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1. The plain or gently inclined uniform surface.

II. Rumpfgebirge" oder Abrasionsgebirge--Trunk or abraded 2. The scarp or steeply inclined stope: this is necessarily of

mountains. small extent except in the direction of its length.

III. Ausbruchsgebirge--Eruptive mountains. 3. The valley, composed of two lateral parallel slopes inclined IV. Aufschüttungsgebirge-Mountains of accumulation. towards a narrow strip of plain at a lower level which itself slopes V. Flachböden-- Plateaux. downwards in the direction of its length. Many varieties of this (a) Abrasionsplallen-Abraded plateaux. fundamental form may be distinguished.

(6) Marines Flachland-Plain of marine erosión. 4. The mount, composed of a surface falling away on every side (C) Schichtungstafelland-Horizontally stratified tableland. from a particular place. This place may either be a point, as (d) Obergusslafelland-Lava plain. in a volcanic cone, or a line, as in a mountain range or ridge of

Stromflachland-River plain, hills.

Flachböden der atmosphärischen Aufschüttung-Plains of 5. The hollow or form produced by a land surface sloping inwards

aeolian formation. from all sides to a particular lowest place, the converse of a mount. VI. Erosionsgebirge--Mountains of erosion.

6. The cavern or space entirely surrounded by a land surface. From the morphological point of vicw it is more important to

These forms never occur scattered haphazard over a region, distinguish the associations of forms, such as the mountain mass but always in an orderly subordination depending on their

mode or group of mountains radiating from a centre, with the of origin. The dominant forms result from crustal valleys furrowing their flanks spreading towards every

Mountala Geology

forms. dod laod

movements, the subsidiary from secondary, reactions direction; the mountain chain or line of heights, forming a forms.

during the action of the primitive forms on mobile distri- long narrow ridge or series of ridges separated by parallel valleys,

butions. The geological structure and the mineral com- the dissected plateau or highland, divided into mountains of circum: position of the rocks are often the chicf causes determining the denudation by a system of deeply-cut valleys; and the isolated character of the land forms of a region. Thus the scenery of a lime- peak, usually a volcanic cone or a hard rock

mass left projecting after stone country depends on the solubility and permeability

of the the softer strata which embedded it have been worn away (Monadrocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallow nock of Professor Davis). holes and underground stream courses, with the contingent pheno The geographical distribution of mountains is intimately associated mena of dry valleys and natural bridges. A sandy beach or usert with the great structural lines of the continents of which they form owes its character to the mobility of its constituent sand-grains, the culminating region. Lofty lines of fold mountains

Distribuwhich are readily drifted and piled up in the form of dunes. A form the “ backbones" of North America in the Rocky region where volcanic activity has led to the embedding of dykes or Mountains and the west coast systems, of South

America

tion of

moustalos. bosses of hard rock amongst softer strata produces a plain broken by in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, abrupt and isolated eminences.'

Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and easter. Classifica

classification, partly because of the exceptional import. Asia. The remarkable line of volcanoes around the whole coast

ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one of the Pacific and along the margin of the Caribbean and Mediter. tion of mountains.

exception may be made. The classification of mountains ranean seas is one of the most conspicuous features of the globe.

into types has usually had regard rather to geological If land forms may be compared to organs, the part they serve in structure than to external form, so that some geologists would even the economy of the earth may, without straining the term, be apply the name of a mountain range to a region not distinguished characterized as functions. The first and simplest

Fuactions by relief from the rest of the country if it bear geological evidence function of the land surface is that of guiding loose

of land of having once been a true range. A mountain may be described material to a lower level. The downward pull of gravity

forms. (it cannot be defined) as an clevated region of irregular surface suffices to bring about the fall of such material, but the rising comparatively abruptly from lower ground. The actual path it will follow and the distance it will travel before coming to elevation of a summit above sea-level docs not necessarily affect its rest depend upon the land form. The loose material may, and in mountainous character; a gentle eminence, for instance, rising a an arid region does, consist only of portions of the higher

Land few hundred feet above a tableland, even if at an elevation of say parts of the surface detached by the expansion and 15,000 ft., could only be called a hill. But it may be said that contraction produced by heating and cooling due to

waste. any abrupt slope of 2000 ft. or more in vertical height may justly radiation. Such broken material rolling down a uniform scarp be called a mountain, while abrupt slopes of lesser height may would tend to reduce its stcepness by the loss of material in the be called hills. Existing classifications, however, do not take upper part and by the accumulation of a mound or scrce against account of any difference in kind between mountain and hills, the lower part of the slope. But where the side is not a uniform although it is common in the German language to speak of Hugel- scarp, but made up of a series of ridges and valleys, the tendency land, Mittelgebirge and Hochgebirge with a definite significance. will be to distribute the detritus in an irregular manner, directing

The simple classification employed by Professor James Geikie it away from one place and collecting it in great masses in another, into mountains of accumulation, mountains of elevation and moun so that in time the land form assumes a new appearance. Snow tains of circumdenudation, is not considered sufficiently thorough accumulating on the higher portions of the land, when compacted by German geographers, who, following Richthofen, generally into ice and caused to flow downwards by gravity, gives rise, on adopt a classification dependent on six primary divisions, each of account of its

more coherent character, to continuous

Glaciers. which is subdivided. The terms employed, especially for the sub- glaciers, which mould themselves to the slopes down divisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the which they are guided, different ice-streams converging to send English equivalents in the following table are only put forward forward a greater volume. Gradually coming to occupy definite tentatively:

beds, which are deepened and polished by the friction, they impress RICHTHOFEN'S CLASSIFICATION OF MOUNTAINS,

a characteristic appearance on the land, which guides them as they 1. Tektonische Gebirge-Tectonic mountains.

traverse it, and, although the ice melts at lower levels, vast quantities (a) Bruchgebirge er Scholiengebirge-Block mountains. of clay and broken stones are brought down and deposited in terminal 1. Einseitige Schollengebirge oder Schollenrandgebirge moraines where the glacier ends. Scarp or tilted block mountains.

Rain is by far the most important of the inorganic mobile dis(i.) Tafelscholle-Table blocks.

tributions upon which land forms exercise their function of guidance (i.) Abrasionsscholle --Abraded blocks. and control. The precipitation of rain from the aqueous

Ralo. (iii.) Transgressionsscholle--Blocks of unconform vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical able strata.

movements of the atmosphere involving hcat changes and apparently 2. Flexurgebirge-Flexure mountains.

independent of the surlace upon which precipitation occurs; but in 3. Horstgebirge-Symmetrical block mountains. greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface (6) Faltungsgebirge--Fold mountains.

and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely 1. Homöomor phe Faltungsgebirge-Homomorphic fold influenced by the land. It is on the windward faces of the highest mountains.

ground, or just beyond the summit of less dominant heights upon the 2. Peteromorphe Faltungsgebirge---Heteromorphic fold. Iccward side, that most rain falls, and all that does not evaporate mountains.

or percolate into the ground is conducted back to the sea by a route

which depends only on the form of the land. More mobile and more 1 On this subject sce J. Geikie, Earth Sculpture (London, 1898): searching than ice or rock rubbish, the trickling drops are guided by J. E. Marr, The Scientific Study of Scenery (London, 1900); Sir A. the deepest lines of the hillside in their incipient flow, and as these Geikie, The Scenery and Geology of Scotland (London, 2nd ed., 1887); lines converge, the stream, gaining strength, proceeds in

River Lord Avebury (Sir J. Lubbock) The Scenery of Switzerland (London, its torrential course to carve its channel deeper and en

systems. 1896) and The Scenery of England (London, 1902).

trench itself in permanent occupation. Thus the streamSome geographers distinguish a mountain from a hill by origin; bed, from which at first the water might be blown away into a new thus Professor Seeley says " a mountain implies elevation and a hill channel by a gale of wind, ultimatcly

grows to be the strongest line implies denudation, but the external forms of both are often iden- of the landscape. As the main valley deepens, the tributary streamtical.”. Repor! VI. Int. Geog: Congress (London, 1895), p. 751. beds are deepened also, and gradually cut their way headwards, "Mountains," in Scot. Geog. Mag. ii. (1896) p. 145.

enlarging the arca whence they draw their supplies. Thus new Führer für Forschungsreisende, pp. 652-685.

land forms are created-valleys of curious complexity, for example

meat of

by the “capture " and diversion of the water of one river by another, | limnology (see LAKE). The existence of lakes in hollows of the land leading to a change of watershed.' The minor tributaries become depends upon the balance between precipitation and evaporation. more numerous and more constant, until the system of torrents A stream flowing into a hollow will tend to fill it up, and has impressed its own individuality on the mountain side. As the water will begin to escape as soon as its level rises high

Lates and

loterbal the river leaves the mountain, ever growing by the accession of enough to reach the lowest part of the rim. In the case tributaries, it ceases, save in flood time, to be a formidable instru of a large hollow in a very dry climate the rate of

dralanga ment of destruction; the gentler slope of the land surface gives to evaporation may be sufficient to prevent the water from ever rising it only power sufficient to transport small stones, gravel, sand and to the lip,

so that there is no outflow to the sea, and a basin of internal ultimately mud. Its valley banks are cut back by the erosion of drainage is the result. This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian minor tributaries, or by rain-wash is the climate be moist, or lest sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner steep and sharp while the river deepens its bed if the climate be Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca arid. The outline of the curve of a valley's sides ultimately depends basin. These basins of internal drainage are calculated to amount on the angle of repose of the detritus which covers them, if there to 22% of the land surface. The percentages of the land surface has been no subsequent change, such as the passage of a glacier draining to the

different oceans are approximately-Atlantic, 34.3 % along the valley, which tends to destroy the regularity of the cross Arctic sca, 16.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%. section. The slope of the river bed diminishes uatil the plain compels The parts of a river system have not been so clearly defined as is: the river to move slowly, swinging in meanders proportioned to its desirable, hence the exaggerated importance popularly attached to size, and gradually, controlled by the fattening land, ceasing to

"the source " of a river. A well-developed river system

Terenloo. transport material, but raising its banks and silting up its bed by has in fact many equally important and widely-separated the dropped sediment, until, split up and shoaled, its distributaries sources, the most distant from the mouth, the highest, lopy of

river struggle across its delta to the sea. This is the typical river of which or cven that of largest initial volume not being neces

Systems. there are infinite varieties, yet every variety would, if time were sarily of greater geographical interest than the rest. given, and the land remained unchanged in level relatively to the sea, The whole of the land which directs drainage towards ane river is

ultimately approach to the type. Movements of the land known as its basin, catchment area or drainage area sometimes Adjust

either of subsideace or elevation, changes in the land by by an incorrect expression, as its valley or even its watershed. rivers to the action of erosion in cutting back an escarpment or

The boundary line between one drainage area and others is rightly laod.

cutting through a col, changes in climate by affecting the termed the watershed, but on account of the ambiguity which has rainfall and the volume of water, all tend to throw the been tolerated it is better to call it water-parting or, as in America,

river valley out of harmony with the actual condition of divide. The only other important term which requires to be noted its stream. There is nothing more striking in geography than the here is lalweg, a word introduced from the Gerinan into French perfection of the adjustment of a great river system to its valleys and English, and meaning the deepest line along the valley, which when the land has remained stable for a very lengthened period. is necessarily occupied by a stream unless the valley is dry. Before full adjustment has been attained the river bed may be The functions of land forms extend beyond the control of the broken in places by waterfalls or interrupted by lakes; after adjust- circulation of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the water which ment the bed assumes a permanent outline, the slope diminishing is continually being interchanged between them; they are exercised more and more gradually, without a break in its symmetrical descent. with increased effect in the higher departments of biogeography and Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, anthropogeography, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be The sum of the organic life on the globe is termed by some geoseen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated graphers the biosphere, and it has been cstimated that the whole by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently mass of living substance in existence at one time would

Blogeobelong to more than one river system.

cover the surface of the earth to a depth of one-fifth of The action of rivers on the land is so important that it has been

an inch. The distribution of living organisms is a

graphy. made the basis of a system of physical geography by Professor complex problem, a function of many factors, several of which

W. M. Davis, who classifics land surfaces in terms of are yet but little known. They include the biological nature of The geothe three factors-structure, process and time of

the organism and its physical environment, the latter involving graphical

these time, during which the process is acting on the conditions in which geographical elements, direct or indirect, pee cycle. structure, is the most important. A land may thus be ponderate. The direct geographical elements

are the arrangement characterized by its position in the geographical

cycle," or cycle of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) of erosion, as young mature or old, the last term being reached and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a when the base-level of crosion is attained, and the land, however less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic varied its relief may have been in youth or maturity, is reduced to depression. The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rules. a nearly uniform surface or peneplain. By. a re-elevation of a

act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prepeneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to vailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of landi old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and of the geographical cycle. It is, however, not the action of the so determines the kind and arrangement of soil. Different species running water on the land, but the function exercised by the land of organisms come to perfection in different climates, and it may on the running water, that is considered here to be the special be stated as a general rule that a species, whether of plant or animal.. province of geography. At every stage of the geographical cycle once established at one point, would spread over the whole zone the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding of the climate congenial to it unless some barrier were interposed the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways. Thus, to its progress. In the case of land and fresh-water organisms for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing the sea is the chief barrier; in the case of marine organisms, the sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the

land. Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the range shall be richly, watered and deeply dissected by a complete distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea. The potent through eir action on soil and climate. snow-capped action of rain, ice and rivers conspires with the movement of land

mountain ridge or an arid desert forms a barrier between different waste to strip thc layer of soil from steep slopes as rapidly as it

forms of life which is often more effective than an equal breadth of forms, and to cause it to accumulate on the Nat valley bottoms, on

In this way, the surface of the land is divided into numerous the gracelul fattened cones of alluvial fans at the outlet of the gorges distinctive species not shared by the others. The distribution of

natural regions, the flora and fauna of each of which include some of tributaries, or in the smoothly-spread surface of alluvial plains.

The whole question of the régime of rivers and lakes is sometimes life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing treated under the name hydrography, a name used by some writers

with biological, botanical and zoological subjects. in the sense of marine surveying, and by others as synonymous with oceanography. For the study of rivers alonc the name potamology:

SF. A. Forel, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie has been suggested by Penck, and the subject being of much practical (Stuttgart,

1901); F; A. Forel, “ La Limnologie, branche de la géoimportance has received a good deal of attention.

graphie," Report VỊ. Int. Geog. Congress (London, 1995), P. 593: The study of lakes has also been specialized under the name of

also Le Léman (2 vols., Lausanne, 1892, 1894); H. Lullies, Studien

über Seen," Jubiläumsschrift der Albertus-Universitä. (Königsberg, See, for a summary of river-action, A. Phillipson, Sludien über 1894); and G. R. Crcdner, Die Reliktenseen," Petermanns Mitles Wasserscheiden (Leipzig, 1886); also I.C. Russell, River Development lungen, Ergänzungshelte 86 and 89 (Gotha. 1887, 1888). (London, 1898) (published as The Rivers of North America, New York, J. Murray," Drainage Areas of the Continents," Scol. Geog. Mag. 1898).

ii. (1886) p. 548. W. M. Davis," The Geographical Cycle,"; Goog. Journ. xiv. * Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie (1900), i. 586. (1899) p. 484.

& For details, see A. R. Wallace, Geographical Distribution of A. Penck. "Potamology as a Branch of Physical Geography," Animals and Island Life; A. Heilprin, Geographical and Geological Geog. Journ. x: (1897) p. 619;

Distribution of Animals (1887); 0. Drude, Handbuch der Pflanzen See, for instance, E. Wisotzki, Hauptfluss und Nebenfluss geographie: A. Engler, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt: (Stettin, 1889). For practical studies see official reports on the also Beddard, Zoogeography (Cambridge, 1895); and Sclater, The Mississippi, Rhine, Seine, Eļbe and other great rivers.

Geography of Mammals (London, 1899).

sca.

meot.

areas.

The classification of the land surface into areas inhabited by approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past distinctive groups of plants has been attempted by many phyto-geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be

geographers, but without resulting in any scheme of traced." Floral

general acceptance. The simplest classification is perhaps While the tendency is for the living forms to come into harmony sones.

that of Drude according to climatic zones, subdivided with their environment and to approach the state of equilibrium according to continents. This takes account of (1) the Arctic by successive adjustments if the environment should Alpine zone, including all the vegetation of the region bordering happen to change, it is to be observed that the action Reaction of oa perpetual snow; (2) the Boreal zone, including the temperate of organisms themselves often tends to change their organisms lands of North America, Europe and Asia, all of which are sub environment. Corals and other quick-growing cal-oa

cavirone stantially alike in botanical character;(3) the Tropical zone, divided carcous marine organisms are the most powerful in this sharply into (@) the tropical zone of the New World, and (b) the respect by creating new land in the occan. Vegetation of all sorts tropical zone of the Old World, the forms of which differ in a sig: acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaknificant degree; (4) the Austral zone, comprising all continental ing up, rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the manland south of the equator, and sharply divided into three regions grove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea. Plant life, the floras of which are strikingly distinct-(a) South American, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, (6) South African and (c) Australian; (5) the Oceanic, comprising soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life. all oceanic islands, the flora of which consists exclusively of forms This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal whose seeds could be drifted undestroyed by ocean currents or of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains carried by birds. To these might be added the antarctic, which is the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal still very imperfectly known. Many subdivisions and transitional life. Man in the primitive stages of culture is scarcely to be diszones have been suggested by different authors.

tinguished from other animals as regards his subjection to environ From the point of view of the economy of the globe this classi- ment, but in the higher grades of culture the conditions of control fication by species is perhaps less important than that by mode and reaction become much more complicated, and the department Vegetation environment. of life and physiological character in accordance with of anthropogeography is devoted to their consideration.

The following are the chief areas of The first requisites of all human beings are food and protection, vegetational activity, usually recognized: (1). The ice in their search for which men are brought into irítimate relations deserts of the arctic and antarctic and the highest mountain regions, with the forms and productions of the earth's surface. where there is no vegetation except the lowest forms, like that the degree of dependence of any people upon environ Anthropo. which causes "red snow." (2)

The tundra or region of intensely ment varies inversely as the degree of culture or civiliza. geography cold winters, forbidding tree-growth, where mosses and lichens tion, which for this purpose may perhaps be defined as the power cover most of the ground when unfrozen, and shrubs occur of of an individual to exercise control over the individual and over species which in other conditions are trees, here stunted to the the environment for the benefit of the community. The developheight of a few inches. A similar zone surrounds the permanent ment of culture is to a certain extent a question of race, and although snow on lofty mountains in all latitudes. The tundra passes by forming one species, the varieties of mandiffer in almost imperceptible imperceptible gradations into the moor, bog and heath of warmer gradations with a complexity defying classification (sce ANTHROclimates. (3) The temperate forests of evergreen or deciduous trees,POLOGY). Professor Keane groups man round four leading types, according to circumstances, which occupy those parts of both which may be named the black, yellow, red and white, or the Ethiopic, temperate zones where rainfall and sunlight are both abundant. Mongolic, American and Caucasic. Each may be subdivided, (4) The grassy steppes or prairies where the rainfall is diminished though not with great exactness, into smaller groups, either according and temperatures are extreme, and grass is the prevailing form of to physical characteristics, of which the form of the head is -most vegetation. These pass imperceptibly into-(5) the arid desert, important, or according to language. where rainfall is at a minimum, and the only plants are those modified The black type is found only in tropical or sub-tropical countries, to subsist with the smallest supply of water.' (6) The tropical forest, and is usually in a primitive condition of culture, unless educated which represents the maximum of plant luxuriance, stimulated by by contact with people of the white type. They follow the heaviest rainfall, greatest heat and strongest light. These the most primitive forms of religion (mainly fetishism).

Types of divisions merge one into the other, and admit of almost indefinite live on products of the woods or of the chase, with the subdivision, while they are subject to great modifications by human minimum of work, and have only a loose political organization. interference in clearing and cultivating. Plants exhibit the control. The red type is peculiar to America, inhabiting every climate

from ling power of environment to a high degree, and thus vegetation is polar to equatorial, and containing representatives of many stages usually in close adjustment to the bolder geographical features of of culture which had apparently developed without the aid or a region.

interference of people of any other race until the close of the 15th The divisions of the earth into faunal regions by Dr P. L. Sclater century. The yellow type is capable of a higher culture, cherishes have been found

to hold good for a large number of groups of animals higher religious beliefs, and inhabits as a rule the temperate zone, as different

in their mode of life as birds and mammals, although extending to the tropics on one side and to the arctic Paupal

and they may thus be accepted as based on nature. regions on the other. The white type, originating in the north realmas.

They are six in number: (1). Palaearctic, including temperate zone, has spread over the whole world. They have Europe; Asia north of the Himalaya, and Africa north of the Sahara; attained the highest culture, profess the purest forms of mono(2) Ethiopian, consisting of Africa south of the Atlas range, and theistic religion, and have brought all the people of the black type Madagascar: (3) Oriental, including India, Indo-China and the and many of those of the yellow under their domination. Malay Archipelago north of Wallace's line, which runs between The contrast between the yellow and white types has been softened Bali and Lombok;

(4) Australian, including Australia, New Zealand, by the remarkable development of the Japanese following the New Guinca and Polynesia; (5) Nearctic or North America, northi assimilation of western methods. of Mexico; and (6) Neotropical or South America. Each of these

number of human inhabitants in the world has been divisions is the home of a special sauna, many species of 'which calculated as follows: are confined to it alone; in the Australian region, indeed, practically the whole sauna is peculiar and distinctive, suggesting a prolonged

By Continents.

"By Race, period of complete biological isolation. In some cases, such as the

875,000,000 White (Caucasic) 770,000,000 Ethiopian and Neotropical and the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, Europea

392,000,000
Yellow (Mong)

. 540,000,000 the faunas, although distinct, are related, several forms on opposite Africa

170,000,000 Black (Ethiopic). 175,000,000 sides of the Atlantic being analogous, e.g. the lion and puma, ostrich America

143,000,000 Red (American) . 22,000,000 and rhea. Where two of the faunal realms meet there is usually, Australia and though not always, a mixing of faunas. These facts have led some Polynesia 7,000,000

Total - 3,507,000,000 naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the

Total 1,587,000,000 Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, In round numbers the population of the world is about between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Mada. 1,600,000,000, and, according to an estimate by Ravenstein, the gascar and New Zealand. Oceanic islands have, as a rule, distinctive maximum population which it will be possible for the earth to launas and floras which resemble, but are not identical with, those of maintain is 6000 millions, a number which, if the average rate of other islands in similar positions.

increase in 1891 continued, would be reached within 200 years. The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the While highly civilized communities are able to evade many of

saunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy the restrictions of environment, to overcome the barriers to interBlological instrument of pre-historic geographical rescarch, which communication interposed by land or sea, to counteract the adverse

enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to
be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the See particularly A. de Lapparent, Traité de géologie (4th ed.,

chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated. Paris, 1900). ol geo

In this way, for example, has been suggested that a • Estimate for 1900. H. Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie... graphical land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the p. 658.

Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of • Estimate for year' not stated. A. H, Keane in International the antarctic land once united the three southern continents. Geography, p. 108. The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out * In Proc. R.G.S. xiij. (1891) D. 37.

man.

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Asia.

distribu
tion as
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research,

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are tents.

of pop.

of pop:

743) 5893 5684 558 495 436

97

55

influence of climate, and by the development of trade even to | cation between communities and the interchange of their proinhabit countries which cannot yield a food-supply, the mass of ducts. Trade makes it possible to work mineral resources mankind is still completely under the control of those conditions in localities where food can only be grown with great

Deaslty of which in the past determined the distribution and the mode of life difficulty and expense, or which are even totally barren

population. of the whole human race.

and waterless, entirely dependent on supplies from distant sources. In tropical forcsts primitive tribes depend on the collection of The population which can be permanently supported by a given wild fruits, and in a minor degree on the chase of wild animals, for area of land differs greatly according to the nature of the resources

their food. Clothing is unnecessary; hence there is and the requirements of the people. Pastoral communities are lofluence little occasion for exercising the mental faculties beyond always scattered very thinly over large areas; agricultural popula. of eaviroa- the sense of perception to avoid enemies, or the in- tions may be almost equally sparse where advanced methods of

ventive arts beyond what is required for the simplest agriculture and labour-saving machinery are employed; but where

weapons and the most primitive fortifications. When a frugal people are situated on a fertile and inexhaustible soil, such the pursuit of game becomes

the chief occupation of a people there as the deltas and river plains of Egypt, India and China, an enormous is of necessity a higher development of courage, skill, powers of population may be supported on a small area. In most cases, observation and invention; and these qualities are still further however, a very dense population can only be maintained in regions cnhanced in predatory tribes who take by force the food, clothing where mineral resources have fixed the site of great

manufacturing and other property prepared or collected by a feebler people. The industries. The maximum density of population which a given fruit-eating savage cannot stray beyond his woods which bound region can support is very difficult to determine; it depends partly his life as the water bounds that of a fish; the hunter is free to on the race and standard of culture of the people, partly on the live on thc margin of forests or in open country, while the robber nature and origin of the resources on which they depend, partly or warrior from some natural stronghold of the mountains sweeps on the artificial burdens imposed and very largely on the climate. over the adjacent plains and carries his raids into distant lands. Density of population is measured by the average number of people Wide grassy steppes Icad to the organization of the people as nomads residing on a unit of area; but in order to compare

one part of the whose wealth consists in flocks and herds, and their dwellings world with another the average should, strictly speaking, be taken

The nomad not only domesticates and turns to his for regions of equal size or of equal population; and the portions own use the gentler and more powerful animals, such as sheep of the country which are permanently uninhabitable ought to be cattle, horses, camels, but even turns some predatory creatures, cxcluded from the calculation. Considering the average density like the dog, into a means of defending their natural prey. They of population within the political limits of countries, the following hunt the beasts of prey destructive to their flocks, and form armed list is of some value; the figures for a few smaller divisions of bands for protection against marauders or for purposes of aggression large countries are added (in brackets) for comparison: on weaker sedentary neighbours. On the fertile low grounds along the margins of rivers or in clearings of forests, agricultural communities naturally take their rise, dwelling in villages and cultivating

Average Population on i sq. m. (For 1900 Or 1901.) the wild grains, which by careful nurture and selection have been

Country,

Density turned into rich cereals. The agriculturist as a rule is rooted to

Density

Country. the soil. The land he tills he holds, and acquires a closer connexion with a particular patch of ground than either the hunter or the herds (Saxony)

Ceylon

141 man. In the temperate zone, where the seasons are sharply, con Belgium

Greece.

97 trasted, but follow each other with regularity, foresight and self-denial

Java

European Turkey

90 were fostered, because if men did not exercise these qualitics-seed-time (England and Wales)

Spain : or harvest might pass into lost opportunities and the tribes would (Bengal).

European Russia : suffer. The more extreme climates of arid regions on the margins of Holland

Sweden

30 the tropics, by the unpredictable succession of droughts and foods, United Kingdom 344

United States

25 confound the prevision of uninstructed people, and make prudence Japan

317 Mexico and industry qualities too uncertain in their results to be worth Italy

293 Norway cultivating.' Thus the civilization of agricultural peoples of the

Persia. temperate zone grew rapidly, yet in each community a special type German Empire

270 New Zealand arose adapted to the soil, the crop and the climate. On the sea. Austria

226 Argentina shore fishing naturally became a means of livelihood, and dwellers Switzerland

207 Brazil

4.5 by the sea, in virtue of the dangers to which they are exposed from France

188 Eastern States of storm and unseaworthy craft, are stimulated to a higher degree of Indian Empire

Australia foresight, quicker observation, prompter decision and more energetic Denmark

160 Dominion of Canada

1.5 action in emergencies than those who live inland. The building Hungary

154 Siberia and handling of vessels also, and the utilization of such uncon Portugal

146

West Australia trollable powers of nature as wind and tide, helped forward mechanical invention. To every type of coast there may be related a special type of occupation and even of character; the deep and gloomy The movement of people from one place to another without the fjord, backed by almost impassable mountains, bred bold mariners immediate intention of returning is known as migration, and accordwhose only outlet for enterprise was seawards towards other lands- ing to its origin it may be classed as centrifugal (directed the viks created the vikings. On the gently sloping margin of the from a particular area and centripetal (directed towards Migration. estuary of a great river a view of tranquil inland life was equally a particular area). Centrifugal migration is usually a matter of presented to the shore-dweller, and the ocean did not present the compulsion; it may be necessitated by natural causes, such as a only prospect of a career. Finally the mountain valley, with its change of climate leading to the withering of pastures or destruction patches of cultivable soil on the alluvial fans of tributary torrents, of agricultural land, to inundation, earthquake, pestilence or to an its narrow pastures on the uplands only left clear of snow in summer, excess of population over means of support; or to artificial causes, its intensified extremes of climates and its isolation, almost equal to such as the wholesale deportation of a conquered people; or to that of an island, has in all countries produced a special type of political or religious persecution. In any case the people are driven brave and hardy people, whose utmost effort may bring them com out by some adverse change; and when the urgency is great they fort, but not wealth, by honest toil, who know little of the outer may require to drive out in turn weaker people who occupy a desirable world, and to whom the natural outlet for ambition is marauding territory, thus propagating the wave of migration, the direction of on the fertile plains. The highlander and viking, products of the which is guided by the forms of the land into inevitable channels. valleys raised high amid the mountains or half-drowned in the sea, Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due are cycrywhere of kindred spirit.

to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the It is in some such manner as these that the natural conditions slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the of regions, which must be conformed to by prudence and utilized real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval by labour to yield shelter and food, have led to the growth of peoples wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on differing in their ways of life, thought and speech. The initial the great natural lines of communication between east and west. differences so produced are confirmed and perpetuated by the In the case of centripetal migrations people flock to some particular same barriers which divide the faunal or floral regions, the scan place where exceptionally favourable conditions have been found to mountains, deserts and the like, and much of the course of past exist. The rushes to gold-fields and diamond-fields are typical inhistory and present politics becomes clear when the combined stances; the growth of towns on coal-fields and near other sources results of differing race and differing environment are taken into of power, and the rapid settlement of such rich agricultural districts account.

as the wheat-lands of the American prairies and great plains are The specialization which accompanies the division of labour has other examples. important geographical consequences, for it necessitates communi There is, however, a tendency for people to remain rooted to the

On the influence of land on people see Shaler, Nature and ? See maps of density of population in Bartholomew's great largeMan in America (New York and London, 1892); and Ellen C. scale atlases, Allas of Scotland and Atlas of England. Semple's American History and its Geographic Conditions (Boston, • Almost exclusively industrial. 1903).

Almost exclusively agricultural,

China proper

270

18 18 15

7 15

.

1674

3

1 0.2

commuol

land of their birth,
when not compelled or induced by powerful | or federated of distinct self-governing units liko Germany

(where external causes to seek a new home.

the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, Thus arises the spirit of patriotism, a product of purely geo municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the graphical conditions, thereby differing from the sentiment of loyalty, United States, where the units are democratic republics. The ultiPolitical

which is of racial origin. Where race and soil conspire to mate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be goograpbiy. evoke both loyalty and patriotism in a people, the moral the geographical diversity of the

country, as in the cantons occupying qualities of a great and permanent nation are secured. the once isolated inountain valleys of Switzerland, the racial diversity It is noticeable that the patriotic spirit is strongest in those places of the people, as in Austria-Hungary, or merely political expediency, where people are brought most intimately into relation with the land; as in republics of the American type. dwellers in the mountain or by the sea, and, above all, the people of The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or rugged coasts and mountainous archipelagoes, have always been analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural renowned for love of country, while the inhabitants of fertile plains features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes. The and trading communities are frequently less strongly attached to territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions their own land.

which led to their origin; hence the study of political geograpby is Amongst nomads the tribe is the unit of government, the political allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied bond is personal, and there is no definite territorial association to gcology, and for the same reason. of the people, who may be loyal but cannot be patriotic. The idea The aggregation of population in towns was at one time mainly of a country arises only when a nation, either homogeneous or brought about by the necessity for desence, a fact indicated by the composed of several races, establishes itself in a region the boundaries defensive sites of many old towns. In later times, of which may be defined and defended against aggression from towns have been more often founded in proximity to

Towas. without. Political geogȚaphy takes account of the partition of the valuable mineral resources, and at critical points or nodes on lines earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of of communication. These are places where the mode of travelling races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the or of transport is changed, such as seaports, river ports and railway conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.

termini, or natural resting-places, such as a ford, the foot of a The definition of boundaries and their delimitation is one of the steep ascent on a road, the entrance of a valley leading up from a most important parts of political geography., Natural boundaries plain into the mountains, or a crossing place of roads or railways.' Bound

are always the most definite and the strongest, lending The existence of a good natural harbour is often sufficient to aries.

themselves most readily to defence against aggression. give origin to a town and to fix one end of a line of land com

The sea is the most effective of all, and an island state is munication. recognized as the most stable. Next in importance comes a moun. In countries of uniform surface or saint relief, roads and railways tain range, but here there is often difficulty as to the definition of may be constructed in any direction without regard to the conthe actual crest-line, and mountain ranges being broad regions, it figuration, in places where the low ground is marshy, lines of may happen that a small independent state, like Switzerland or roads and railways often follow the ridge-lines of hills, Andorra, occupies the mountain valleys between two or more great or, as in Finland, the old glacial eskers, which run parallei countries. Rivers do not form effective international boundaries, to the shore. Wherever the relief of the land is pro

cation. although between dependent self-governing communities they are nounced, roads and railways are obliged to occupy the lowest ground convenicnt lines of demarcation. A descrt, or a belt of country winding along the valleys of rivers and through passes in the mounleft purposely without inhabitants, like the mark, marches or tains. In exceptional cases obstructions which it would be impossible debatable iands of the middle ages, was once a common means or too costly to turn are overcome by a bridge or tunnel, the magni. of separating nations which nourished hereditary grievances. The tude of such works increasing with the growth of engineering skill "buffer-state of modern diplomacy is of the same ineffectual and financial enterprise. Similarly the obstructions offered to týpe. A less definite though very practical boundary is that formed water communication by interruption through land or shallows are by the meeting-line of two languages, or the districts inhabited overcome by cutting canals or dredging out channels. The economy by two races. The line of fortresses protecting Austria from Italy and success of most lines of communication depend on following lies in some places weil back from the political boundary, but as far as possible existing natural lines and utilizing existing natural just inside the linguistic frontier, so as to separate th German sources of power. and Italian races occupying, Austrian territory. Arbitrary lines, Commercial geography may be defined as the description of the either traced from point to point and marked by posts on the ground, earth's surface with special rescrence to the discovery, production, or defined as portions of meridians and parallels, are now the most transport and exchange of commodities. The transport common type of boundaries fixed by treaty.. In Europe and Asia concerns land routes and sea routes, the latter being frontiers are usually strongly fortified and strictly watched in times the more important. While steam has been said to

cial geoof peace as well as during war. In South America strictly defined make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still fraphy. boundaries are still the exception, and the claims of neighbouring true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to nations have very frequently given rise to war, though now more encounter the Icast resistance possible from prevailing winds and commonly to arbitration.

permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanoThe modes of government amongst civilized peoples have little graphical and meteorological knowledge. The older navigation by influence on political geography: some republics are as arbitrary utilizing the power of the wind demands a very intimate knowledge

and exacting in their frontier regulations as some absolute of these conditions, and it is probable that a revival of sailing

monarchies. It is, however, to be noticed that absolute ships may in the present century, vastly increase the importance of govern

monarchies are confined to the east of Europe and to the study of maritime meteorology, meat.

Asia, Japan being the only established constitutional The discovery and production of commodities require a knowmonarchy east of the Carpathians. Limited monarchies are (with ledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral prog the exception of Japan) peculiar to Europe, and in these the degree ducts, of the natural distribution, lifc-conditions and cultivation of democratic control may be said to diminish as one passes east or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market. Atten. wards from the United Kingdom. Republics, although represented tion must also be paid to the artificial restrictions of political geoin Europe are the peculiar form of government of America and graphy, to the legislative restrictions bearing on labour and trade are unknown in Asia.

as imposed in different countries, and, above all, to the incessant The forms of government of colonies present a series of transi- fluctuations of the economic conditions of supply and demand

and tional types from the autocratic administration of a governor the combinations of capitalists or workers which affect the market. appointed by the home government to complete democratic self. The term " applied geography" has been employed to designate government. The latter occurs only in the temperate possessions commercial geography, the fact being that every aspect of scientific of the British empire, in which there is no great preponderance geography may be applied to practical purposes, including, the of a coloured native population. New colonial forms have been purposes of trade. But apart from the applied science, there is an developed during the partition of Africa amongst Europcan powers. aspect of pure geography which concerns the theory of the relation the sphere of influence being especially worthy of notice. This of economics to the surface of the earth. is a vaguer form of control than a protectorate, and frequently It will be seen that as each successive aspect of geographical amounts merely to an agreement amongst civilized powers to respeot science is considered in its natural sequence the conditions become the right of one of their number to exercise government within a certain area, is it should decide to do so at any future time.

? For numerous special instances of the determining causes of The central governments of all civilized countries concerned with town sites, see G. G. Chisholm, “On the Distribution of Towns external relations are closely similar in their modes of action, but and Villages in England," Geographical Journal (1897), ix. 76, the internal administration may be very varied. In this respect a country is cither centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, » The whole subject of anthropogeography is treated in a masterly

way by F. Ratzel in his Anthropogeographie (Stuttgart, vol. i. 2nd ! For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, ed., 1899, vol. ii. 1891), and in his Politische Geographie (Leipzig. Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 1903; 1897). The special question of the reaction of man on his environ. and for the official deninition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet. ment is handled by G. P. Marsh in Man and Nature, or Physical The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875. 1891); The Geography as modified by Human Action (London, 1864). Map of Africa by Trealy (3 vols., London, 1896). Also Lord Curzon's For commercial geography see G. G. Chisholm, Manral of Com. Oword address on Frontiers (1907).

mercial Geography (1890).

Commer

Forme of

X. 511.

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