made up of giants collected from all parts introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminuof Europe, sometimes kidnapped, was a sort of toy with which lion of customs dues and the making of roads and canals. This he amused himself. The reviewing of his troops was his chief gave the new king much popularity with the mass of the people; pleasure. But he was also fond of meeting his friends in the while the educated classes were plcased by his removal of evening in what he called his Tobacco-College, where amid clouds Frederick's ban on the German language by the admission of of tobacco smoke he not only discussed affairs of state but heard German writers to the Prussian Academy, and by the active the newest “guard-room jokes." He died on the 31st of May encouragement given to schools and universities. But these 1740, leaving behind him his widow, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, rcforms were vitiated in their source. In 1781 Frederick William, whom he had'married on the 26th of November 1706. His son then prince of Prussia, inclined, like many sensual natures, to was Frederick the Great, who was the opposite of Frederick mysticism, had joined the Rosicrucians, and had fallen under the William. This opposition became so strong in 1730 that the influence of Johann Christof Wöllner (1732-1800), and by him crown prince fled from the court, and was later arrested and the royal policy was inspired. Wöllner, whom Frederick the broughi before a court-martial. A reconciliation was brought Great had described as a " treacherous and intriguing priest,” about, at first gradually. In later years the relations between had started life as a poor tutor in the family of General von father and son came to be of the best (see FREDERICK II., king Itzenplitz, a noblc of the mark of Brandenburg, had, after the of Prussia).

general's dcath and to the scandal of king and nobility, married BIBLIOGRAPHY.-D. Fassmann, Leben und Thalen Friedrich the general's daughter, and with his mother-in-law's assistance Wilhelms (2 vols., Hamburg and Breslau, 1735, 1741); F. Förster, settled down on a small estate. By his practical experiments and Friedrich Wilhelm 1: (3 vols., Potsdam, 1834 and 1835): ... by his writings he gained a considerable reputation as an econoHofe. Friedrich Wilhelms 1.,' Hohenzollernjahrbuch, v. '(1902); mist; but his ambition was not content with this, and he sought R. Koser, Friedrich der Grosse als Kronprinz (2nd ed., Stuttgart, to extend his influence by joining first the Freemasons and after1901); W. Oncken, "Sir Charles Hotham und Friedrich Wilhelm I. wards (1779) the Rosicrucians. Wöllner, with his impressive vol

. vii. et seq. J. G. Droysen in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, personality and easy if supe:ficial eloquence, was just the man vii. (1878), and in Geschichte der preussischen Politik, section iv.,

to lead a movement of this kind. Under his influence the order vols. ii.-iv. (2nd ed., 1868 et scq.); L. v. Ranke, Zwölf Bücher spread rapidly, and he soon found himself the supreme director preussischer Geschichte (1874 et seq.), Stenzel, Geschichte des preus (Oberhaupldirektor) of some 26" circles," which included in their Fisiotericisteatrin e lini (1847)Beillage Holke bra med en recherschuldensie Rechte membership princes, officers and high officials. As a Rosicrucian geschichte, iii. (1894); V. Loewe, “ Allodifikation der Leben unter

Wöllner dabbled in alchemy and other mystic arts, but he also Friedrich Wilhelm 1.,' Forschungen zur brandenburgischen Geschichle, affected to be zealous for Christian orthodoxy, imperilled by xi.; G. Schmoller, ' Epochen der prcuss. Finanzpolitik," Umrisse Frederick II.'s patronage of “enlightenment," and a few months und Untersuchungen (Leipzig. 1898), “ Innere Verwaltung unter before Frederick's death wrote to his friend the Rosicrucian Friedrich Wilhelm 1.," Preuss. Jahrbücher, xxvi.,, “Städtewesen unter Friedrich Wilhelm i.," Zeitschrift fuir preussische Geschichte, x. Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741-1803) that his et seq.; B. Reuter, " König Friedrich Wilhelm I. und das General- highest ambition was to be placed at the head of the religious Direktorium," ibid. xii.; V. Loewe, “ Zur Grundungsgeschichte des department of the state" as an unworthy instrument in the hand General-Direktoriums," Forschungen, &c.,, xiii.; R. Stadelmann, of Ormesus” (the prince of Prussia's Rosicrucian name) " for " Friedrich Wilhelm 1." (1878): M. Beheim-Schyarzbach, Hohen: the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing zollern'sche Kolonizationen (Leipzig, 1874); W. Naude, « Dic back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ.” merkantilistische Wirtschaftspolitik Friedrich Wilhelms 1.," His. Such was the man whom Frederick William II., immediately torische Zeitschrijl, xc.; M. Lehmann, “ Werbung, &c., im Heere after his accession, called to his counsels. On the 26th of August Friedrich Wilhelms 1.," ibid. Ixvii.; Isaacson,"Erbpachtsystem in | 1786 he was appointed privy councillor for finance (Geheimer xi. Cl. also Hohenzollernjahrbuch, viti. (1905), for particulars of his Oberfinonzraih), and on the end of October was ennobled. education and death; letters to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau | Though not in name, in fact he was prime minister; in all inin the Acta Borussica (1905). English readers will find a picturesque ternal affairs it was he who decided; and the fiscal and economic account of him in Thomas Carlyle's Frederick the Great." (J. HN.S

reforms of the new reign were the application of his theories. FREDERICK WILLIAM II. (1744-1797), king of Prússia, Bischoffswerder, too, still a simple major, was called into the son of Augustus William, second son of King Frederick William king's counsels; by 1789 he was already an adjutant-general. I. and of Louise Amalie of Brunswick, sister of the wife of These were the two men who enmeshed the king in a web of Frederick the Great, was born at Berlin on the 25th of September Rosicrucian mystery and intrigue, which hampered whatever 1744, and became heir to the throne on his father's death in 1757. healthy development of his policy might have been possible, The boy was of an easy-going and pleasure-loving disposition, and led ultimately to disaster. The opposition to Wöllner was, averse from sustained effort of any kind, and sensual by nature. indeed, at the outset strong enough to prevent his being entrusted His marriage with Elisabeth Christine, daughter of Duke Charles with the department of religion; but this too in time was overof Brunswick, contracted in 1765, was dissolved in 1769, and he come, and on the 3rd of July 1788 he was appointed active soon afterwards married Frederika Louisa, daughter of the land- I privy councillor of state and of justice and head of the spiritual

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